Abstract

A multiphoton-ionization apparatus utilizing a time-of-flight mass spectrometer as a detector of parent and fragment ions is described. Results for the multiphoton resonant ionization and the fragmentation of benzene are presented together with an accurate numerical evaluation of the photoionization probability. The comparison between our experimental and numerical results offers the possibility of estimating the value of the two-photon ionization cross section from the 1B2u excited state of benzene, which is not yet established.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. M. Johnson, Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 20 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. H. Parker, J. O. Berg, M. A. El-Sayed, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, Vol. 3 of Springer Series on Chemical Physics, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4562 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Zandee, R. B. Bernstein, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. 24, 89 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Boesl, H. S. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 87, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. T. Meek, S. R. Long, J. P. Reilly, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 2809 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Rebenstrot, A. Ben-Shaul, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3255 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. B. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 1178 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Speiser, J. Jortner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 399 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Murakami, K. Kaya, M. Ito, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3263 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. M. Johnson, C. E. Otis, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 32, 139 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Andlauer, Ch. Ottinger, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1471 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. D. Eland, H. Schulte, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3835 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, “Thermodynamic approach to collision processes,” in Dynamics of Molecular Collisions, W. H. Miller, ed. (New York, 1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1975).
  23. R. D. Levine, A. Ben-Shaul, “Thermodynamics of molecular disequilibrium,” in Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers, C. B. Moore, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Solimeno, S. Martellucci, “High-power chemical lasers,” in Developments in High-Power Lasers and Their Applications, (S.I.F., Bologna, Italy, 1981).
  25. J. Silberstein, R. D. Levine, Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 6 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. A. Lichtin, R. B. Bernstein, K. R. Newton, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 5728 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).
  28. F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. H. Callomon, J. E. Perkin, R. Lopez-Delgado, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 125 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. R. Ackerhalt, B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 16, 277 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (4)

U. Boesl, H. S. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 87, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Meek, S. R. Long, J. P. Reilly, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 2809 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

1981 (4)

D. A. Lichtin, R. B. Bernstein, K. R. Newton, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 5728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Rebenstrot, A. Ben-Shaul, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. 24, 89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, C. E. Otis, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 32, 139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (5)

J. Murakami, K. Kaya, M. Ito, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 20 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Silberstein, R. D. Levine, Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 6 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. Zandee, R. B. Bernstein, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. R. Ackerhalt, B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 16, 277 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (4)

J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Speiser, J. Jortner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4562 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, H. Schulte, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3835 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. H. Callomon, J. E. Perkin, R. Lopez-Delgado, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

B. Andlauer, Ch. Ottinger, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1471 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ackerhalt, J. R.

J. R. Ackerhalt, B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 16, 277 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andlauer, B.

B. Andlauer, Ch. Ottinger, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1471 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, V. S.

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. 24, 89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Armenante, M.

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aron, K.

K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Shaul, A.

F. Rebenstrot, A. Ben-Shaul, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, A. Ben-Shaul, “Thermodynamics of molecular disequilibrium,” in Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers, C. B. Moore, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.
[CrossRef]

Berg, J. O.

D. H. Parker, J. O. Berg, M. A. El-Sayed, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, Vol. 3 of Springer Series on Chemical Physics, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, R. B.

R. B. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Lichtin, R. B. Bernstein, K. R. Newton, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 5728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Zandee, R. B. Bernstein, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, “Thermodynamic approach to collision processes,” in Dynamics of Molecular Collisions, W. H. Miller, ed. (New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1975).

Boesl, U.

U. Boesl, H. S. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 87, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boesl, V.

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

Brancaccio, A.

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, B.

J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, R.

R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Burattini, E.

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Callomon, J. H.

J. H. Callomon, J. E. Perkin, R. Lopez-Delgado, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Demaray, R. E.

K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, W.

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

Eland, J. H. D.

R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, H. Schulte, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3835 (1975).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

D. H. Parker, J. O. Berg, M. A. El-Sayed, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, Vol. 3 of Springer Series on Chemical Physics, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Frey, R.

J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Howard, W. E.

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

J. Murakami, K. Kaya, M. Ito, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. M.

P. M. Johnson, C. E. Otis, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 32, 139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 20 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4562 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jortner, J.

S. Speiser, J. Jortner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kaya, K.

J. Murakami, K. Kaya, M. Ito, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. 24, 89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levine, R. D.

J. Silberstein, R. D. Levine, Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 6 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, A. Ben-Shaul, “Thermodynamics of molecular disequilibrium,” in Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers, C. B. Moore, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1975).

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, “Thermodynamic approach to collision processes,” in Dynamics of Molecular Collisions, W. H. Miller, ed. (New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

Lichtin, D. A.

D. A. Lichtin, R. B. Bernstein, K. R. Newton, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 5728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. H.

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

Long, S. R.

J. T. Meek, S. R. Long, J. P. Reilly, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 2809 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Delgado, R.

J. H. Callomon, J. E. Perkin, R. Lopez-Delgado, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Martellucci, S.

S. Solimeno, S. Martellucci, “High-power chemical lasers,” in Developments in High-Power Lasers and Their Applications, (S.I.F., Bologna, Italy, 1981).

Meek, J. T.

J. T. Meek, S. R. Long, J. P. Reilly, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 2809 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Metz, F.

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, J.

J. Murakami, K. Kaya, M. Ito, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Neusser, H. J.

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Neusser, H. S.

U. Boesl, H. S. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 87, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Newton, K. R.

D. A. Lichtin, R. B. Bernstein, K. R. Newton, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 5728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Otis, C.

K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Otis, C. E.

P. M. Johnson, C. E. Otis, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 32, 139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ottinger, Ch.

B. Andlauer, Ch. Ottinger, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1471 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Parker, D. H.

D. H. Parker, J. O. Berg, M. A. El-Sayed, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, Vol. 3 of Springer Series on Chemical Physics, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Perkin, J. E.

J. H. Callomon, J. E. Perkin, R. Lopez-Delgado, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. S.

T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rebenstrot, F.

F. Rebenstrot, A. Ben-Shaul, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, J. P.

J. T. Meek, S. R. Long, J. P. Reilly, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 2809 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, V.

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schlag, E. W.

U. Boesl, H. S. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 87, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, H.

R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, H. Schulte, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3835 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

J. R. Ackerhalt, B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 16, 277 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Silberstein, J.

J. Silberstein, R. D. Levine, Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 6 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Solimeno, S.

S. Solimeno, S. Martellucci, “High-power chemical lasers,” in Developments in High-Power Lasers and Their Applications, (S.I.F., Bologna, Italy, 1981).

Speiser, S.

S. Speiser, J. Jortner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vanoli, F.

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Willett, G. D.

T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wunsch, L.

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Zandee, L.

L. Zandee, R. B. Bernstein, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

P. M. Johnson, Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 20 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. M. Johnson, C. E. Otis, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 32, 139 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

V. S. Antonov, V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Phys. 24, 89 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

U. Boesl, H. S. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 87, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Silberstein, R. D. Levine, Chem. Phys. Lett. 74, 6 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Speiser, J. Jortner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 399 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Callomon, J. E. Perkin, R. Lopez-Delgado, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 125 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. (4)

M. Armenante, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 30, 57 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Armenante, A. Brancaccio, E. Burattini, V. Santoro, N. Spinelli, F. Vanoli, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 36, 213 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, B. Brehm, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 209 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Brehm, J. H. D. Eland, R. Frey, H. Schulte, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 373 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (11)

T. Baer, G. D. Willett, D. Smith, J. S. Phillips, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4076 (1979).
[CrossRef]

B. Andlauer, Ch. Ottinger, J. Chem. Phys. 55, 1471 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. D. Eland, H. Schulte, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 3835 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Rebenstrot, A. Ben-Shaul, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3255 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4562 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. Zandee, R. B. Bernstein, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1359 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Murakami, K. Kaya, M. Ito, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Lichtin, R. B. Bernstein, K. R. Newton, J. Chem. Phys. 75, 5728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. Dietz, H. J. Neusser, V. Boesl, E. W. Schlag, S. H. Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 66, 105 (1982).

K. Aron, C. Otis, R. E. Demaray, P. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4167 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

R. B. Bernstein, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 1178 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Meek, S. R. Long, J. P. Reilly, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 2809 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. R. Ackerhalt, B. W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 16, 277 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

F. Metz, W. E. Howard, L. Wunsch, H. J. Neusser, E. W. Schlag, Proc. R. Soc. London 363, 381 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. H. Parker, J. O. Berg, M. A. El-Sayed, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, Vol. 3 of Springer Series on Chemical Physics, A. H. Zewail, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, “Thermodynamic approach to collision processes,” in Dynamics of Molecular Collisions, W. H. Miller, ed. (New York, 1976).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Levine, R. B. Bernstein, Molecular Reaction Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1975).

R. D. Levine, A. Ben-Shaul, “Thermodynamics of molecular disequilibrium,” in Chemical and Biochemical Applications of Lasers, C. B. Moore, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3.
[CrossRef]

S. Solimeno, S. Martellucci, “High-power chemical lasers,” in Developments in High-Power Lasers and Their Applications, (S.I.F., Bologna, Italy, 1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup (see text for a full description).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized MPI spectrum of benzene.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative abundances of various ion fragments at the resonant wavelength of 4716 Å for different fluences.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative abundances of various ion fragments for p = 2.2 × 10−4 Torr and p = 2.2 × 10−5 Torr at two different wavelengths (λ = 4716 Å, white area; λ = 4819 Å, dashed area)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Log–log plot of the dependence of total ion yield on laser power for two resonant (4716- and 4819-Å) and one nonresonant (4915-Å) wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between theoretical (solid line) and experimental values of the total number of ions produced as a function of the laser intensity for two different wavelengths (I0 is the maximum value of laser intensity, and N0 the corresponding value of N, for λ = 4716 Å).

Equations (10)

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d N 0 d t = N 0 σ 1 I 2 , d N 1 d t = N 0 σ 1 I 2 N 1 ( σ 2 I 2 + γ ) , d N d t = N 1 σ 2 I 2 .
Γ ( I ) = σ 1 σ 2 I 4 σ 2 I 2 + γ .
N = n T V Γ [ I ( r ) ] d 3 r ,
I ( ρ , z ) = I max exp { ( 2 ρ 2 ) / [ w 0 2 ( 1 + z 2 / z R 2 ) ] } z 2 / z R 2 + 1 ,
N n = 2 π z R T I max 4 σ 1 σ 2 0 d ζ ( 1 + ζ 2 ) 2 0 ρ d ρ × exp [ ( 8 ρ 2 ) / ( w 0 2 4 ζ 2 ) ] σ 2 I max 2 exp { ( 4 ρ 2 ) / [ w 0 2 ( 1 + ζ 2 ) ] } + γ ( 1 + ζ 2 ) 4 .
N n = z R π T I max 2 σ 1 w 0 2 4 0 d ζ × 1 1 + ζ 2 0 1 d x x x + [ γ ( 1 + ζ 2 ) 2 ] / σ 2 I max 2 = 2 z R π T I max 2 σ 1 w 0 2 4 0 d ζ × 1 1 + ζ 2 { 1 γ σ 2 I max 2 ( 1 + ζ 2 ) ln [ 1 + σ 2 I max 2 γ ( 1 + ζ 2 ) 2 ] = z R π T σ 1 I max 2 w 0 2 4 F ( σ 2 I max 2 / γ ) ,
F ( y ) = 0 d x t 1 + x 2 { 1 ( 1 + x 2 ) y ln [ 1 + y ( 1 + x 2 ) 2 ] = π y n = 0 ( 1 ) n y n n + 2 ( 4 n + 4 ) ! [ ( 2 n + 2 ) ! ] 2 1 2 4 n + 5 ,
σ 2 γ = 4.10 58 cm 4 sec 2 .
σ 2 4 × 10 47 cm 4 / sec .
γ σ 2 I 2 ,

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