Abstract

A new concept is proposed for an optical probe with spatial resolution unlimited by diffraction effects. It is based on optical-field confinement by surface plasmons of a submicrometer-sized metal particle. The particle serves as an antenna that receives an incoming electromagnetic field. The field extends to a nearby sample surface and interacts with a small area on that surface through the nonlinear susceptibility tensors. The induced sample polarization is reradiated by the particle, thereby generating a Raman, a two-photon, or a second-harmonic spectrum. Microscopy is performed by rastering the position of the metal particle over the sample surface. Spatial resolution approaching 1 nm is projected. The concept is also applicable to submicrometer optical lithography and ultrahigh-density optical recording.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, M. Rhinewine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 57 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. W. Barker, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, J. P. Heritage, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1418 (1979); B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980); J. P. Heritage, J. G. Bergman, A. Pinczuk, J. M. Worlock, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 229 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Unenhanced spontaneous Raman cross sections range from about 10−31to 10−28cm2. Refer, for example, to J. G. Skinner, W. G. Nilsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 113 (1968) for benzene and to Y. R. Shen in Light Scattering in Solids, M. Cardona, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975) for other materials.
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); U. Ch. Fischer, H. P. Zingsheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 195 (1982); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 881 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); U. Ch. Fischer, H. P. Zingsheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 195 (1982); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 881 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. W. Barker, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, M. Rhinewine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, J. P. Heritage, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1418 (1979); B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980); J. P. Heritage, J. G. Bergman, A. Pinczuk, J. M. Worlock, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Allara, D. L.

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, M. Rhinewine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barker, P. W.

P. W. Barker, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Binning, G.

G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

P. W. Barker, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); U. Ch. Fischer, H. P. Zingsheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 195 (1982); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 881 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, Ch.

G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gersten, J.

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, J. P. Heritage, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1418 (1979); B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980); J. P. Heritage, J. G. Bergman, A. Pinczuk, J. M. Worlock, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leite, J. R. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, J. P. Heritage, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1418 (1979); B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980); J. P. Heritage, J. G. Bergman, A. Pinczuk, J. M. Worlock, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Massoudi, H.

P. W. Barker, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. A.

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, M. Rhinewine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, W. G.

Nitzan, A.

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rhinewine, M.

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, M. Rhinewine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rohrer, H.

G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, J. P. Heritage, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1418 (1979); B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980); J. P. Heritage, J. G. Bergman, A. Pinczuk, J. M. Worlock, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. G.

Weibel, E.

G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, J. P. Heritage, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1418 (1979); B. F. Levine, C. G. Bethea, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 85 (1980); Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 245 (1980); J. P. Heritage, J. G. Bergman, A. Pinczuk, J. M. Worlock, Chem. Phys. Lett. 67, 229 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 386 (1985); U. Ch. Fischer, H. P. Zingsheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 195 (1982); J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 881 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. T. Boyd, Th. Rasing, J. R. R. Leite, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 30, 519 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, M. Rhinewine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Barker, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Ch. Gerber, E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 57 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 178 (1982); G. Binning, H. Rohrer, Surf. Sci. 126, 236 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. K. Chang, T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The optical probe particle (a) intercepts an incident laser beam, of frequency ωin, and concentrates the field in a region adjacent to the sample surface (b). The Raman signal from the sample surface is reradiated into the scattered field at frequency ωout. The surface is scanned by moving the optically transparent probe-tip holder (c) by piezoelectric translators (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transverse dependence of coherent Raman enhancement for several values of D/a, where D is the distance from the sample to the center of curvature of the probe tip and a is the radius of curvature at the probe tip.

Equations (1)

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G R = 4 π 2 c I p N s σ R l 8 ω s 3 n 1 n 2 ,

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