Abstract

A subpicosecond laser spectrometer with a time resolution of 0.3 psec for the investigation of absorption kinetics has been created. With the help of a streak camera, the luminescence time of bacteriorhodopsin has been measured to be ≤ 2 psec. Bacteriorhodospin absorption changes at 410–750 nm, arising within the time interval 0.5–10 psec after sample excitation have been measured. The experiments characterize the development of all the stages of the initial conformation of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from the excited state BR* through primary photoproduct J to the intermediate K.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).
  3. P. G. Kryukov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, “An emission of subpicosecond gigawatt laser pulses for kinetic spectroscopy,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2437–2442 (1980).
  4. J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond photodissociation and time resolved spectroscopy of recombination processes in carbonmonoxyhemoglobin,” in Lasers in Photomedicine and Photobiology,Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, R. Pratesi, C. A. Sacchi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 229–233.
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).
  7. W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacterio-rhodopsin and the purple membrane of halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ottolenghi, “The photochemistry of rhodopsins,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gottnick, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1980), Vol. 12, pp. 97–200.
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, W. Stoeckenius, “Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 15, 955–962 (1975).
  11. Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. L. Applebury, K. S. Peters, P. M. Pentzepis, “Primary intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 375–382 (1978).
  13. P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).
  17. S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).
  18. A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Pakulev, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (to be published).
  19. C. R. Goldschidt, M. Ottolenghi, R. Korenstein, “On the primary quantum yields in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle,” Biophys. J. 16, 839–843 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. E. Godfrey, “Photoselection and circular dichroism in the purple membranes,” Biophys. J. 38, 1–6 (1982).

1983

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. E. Godfrey, “Photoselection and circular dichroism in the purple membranes,” Biophys. J. 38, 1–6 (1982).

1980

P. G. Kryukov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, “An emission of subpicosecond gigawatt laser pulses for kinetic spectroscopy,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2437–2442 (1980).

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

1979

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacterio-rhodopsin and the purple membrane of halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

M. L. Applebury, K. S. Peters, P. M. Pentzepis, “Primary intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 375–382 (1978).

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

1976

C. R. Goldschidt, M. Ottolenghi, R. Korenstein, “On the primary quantum yields in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle,” Biophys. J. 16, 839–843 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

1975

R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, W. Stoeckenius, “Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 15, 955–962 (1975).

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

Antonetti, A.

J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond photodissociation and time resolved spectroscopy of recombination processes in carbonmonoxyhemoglobin,” in Lasers in Photomedicine and Photobiology,Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, R. Pratesi, C. A. Sacchi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 229–233.
[CrossRef]

Applebury, M. L.

M. L. Applebury, K. S. Peters, P. M. Pentzepis, “Primary intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 375–382 (1978).

Astier, R.

J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond photodissociation and time resolved spectroscopy of recombination processes in carbonmonoxyhemoglobin,” in Lasers in Photomedicine and Photobiology,Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, R. Pratesi, C. A. Sacchi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 229–233.
[CrossRef]

Becher, B.

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

Bogomolni, R. A.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacterio-rhodopsin and the purple membrane of halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, W. Stoeckenius, “Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 15, 955–962 (1975).

Brekhov, O. M.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

Chekalin, S. V.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Pakulev, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (to be published).

Clayton, R. K.

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Dietel, W.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Ebrey, T. G.

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

Fontaine, J. J.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frigo, N.

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Godfrey, R. E.

R. E. Godfrey, “Photoselection and circular dichroism in the purple membranes,” Biophys. J. 38, 1–6 (1982).

Goldschidt, C. R.

C. R. Goldschidt, M. Ottolenghi, R. Korenstein, “On the primary quantum yields in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle,” Biophys. J. 16, 839–843 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Govindjee, R.

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

Hidaka, Y.

Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C. A.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirsh, M. D.

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hoganson, C.

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holten, D.

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klevanic, A. V.

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

Konyashcenko, A. V.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Korenstein, R.

C. R. Goldschidt, M. Ottolenghi, R. Korenstein, “On the primary quantum yields in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle,” Biophys. J. 16, 839–843 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kruykov, P. G.

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

Kryukov, P. G.

P. G. Kryukov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, “An emission of subpicosecond gigawatt laser pulses for kinetic spectroscopy,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2437–2442 (1980).

P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
[CrossRef]

Kuhlke, D.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Letokhov, V. S.

P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lozier, R. H.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacterio-rhodopsin and the purple membrane of halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, W. Stoeckenius, “Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 15, 955–962 (1975).

Mahr, H.

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, M. A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond photodissociation and time resolved spectroscopy of recombination processes in carbonmonoxyhemoglobin,” in Lasers in Photomedicine and Photobiology,Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, R. Pratesi, C. A. Sacchi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 229–233.
[CrossRef]

Matuoka, S.

Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matveetz, Yu. A.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kryukov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, “An emission of subpicosecond gigawatt laser pulses for kinetic spectroscopy,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2437–2442 (1980).

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Pakulev, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (to be published).

McMichael, I. C.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Migus, A.

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond photodissociation and time resolved spectroscopy of recombination processes in carbonmonoxyhemoglobin,” in Lasers in Photomedicine and Photobiology,Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, R. Pratesi, C. A. Sacchi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 229–233.
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
[CrossRef]

Ottolenghi, M.

C. R. Goldschidt, M. Ottolenghi, R. Korenstein, “On the primary quantum yields in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle,” Biophys. J. 16, 839–843 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Ottolenghi, “The photochemistry of rhodopsins,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gottnick, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1980), Vol. 12, pp. 97–200.
[CrossRef]

Pakulev, A. V.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Pakulev, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (to be published).

Parson, W. W.

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pentzepis, P. M.

M. L. Applebury, K. S. Peters, P. M. Pentzepis, “Primary intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 375–382 (1978).

Perreault, G. J.

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

Peters, K. S.

M. L. Applebury, K. S. Peters, P. M. Pentzepis, “Primary intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 375–382 (1978).

Rootskoy, B. Yu.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schenck, C. C.

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semchishen, V. A.

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

P. G. Kryukov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, “An emission of subpicosecond gigawatt laser pulses for kinetic spectroscopy,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2437–2442 (1980).

Shank, C. V.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, S. L.

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

Sharkov, A. V.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Pakulev, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (to be published).

Shichida, Y.

Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shuvalov, V. A.

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

Spoonhower, J. P.

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

Stoeckenius, W.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacterio-rhodopsin and the purple membrane of halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, W. Stoeckenius, “Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 15, 955–962 (1975).

Wilhelmi, B.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

Windsor, M. W.

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, R.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, T.

Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

Biochim. Biophys. Acta

D. Holten, C. Hoganson, M. W. Windsor, C. C. Schenck, W. W. Parson, A. Migus, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Subpicosecond and picosecond studies of electron transfer intermediates in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 461–477 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacterio-rhodopsin and the purple membrane of halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shichida, S. Matuoka, Y. Hidaka, T. Yoshizawa, “Absorption spectra of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin measured by laser photolysis at room temperatures,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 723, 240–246 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

M. L. Applebury, K. S. Peters, P. M. Pentzepis, “Primary intermediates in the photochemical cycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 375–382 (1978).

R. H. Lozier, R. A. Bogomolni, W. Stoeckenius, “Bacteriorhodopsin: a light-driven proton pump in halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 15, 955–962 (1975).

M. D. Hirsh, M. A. Marcus, A. Lewis, H. Mahr, N. Frigo, “A method for measuring picosecond phenomena in photolabile species,” Biophys. J. 16, 1399–1409 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, W. Yu, R. Govindjee, B. Becher, T. G. Ebrey, “Picosecond kinetics of the fluorescence from the chromophore of the purple membrane protein of Halobacterium halobium,” Biophys. J. 16, 541–546 (1976).

S. L. Shapiro, A. J. Campillo, A. Lewis, G. J. Perreault, J. P. Spoonhower, R. K. Clayton, W. Stoeckenius, “Picosecond and steady-state variable intensity and variable temperature emission spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biophys. J. 23, 383–393 (1978).

C. R. Goldschidt, M. Ottolenghi, R. Korenstein, “On the primary quantum yields in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle,” Biophys. J. 16, 839–843 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Godfrey, “Photoselection and circular dichroism in the purple membranes,” Biophys. J. 38, 1–6 (1982).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 500–506 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow)

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, B. Wilhelmi, W. Dietel, D. Kuhlke, “Experimental and theoretical studies of a femtosecond laser,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 10, 2398–2410 (1983).

P. G. Kryukov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, “An emission of subpicosecond gigawatt laser pulses for kinetic spectroscopy,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2437–2442 (1980).

Photochem. Photobiol.

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Konyashcenko, O. M. Brekhov, B. Yu. Rootskoy, “Fluorescence of bacteriorhodopsin under subpicosecond light excitation,” Photochem. Photobiol. 38, 108–111 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.

A. V. Klevanic, P. G. Kruykov, Yu. A. Matveetz, V. A. Semchishen, V. A. Shuvalov, “Subpicosecond measurements of energy and electron transfer rate at physical stages of photosynthesis,” Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 32, 107–111 (1980).

Science

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Lewis, M. A. Marcus, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Science 200, 1279–1281 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Ottolenghi, “The photochemistry of rhodopsins,” in Advances in Photochemistry, J. N. Pitts, G. S. Hammond, K. Gottnick, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1980), Vol. 12, pp. 97–200.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Subpicosecond photodissociation and time resolved spectroscopy of recombination processes in carbonmonoxyhemoglobin,” in Lasers in Photomedicine and Photobiology,Vol. 22 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, R. Pratesi, C. A. Sacchi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 229–233.
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kryukov, V. S. Letokhov, Yu. A. Matveetz, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, “Picosecond research of some biomolecules (bacteriorhodopsin, bacteriochlorophyll and bases of DNA),” in Picosecond Phenomena, Vol. 4 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, C. V. Shank, E. P. Ippen, S. L. Shapiro, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978), pp. 158–166.
[CrossRef]

A. V. Sharkov, Yu. A. Matveetz, S. V. Chekalin, A. V. Pakulev, “Subpicosecond spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the subpicosecond spectrometer. RJ, Rhodamine jet; DJ, DODCI jet; PD, photodiode; C1–C4, amplifier cells; MG, Malachite Green jets; PM’s, photomultipliers; F’s, filters; EB, exciting beam; PB, probe beam; RB, reference beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes in the BR absorption optical density ΔA for various time delays after the exciting pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Kinetics of the BR absorption changes at different wavelengths. The dashed line in C indicates instantaneous reaction kinetics.

Equations (2)

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BR K 1 100 nsec K L 2 μ sec L 50 μ sec M 10 msec BR .
BR h ν BR * 0.7 p sec J 3 p sec K .

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