Abstract

Semiconductors exhibit large optical nonlinearities near the band edge because of resonance enhancement. Optical bistability occurs when the optical nonlinearities are coupled with feedback. In bulk GaAs and GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well superlattices, the nonlinearity arising from the presence of the free-exciton resonance has produced room-temperature optical bistability with a few milliwatts of power. The formation of biexcitons in CuCl, the saturation of the bound exciton on CdS, and band-filling effects in InSb, InAs, and HgCdTe lead to observation of bistability in these materials. A bistable etalon can be operated in an optical-gate mode to generate optical analogs of electronic gates such as and, or, and nor. It has been demonstrated that a GaAs optical NOR gate responds in ∼1 psec, using only ≲3 pJ of energy. However, because of the carrier lifetime of a few nanoseconds, the repetition rate of the NOR gate is now limited to a few hundred megahertz.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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1985 (5)

1984 (16)

M. Dagenais and H. G. Winful, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, H. E. Schmidth, and H. Haug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 932 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, R. S. Jameson, and R. K. Hickernell, Opt. Lett. 9, 159 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Caulfield, S. Horvitz, G. P. Tricoles, and W. A. Von Winkle, eds. Proc. IEEE 72, 755–979 (1984), special issue on optical computing.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, M. C. Rushford, and H. M. Gibbs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Nguyen and R. Zimmermann, Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Schmidt, H. Haug, and S. W. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. A 29, 1957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole and E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 363 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Miller, G. Parry, and R. Daley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 710 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (10)

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, and H. M. Gibbs, Phys. Rev. B. 28, 1184 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Dagenais, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 742 (1983),
[CrossRef]

A. T. Rosenberger, L. A. Orozco, and H. J. Kimble, J. Phys. Rev. A 28, 2569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Bohnert, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1088 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Rossmann, F. Hennerberger, and J. Voigt, Phys. Status Solidi B 115, K63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, M. C. Rushford, and D. Weinberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1692 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (15)

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, and M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Abram and A. Maruani, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4759 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Henneberger and V. May, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, K147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham and S. D. Smith, Rep. Prog. Phys. 45, 815 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18, 79 (1982).

F. T. Arecchi and P. Saleri, Phys. Bull. 33, 20 (1982).

T. Itoh and T. Kathono, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 707 (1982);see also M. Kuwata, T. Mita, and N. Nagasawa, Opt. Commun. 40, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fehrenbach, W. Schafer, G. Treusch, and R. G. Ulbrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (5)

C. Klingshirn and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Rep. 70, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink and H. Haug, Phys. Status Solidi B 108, 377 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Hanamura, Solid State Commun. 38, 939 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

P. W. Smith, Opt. Eng. 19, 456 (1980);P. W. Smith and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE Trans. Spectrosc. 18, 16 (1981).

H. Haug, R. Marz, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Phys. Lett. 77A, 287 (1980);see also R. Marz, S. Schmitt-Rink, and H. Haug, Z. Phys. B. 40, 9 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (8)

L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Gossard, Thin Solid Films 57, 3 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, Opt. News 5, 6 (1979);Opt. Eng. 19, 463 (1980);H. M. Gibbs and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. News 9(6), 21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (4)

F. V. Karpushko and G. V. Sinitsyn, J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 29, 1323 (1978);Appl. Phys. B 28, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Toyozawa, Solid State Commun. 28, 533 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. Honerlage, A. Bivas, and V. Duy Phach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 49 (1978);see also T. Mita, K. Sotome, and M. Veta, Solid State Commun. 33, 1135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Maruani, J. L. Oudar, E. Batifol, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1372 (1978);see also Y. Masumoto and S. Shionoya, Solid State Commun. 38, 865 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

E. Hanamura, Solid State Commun. 12, 951 (1973);G. M. Gale and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 727 (1974);R. Svorec and L. L. Chase, Solid State Commun. 20, 353 (1976);N. Nagasawa, T. Mita, and M. Ueta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 929 (1976);R. Levy, C. Klingshirn, E. Ostertag, V. Duy Phach, and J. B. Grun, Phys. Status Solidi B 77, 381 (1976);L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

Abraham, E.

E. Abraham and S. D. Smith, Rep. Prog. Phys. 45, 815 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abram, J.

J. Abram and A. Maruani, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4759 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, and A. Orszag, in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, and A. Laubereau, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 6.
[CrossRef]

Arecchi, F. T.

F. T. Arecchi and P. Saleri, Phys. Bull. 33, 20 (1982).

Astier, R.

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, and A. Orszag, in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, and A. Laubereau, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 6.
[CrossRef]

Batifol, E.

A. Maruani, J. L. Oudar, E. Batifol, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1372 (1978);see also Y. Masumoto and S. Shionoya, Solid State Commun. 38, 865 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J. Y.

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bivas, A.

B. Honerlage, A. Bivas, and V. Duy Phach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 49 (1978);see also T. Mita, K. Sotome, and M. Veta, Solid State Commun. 33, 1135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

Bohnert, K.

K. Bohnert, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1088 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. A 29, 1957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

D. S. Chemla and D. A. B. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985);P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, and D. A. B. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Maruani, J. L. Oudar, E. Batifol, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1372 (1978);see also Y. Masumoto and S. Shionoya, Solid State Commun. 38, 865 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Claude, M. L.

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

M. Dagenais and H. G. Winful, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Dagenais, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 742 (1983),
[CrossRef]

M. Dagenais and W. F. Sharfin, Appl. Phys. Lett, (to be published).

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers (STS, McLean, Va., 1984).

Daley, R.

A. Miller, G. Parry, and R. Daley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 710 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Davis, B.

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Duy Phach, V.

B. Honerlage, A. Bivas, and V. Duy Phach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 49 (1978);see also T. Mita, K. Sotome, and M. Veta, Solid State Commun. 33, 1135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Eilenberger, D. J.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fehrenbach, G. W.

G. W. Fehrenbach, W. Schafer, G. Treusch, and R. G. Ulbrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

C. D. Poole and E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 363 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

N. Peyghambarian and H. M. Gibbs, Opt. Eng. 24, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, M. C. Rushford, and H. M. Gibbs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, and H. M. Gibbs, Phys. Rev. B. 28, 1184 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, M. C. Rushford, and D. Weinberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1692 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, and M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, Opt. News 5, 6 (1979);Opt. Eng. 19, 463 (1980);H. M. Gibbs and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. News 9(6), 21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, New York, 1985).

H. M. Gibbs, G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Gossard, A.

A. Gossard, Thin Solid Films 57, 3 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Greene, B. J.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Grun, J. B.

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

Grynberg, G.

L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hanamura, E.

E. Hanamura, Solid State Commun. 38, 939 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. Hanamura, Solid State Commun. 12, 951 (1973);G. M. Gale and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 727 (1974);R. Svorec and L. L. Chase, Solid State Commun. 20, 353 (1976);N. Nagasawa, T. Mita, and M. Ueta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 929 (1976);R. Levy, C. Klingshirn, E. Ostertag, V. Duy Phach, and J. B. Grun, Phys. Status Solidi B 77, 381 (1976);L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

H. Haug and S. Schmitt-Rink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1135–1142 (1985);I. Abram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1204–1214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, H. E. Schmidth, and H. Haug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 932 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Schmidt, H. Haug, and S. W. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink and H. Haug, Phys. Status Solidi B 108, 377 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Klingshirn and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Rep. 70, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug, R. Marz, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Phys. Lett. 77A, 287 (1980);see also R. Marz, S. Schmitt-Rink, and H. Haug, Z. Phys. B. 40, 9 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug, in Festkörperprobleme XXII (Pergamon/Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1982), p. 149.
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Hegarty, J.

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, K.

K. Henneberger and V. May, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, K147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hennerberger, F.

H. Rossmann, F. Hennerberger, and J. Voigt, Phys. Status Solidi B 115, K63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hickernell, R. K.

Honerlage, B.

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Honerlage, A. Bivas, and V. Duy Phach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 49 (1978);see also T. Mita, K. Sotome, and M. Veta, Solid State Commun. 33, 1135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Itoh, T.

T. Itoh and T. Kathono, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 707 (1982);see also M. Kuwata, T. Mita, and N. Nagasawa, Opt. Commun. 40, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jameson, R. S.

Jewell, J. J.

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Jewell, J. L.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, M. C. Rushford, and H. M. Gibbs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Johnston, A.

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

Kar, A. K.

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Karpushko, F. V.

F. V. Karpushko and G. V. Sinitsyn, J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 29, 1323 (1978);Appl. Phys. B 28, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kathono, T.

T. Itoh and T. Kathono, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 707 (1982);see also M. Kuwata, T. Mita, and N. Nagasawa, Opt. Commun. 40, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

A. T. Rosenberger, L. A. Orozco, and H. J. Kimble, J. Phys. Rev. A 28, 2569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

H. Kalt, V. G. Lyssenko, R. Renner, and C. Klingshirn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1188–1196 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Bohnert, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1088 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Klingshirn and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Rep. 70, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

H. E. Schmidt, H. Haug, and S. W. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, H. E. Schmidth, and H. Haug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 932 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Leheny, R. F.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Levy, R.

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

Li, C. F.

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, and M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

Lyssenko, V. G.

Macleod, A.

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, and A. Orszag, in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, and A. Laubereau, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 6.
[CrossRef]

Maruani, A.

J. Abram and A. Maruani, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4759 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Maruani, J. L. Oudar, E. Batifol, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1372 (1978);see also Y. Masumoto and S. Shionoya, Solid State Commun. 38, 865 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Marz, R.

H. Haug, R. Marz, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Phys. Lett. 77A, 287 (1980);see also R. Marz, S. Schmitt-Rink, and H. Haug, Z. Phys. B. 40, 9 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mathew, J. G. H.

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

May, V.

K. Henneberger and V. May, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, K147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, Opt. News 5, 6 (1979);Opt. Eng. 19, 463 (1980);H. M. Gibbs and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. News 9(6), 21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, and A. Orszag, in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, and A. Laubereau, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 6.
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

A. Miller, G. Parry, and R. Daley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 710 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Miller, in Proceedings of Meeting on Optical Bistability, Dynamical Nonlinearity and Photonic Logic (Royal Society, London, 1984);A. Miller, D. Craig, G. Parry, J. G. H. Mathew, and A. K. Kar, presented at AGARD Workshop on Digital Optical Circuit Technology, Schiersee, Federal Republic of Germany, September 1984;D. Craig, A. Miller, J. G. H. Mathew, and A. K. Kar, Infrared Phys. (to be published).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. S. Chemla and D. A. B. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985);P. W. Smith, Y. Silberberg, and D. A. B. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1228–1236 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18, 79 (1982).

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Nguyen, H. X.

H. X. Nguyen and R. Zimmermann, Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Nikitine, S.

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

Olbright, G.

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Olbright, G. R.

H. M. Gibbs, G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Orozco, L. A.

A. T. Rosenberger, L. A. Orozco, and H. J. Kimble, J. Phys. Rev. A 28, 2569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Orszag, A.

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, and A. Orszag, in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, and A. Laubereau, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 6.
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

A. Maruani, J. L. Oudar, E. Batifol, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1372 (1978);see also Y. Masumoto and S. Shionoya, Solid State Commun. 38, 865 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Parry, G.

A. Miller, G. Parry, and R. Daley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 710 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Passner, A.

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

N. Peyghambarian and H. M. Gibbs, Opt. Eng. 24, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, and H. M. Gibbs, Phys. Rev. B. 28, 1184 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, M. C. Rushford, and D. Weinberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1692 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, Ph.D. dissertation (Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1982).

H. M. Gibbs, G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole and E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 363 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prettl, W.

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prise, M. E.

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Renner, R.

Rice, T. M.

T. M. Rice, in Solid State Physics, H. Ehrenreich, F. Seitz, and D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol.32, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Rosenberger, A. T.

A. T. Rosenberger, L. A. Orozco, and H. J. Kimble, J. Phys. Rev. A 28, 2569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rossmann, H.

H. Rossmann, F. Hennerberger, and J. Voigt, Phys. Status Solidi B 115, K63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rushford, M. C.

J. L. Jewell, M. C. Rushford, and H. M. Gibbs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, M. C. Rushford, and D. Weinberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1692 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, and M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

Saleri, P.

F. T. Arecchi and P. Saleri, Phys. Bull. 33, 20 (1982).

Sarid, D.

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, R. S. Jameson, and R. K. Hickernell, Opt. Lett. 9, 159 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, and H. M. Gibbs, Phys. Rev. B. 28, 1184 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, W.

G. W. Fehrenbach, W. Schafer, G. Treusch, and R. G. Ulbrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H. E.

H. E. Schmidt, H. Haug, and S. W. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schmidth, H. E.

S. W. Koch, H. E. Schmidth, and H. Haug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 932 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

H. Haug and S. Schmitt-Rink, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1135–1142 (1985);I. Abram, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1204–1214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink and H. Haug, Phys. Status Solidi B 108, 377 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug, R. Marz, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Phys. Lett. 77A, 287 (1980);see also R. Marz, S. Schmitt-Rink, and H. Haug, Z. Phys. B. 40, 9 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

Sharfin, W.

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers (STS, McLean, Va., 1984).

Sharfin, W. F.

M. Dagenais and W. F. Sharfin, Appl. Phys. Lett, (to be published).

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Sinitsyn, G. V.

F. V. Karpushko and G. V. Sinitsyn, J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 29, 1323 (1978);Appl. Phys. B 28, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, Opt. Eng. 19, 456 (1980);P. W. Smith and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE Trans. Spectrosc. 18, 16 (1981).

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Smith, S. D.

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Abraham and S. D. Smith, Rep. Prog. Phys. 45, 815 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sturge, M. D.

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sturge, AT&T Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication).

Sung, C. C.

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. A 29, 1957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tai, K.

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tarng, S. S.

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Tomasini, F.

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Toyozawa, Y.

Y. Toyozawa, Solid State Commun. 28, 533 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Treusch, G.

G. W. Fehrenbach, W. Schafer, G. Treusch, and R. G. Ulbrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, W. T.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, R. G.

G. W. Fehrenbach, W. Schafer, G. Treusch, and R. G. Ulbrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Van Milligen, F.

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T.

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesan, T. N. C.

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, Opt. News 5, 6 (1979);Opt. Eng. 19, 463 (1980);H. M. Gibbs and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. News 9(6), 21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, J.

H. Rossmann, F. Hennerberger, and J. Voigt, Phys. Status Solidi B 115, K63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Warren, M.

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Weinberger, D.

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, M. C. Rushford, and D. Weinberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1692 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weinberger, D. A.

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, and M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Winful, H. G.

M. Dagenais and H. G. Winful, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, R.

H. X. Nguyen and R. Zimmermann, Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (19)

R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, and C. V. Shank, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 671 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Hegarty, M. D. Sturge, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Dagenais, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 742 (1983),
[CrossRef]

G. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, A. Macleod, and F. Van Milligen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1031 (1984);S. D. Smith, J. G. H. Mathew, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. C. Walker, B. S. Wherrett, and A. Hendry, Opt. Commun. 51, 357 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole and E. Garmire, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 363 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Bohnert, H. Kalt, and C. Klingshirn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 1088 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Schmidt, H. Haug, and S. W. Koch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, A. C. Gossard, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, S. S. Tarng, J. L. Jewell, D. A. Weinberger, K. Tai, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, T. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 360 (1984);H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, J. V. Moloney, K. Tai, S. S. Tarng, D. A. Weinberger, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, and W. Wiegmann, presented at the International Workshop on Optical Phase Conjugation and Instabilities, September 20–25, 1982, Corsica;J. Phys. (Paris) 44, C2–C195 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Tarng, K. Tai, J. L. Jewell, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Gossard, S. L. McCall, A. Passner, T. N. C. Venkatesan, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Dagenais and H. G. Winful, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 574 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch, H. E. Schmidth, and H. Haug, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 932 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, S. D. Smith, and A. Johnston, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Kar, J. G. H. Mathew, S. D. Smith, B. Davis, and W. Prettl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 334 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Seaton, S. D. Smith, F. A. P. Tooley, M. E. Prise, and M. R. Taghizadeh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, M. C. Rushford, and H. M. Gibbs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 172 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, and J. L. Jewell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Miller, G. Parry, and R. Daley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 710 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. Passner, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, “Ordinary (counter-clockwise hysteresis loop) thermal Instability,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 108D (1979);D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Increasing absorption optical bistability,” Opt. Lett. 9, 162 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265 (1984);D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, D. J. Eilenberger, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. T. Tsang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 679 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

F. V. Karpushko and G. V. Sinitsyn, J. Appl. Spectrosc. (USSR) 29, 1323 (1978);Appl. Phys. B 28, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

D. A. Weinberger, H. M. Gibbs, C. F. Li, and M. C. Rushford, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1769 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. T. Rosenberger, L. A. Orozco, and H. J. Kimble, J. Phys. Rev. A 28, 2569 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Itoh and T. Kathono, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51, 707 (1982);see also M. Kuwata, T. Mita, and N. Nagasawa, Opt. Commun. 40, 208 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus (1)

D. A. B. Miller, Laser Focus 18, 79 (1982).

Opt. Commun. (4)

L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 51 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, D. Sarid, H. M. Gibbs, L. L. Chase, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 49, 125 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 42, 260 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

P. W. Smith, Opt. Eng. 19, 456 (1980);P. W. Smith and W. J. Tomlinson, IEEE Trans. Spectrosc. 18, 16 (1981).

N. Peyghambarian and H. M. Gibbs, Opt. Eng. 24, 68 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. News (1)

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, and T. N. C. Venkatesan, Opt. News 5, 6 (1979);Opt. Eng. 19, 463 (1980);H. M. Gibbs and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. News 9(6), 21 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Bull. (1)

F. T. Arecchi and P. Saleri, Phys. Bull. 33, 20 (1982).

Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Mysyrowicz, J. B. Grun, R. Levy, A. Bivas, and S. Nikitine, Phys. Lett. 26A, 615 (1968).

H. Haug, R. Marz, and S. Schmitt-Rink, Phys. Lett. 77A, 287 (1980);see also R. Marz, S. Schmitt-Rink, and H. Haug, Z. Phys. B. 40, 9 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sung and C. M. Bowden, Phys. Rev. A 29, 1957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Abram and A. Maruani, Phys. Rev. B 26, 4759 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

D. Sarid, N. Peyghambarian, and H. M. Gibbs, Phys. Rev. B. 28, 1184 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

D. A. B. Miller, C. T. Seaton, M. E. Prise, and S. D. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

B. Honerlage, A. Bivas, and V. Duy Phach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 49 (1978);see also T. Mita, K. Sotome, and M. Veta, Solid State Commun. 33, 1135 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Maruani, J. L. Oudar, E. Batifol, and D. S. Chemla, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1372 (1978);see also Y. Masumoto and S. Shionoya, Solid State Commun. 38, 865 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. F. Leheny, and J. Shah, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112 (1979).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Antonetti, A. Migus, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fehrenbach, W. Schafer, G. Treusch, and R. G. Ulbrich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Koch and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 450 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, M. C. Rushford, and D. Weinberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1692 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Rep. (1)

C. Klingshirn and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. Rep. 70, 315 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (4)

S. Schmitt-Rink and H. Haug, Phys. Status Solidi B 108, 377 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Henneberger and V. May, Phys. Status Solidi B 113, K147 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Rossmann, F. Hennerberger, and J. Voigt, Phys. Status Solidi B 115, K63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Nguyen and R. Zimmermann, Phys. Status Solidi B 124, 191 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. J. Caulfield, S. Horvitz, G. P. Tricoles, and W. A. Von Winkle, eds. Proc. IEEE 72, 755–979 (1984), special issue on optical computing.
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. Abraham and S. D. Smith, Rep. Prog. Phys. 45, 815 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (4)

Y. Toyozawa, Solid State Commun. 28, 533 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. Hanamura, Solid State Commun. 38, 939 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Levy, J. Y. Bigot, B. Honerlage, F. Tomasini, and J. B. Grun, Solid State Commun. 48, 705 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Hanamura, Solid State Commun. 12, 951 (1973);G. M. Gale and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 727 (1974);R. Svorec and L. L. Chase, Solid State Commun. 20, 353 (1976);N. Nagasawa, T. Mita, and M. Ueta, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 41, 929 (1976);R. Levy, C. Klingshirn, E. Ostertag, V. Duy Phach, and J. B. Grun, Phys. Status Solidi B 77, 381 (1976);L. L. Chase, N. Peyghambarian, G. Grynberg, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 28, 189 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, B. J. Greene, C. Weisbuch, and A. C. Gossard, Surf. Sci. 113, 108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Gossard, Thin Solid Films 57, 3 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

T. M. Rice, in Solid State Physics, H. Ehrenreich, F. Seitz, and D. Turnbull, eds. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol.32, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, and A. Orszag, in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, and A. Laubereau, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), p. 6.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, D. H. Austun and K. B. Eisenthal, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 162–165.
[CrossRef]

M. D. Sturge, AT&T Bell Laboratories Murray Hill, N.J. 07974 (personal communication).

H. Haug, in Festkörperprobleme XXII (Pergamon/Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1982), p. 149.
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, Ph.D. dissertation (Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1982).

M. Dagenais and W. F. Sharfin, Appl. Phys. Lett, (to be published).

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, New York, 1985).

A. Miller, in Proceedings of Meeting on Optical Bistability, Dynamical Nonlinearity and Photonic Logic (Royal Society, London, 1984);A. Miller, D. Craig, G. Parry, J. G. H. Mathew, and A. K. Kar, presented at AGARD Workshop on Digital Optical Circuit Technology, Schiersee, Federal Republic of Germany, September 1984;D. Craig, A. Miller, J. G. H. Mathew, and A. K. Kar, Infrared Phys. (to be published).

W. Sharfin and M. Dagenais, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers (STS, McLean, Va., 1984).

H. M. Gibbs, G. R. Olbright, N. Peyghambarian, and H. Haug, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. J. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, and A. Mysyrowicz, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

Y. Silberberg, P. W. Smith, D. A. B. Miller, B. Tell, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Picosecond Electronics and Optoelectronics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985).

J. L. Jewell, Y. Lee, M. Warren, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, Appl. Phys. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Time-resolved absorption spectrum of a GaAs–Al0.3Ga0.7As MQW system (GaAs layer thickness = 53 Å) held at T = 15 K, recorded 5 psec before and 1 psec after optical creation of a high density of free carriers. The heavy-hole (hh) and light-hole (lh) excitons are completely screened in the presence of the carriers. (b) Time-integrated luminescence spectrum of the sample recorded under identical excitation conditions to those in Fig. 1 (a). The luminescence band around 777 nm is due to electron–hole-plasma recombination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Time-resolved absorption of GaAs MQW system at T = 15 K recorded at various delays after the creation of free-electron–hole pairs. The excitation wavelength is at 740 nm. (b) Excitation wavelength is adjusted at 767.7 nm inside the heavy-hole-exciton line. The excitation laser spectrum is also shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved absorption spectra of GaAs MQWS’s at T = 224 K at different delays from the excitation pulse. In (a) the pump-pulse wavelength is at 760 nm (nonresonant excitation), whereas in (b) it is at 800 nm (resonant excitation).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved absorption spectra of GaAs MQW’s showing the onset of exciton bleaching under nonresonant pumping. In (a) the time evolution of the exciton during the pump pulse is given for a fixed pump intensity. In (b) the probe spectrum is shown at fixed zero delay with a pump intensity increasing by successive steps of 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a (in inverse centimeters) as a function of polariton energy E (in electron volts) for np = 5 × 1016 cm−3 (solid line) and np = 5 × 1015 cm−3 (dashed line), which correspond to ∼10 and ∼1 MW/cm2 at the biexciton resonance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

An as a function of polariton energy E (in electron volts) for the same parameters as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission of a typical bistable optical device, under conditions of (a) bistability (memory) and (b) high ac gain (optical transistor, discriminator, or limiter).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Room-temperature optical bistability in a GaAs–AlGaAs MQW étalon. The top trace is the transmission of the device (output) versus time. The bottom trace is the output versus input, showing hysteresis. Input is a triangular pulse.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Input and output intensity (in megawatts per square centimeter) of a 10-μm-thick CuCl Fabry–Perot étalon at E = 3.177 eV for R = 0.9 (solid line) and R = 0.8 (dashed line).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Limiting action in a 10-μm-thick CuCl étalon. (a) Output versus input intensity. (b) Input pulse (right) and output pulse (left) versus time. Time scale: 2 nsec/division.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Switch-on in a 12-μm-thick CuCl étalon. The laser frequency is gradually increased (corresponding to a fraction of a millielectron-volt change) in the sequence of photographs (a)–(c). Each photograph shows hysteresis loop, output pulse (center), and input pulse (right). Note that only (b) shows switch-on. Switch-off is not resolved in (b), as the input dye-laser pulse falls too steeply. The time scale is 5 nsec/div.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Output versus time of the switch-on intensity for ZnS with λ0 = 514.5 nm, FWHM bandwidth BW = 5 nm, τ = 10μsec, T = 60%,I = 70 kW/cm2, beamdiameter = 7.7 μm, filter prescription (HL)4 (H)4 (LH)4; 10 kW/cm2 per division for the output intensity. (b) A typical optical-bistability loop in ZnSe with λ0 = 632.8 nm, BW = 3.7 nm, τ = 50 μsec, T = 23%, I = 76 kW/cm2, beam diameter = 7.7 μm, filter prescription (HL)4 (H)4 (LH)4; 30 and 10 kW/cm2 per division for the input and the output intensity, respectively. (c) Output and input versus time for (b).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

On the left-hand side, computer calculations of transmission versus time for five initial detunings are given. Logic operations nor, nand, xor, or, and and resulted. On the right-hand side, experimental verifications using a GaAs étalon are shown.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Normalized transmission of the device as a function of time at two pump intensities, I0 and I0/3.5. The spectrometer was tuned to 70 to 80% of the Fabry–Perot transmission peak.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E x = E g E B x E D ,
h ν = E x E Bxx 2 ,
( w ) = + ( 0 ) E x 2 E x 2 ( E i γ x ) 2 Ω 2 ( E ) ,
Ω 2 ( E ) = 4 n p | M | 2 E x ( E x x E i γ x x ) ( E x x i γ x x ) ( E x x 2 E i γ x x )
δ = E x [ ( 0 / ) 1 / 2 1 ] ,
γ x x = γ x x , 0 + υ N 1 / 3 ,
N = K I 2 N 1 / 3 υ ( E E x x 2 ) 2 + N 2 / 3 υ 2 ,
γ x x = γ x x , 0 + 2 1 / 2 { ( E E x x 2 ) 2 + [ ( E E x x 2 ) 4 + 4 ( K I 1 / 2 ) 4 ] 1 / 2 } 1 / 2 ,

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