Abstract

Femtosecond techniques permitting the generation of intense optical pulses tunable from the near UV to the near IR are presented. Implications for chemistry, biology, and solid-state physics are discussed. Specific cases are developed for applications such as the comparison of time-resolved polarization and absorption studies in photoexcited GaAs or malachite green in water.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds., Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1 ps by colliding pulse modelocking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 671–672 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, “Amplification of 70 fs optical pulses to GW powers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 223–225 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Grischkowsky, A. C. Balant, “Optical pulse compression based on enhanced frequency chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1–3 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. G. Fujimoto, A. M. Weiner, E. P. Ippen, “Generation and measurement of optical pulses as short as 16 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 832–834 (1984);J. M. Halbout, D. Grischkowsky, “12-fsec compressed laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Weiner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 1–15;S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, “The effects of cavity dispersion on femtosecond mode-locked dye lasers,” pp. 23–26.
  9. J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 30 fsec in a laser-balancing passive mode locking with solitonlike pulse shaping”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) 1984).
  10. G. Mourou, T. Sizer, “Generation of pulses shorter than 70 fs with a synchronously pumped CW Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 41, 47–48 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).
  12. R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, M. Islam, “3 MHz amplifier for femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 27–29.
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Amplified femtosecond optical pulses and continuum generation at 5 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. (to be published);I. N. Duling, T. Norris, T. Sizer, P. Bado, G. A. Mourou, “Kilohertz synchronous amplification of 85-femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 616–618 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Bermamasco, W. Cechiti, R. Polloni, “A subpicosecond dye laser pumped by a xenon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 34, 191–192 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultra Short Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).
  19. T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).
  21. A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. B. Corkum, “High-power subpicosecond 10-μm pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 8, 514–516 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. See “Chemistry briefing gives first glimpses of Pimentel survey effort,” Chem. Eng. News 62(1), 8–39 (1984).
  24. V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, H. Bergstrom, “Picosecond kinetics of radiationless relaxations of triphenylmethane dyes,” Chem. Phys. 73, 439–459 (1984).
  25. T. Forster, G. Hoffman, “Die Viskositatsabhangigkeit der Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten einiger Farbstoffsysteme,” Z. Phys. Chem. 75, 63–76 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics of malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. Erskine, A. J. Taylor, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond study of the recovery dynamics of malachite green in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5388–5389 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Saikan, J. Sei, “Experimental studies of polarization spectroscopy in dye solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4146–4153 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Trebino, A. E. Siegman, “Subpicosecond relaxation study of malachite green using a three-laser frequency-domain technique”, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 3621–3626 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. J. Cross, D. H. Waldeck, G. R. Fleming, “Time resolved polarization spectroscopy: level kinetics and rotational diffusion,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6455–6467 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. J. Taylor, D. J. Erskine, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond vibrational relaxation of large organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 430–435 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  33. V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, “Effects of solvent on TPM photophysics. Transition from no barrier to barrier case, induced by solvent properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3463–3474 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  34. G. Kenney-Wallace, “Non-linear optical spectroscopy and molecular dynamics in liquids,” in Applications of Picosecond Spectroscopy to Chemistry, K. B. Eisenthal, ed.(Reidel, Boston, 1984), pp. 139–162.
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, I. Thomazeau, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Third-order electronic susceptibilities of liquids, measured by femtosecond kinetics of optical Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 649–653 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  39. D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  42. C. L. Tang, D. J. Erskine, “Femtosecond relaxation of photoexcited nonequilibrium carriers in AlGaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 840–842 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  43. D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).
  45. A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  46. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond optical pulse induced phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  47. C. V. Shank, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, “Imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
  48. C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  49. S. Williamson, G. Mourou, J. C. M. Li, “Time-resolved laser induced phase transformations in aluminium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (2)

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, I. Thomazeau, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Third-order electronic susceptibilities of liquids, measured by femtosecond kinetics of optical Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 649–653 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (17)

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Williamson, G. Mourou, J. C. M. Li, “Time-resolved laser induced phase transformations in aluminium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Taylor, D. J. Erskine, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond vibrational relaxation of large organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 430–435 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, “Effects of solvent on TPM photophysics. Transition from no barrier to barrier case, induced by solvent properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3463–3474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Erskine, A. J. Taylor, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond study of the recovery dynamics of malachite green in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5388–5389 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, A. M. Weiner, E. P. Ippen, “Generation and measurement of optical pulses as short as 16 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 832–834 (1984);J. M. Halbout, D. Grischkowsky, “12-fsec compressed laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 30 fsec in a laser-balancing passive mode locking with solitonlike pulse shaping”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) 1984).

G. Bermamasco, W. Cechiti, R. Polloni, “A subpicosecond dye laser pumped by a xenon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 34, 191–192 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
[CrossRef]

See “Chemistry briefing gives first glimpses of Pimentel survey effort,” Chem. Eng. News 62(1), 8–39 (1984).

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, H. Bergstrom, “Picosecond kinetics of radiationless relaxations of triphenylmethane dyes,” Chem. Phys. 73, 439–459 (1984).

1983 (12)

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Saikan, J. Sei, “Experimental studies of polarization spectroscopy in dye solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4146–4153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, A. E. Siegman, “Subpicosecond relaxation study of malachite green using a three-laser frequency-domain technique”, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 3621–3626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Cross, D. H. Waldeck, G. R. Fleming, “Time resolved polarization spectroscopy: level kinetics and rotational diffusion,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6455–6467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, D. J. Erskine, “Femtosecond relaxation of photoexcited nonequilibrium carriers in AlGaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 840–842 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond optical pulse induced phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “High-power subpicosecond 10-μm pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 8, 514–516 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (4)

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, “Amplification of 70 fs optical pulses to GW powers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 223–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, A. C. Balant, “Optical pulse compression based on enhanced frequency chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1–3 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Mourou, T. Sizer, “Generation of pulses shorter than 70 fs with a synchronously pumped CW Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 41, 47–48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1 ps by colliding pulse modelocking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 671–672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics of malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Forster, G. Hoffman, “Die Viskositatsabhangigkeit der Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten einiger Farbstoffsysteme,” Z. Phys. Chem. 75, 63–76 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, I. Thomazeau, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Third-order electronic susceptibilities of liquids, measured by femtosecond kinetics of optical Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 649–653 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Astier, R.

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
[CrossRef]

Balant, A. C.

D. Grischkowsky, A. C. Balant, “Optical pulse compression based on enhanced frequency chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1–3 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, A.

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics of malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bergstrom, H.

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, H. Bergstrom, “Picosecond kinetics of radiationless relaxations of triphenylmethane dyes,” Chem. Phys. 73, 439–459 (1984).

Bermamasco, G.

G. Bermamasco, W. Cechiti, R. Polloni, “A subpicosecond dye laser pumped by a xenon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 34, 191–192 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bok, J.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cechiti, W.

G. Bermamasco, W. Cechiti, R. Polloni, “A subpicosecond dye laser pumped by a xenon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 34, 191–192 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Combescot, M.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Cross, A. J.

A. J. Cross, D. H. Waldeck, G. R. Fleming, “Time resolved polarization spectroscopy: level kinetics and rotational diffusion,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6455–6467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, M. Islam, “3 MHz amplifier for femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 27–29.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Amplified femtosecond optical pulses and continuum generation at 5 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. (to be published);I. N. Duling, T. Norris, T. Sizer, P. Bado, G. A. Mourou, “Kilohertz synchronous amplification of 85-femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 616–618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, “Imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Duling, I. N.

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

Elsaesser, T.

T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, D. J.

A. J. Taylor, D. J. Erskine, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond vibrational relaxation of large organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 430–435 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Erskine, A. J. Taylor, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond study of the recovery dynamics of malachite green in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5388–5389 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, D. J. Erskine, “Femtosecond relaxation of photoexcited nonequilibrium carriers in AlGaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 840–842 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Etchepare, J.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, I. Thomazeau, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Third-order electronic susceptibilities of liquids, measured by femtosecond kinetics of optical Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 649–653 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

A. J. Cross, D. H. Waldeck, G. R. Fleming, “Time resolved polarization spectroscopy: level kinetics and rotational diffusion,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6455–6467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 30 fsec in a laser-balancing passive mode locking with solitonlike pulse shaping”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) 1984).

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, “Amplification of 70 fs optical pulses to GW powers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 223–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1 ps by colliding pulse modelocking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 671–672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

C. V. Shank, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, “Imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Amplified femtosecond optical pulses and continuum generation at 5 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. (to be published);I. N. Duling, T. Norris, T. Sizer, P. Bado, G. A. Mourou, “Kilohertz synchronous amplification of 85-femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 616–618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, M. Islam, “3 MHz amplifier for femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 27–29.
[CrossRef]

Forster, T.

T. Forster, G. Hoffman, “Die Viskositatsabhangigkeit der Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten einiger Farbstoffsysteme,” Z. Phys. Chem. 75, 63–76 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, A. M. Weiner, E. P. Ippen, “Generation and measurement of optical pulses as short as 16 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 832–834 (1984);J. M. Halbout, D. Grischkowsky, “12-fsec compressed laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 1–15;S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, “The effects of cavity dispersion on femtosecond mode-locked dye lasers,” pp. 23–26.

Gabel, C. W.

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

Gauduel, Y.

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Gillbro, T.

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, H. Bergstrom, “Picosecond kinetics of radiationless relaxations of triphenylmethane dyes,” Chem. Phys. 73, 439–459 (1984).

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, “Effects of solvent on TPM photophysics. Transition from no barrier to barrier case, induced by solvent properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3463–3474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Greene, B. I.

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1 ps by colliding pulse modelocking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 671–672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, I. Thomazeau, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Third-order electronic susceptibilities of liquids, measured by femtosecond kinetics of optical Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 649–653 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky, A. C. Balant, “Optical pulse compression based on enhanced frequency chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1–3 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gulbinas, V.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond optical pulse induced phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C. A.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, G.

T. Forster, G. Hoffman, “Die Viskositatsabhangigkeit der Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten einiger Farbstoffsysteme,” Z. Phys. Chem. 75, 63–76 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Ippen, E.

A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultra Short Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

J. G. Fujimoto, A. M. Weiner, E. P. Ippen, “Generation and measurement of optical pulses as short as 16 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 832–834 (1984);J. M. Halbout, D. Grischkowsky, “12-fsec compressed laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics of malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 1–15;S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, “The effects of cavity dispersion on femtosecond mode-locked dye lasers,” pp. 23–26.

Islam, M.

R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, M. Islam, “3 MHz amplifier for femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 27–29.
[CrossRef]

Jewel, J. L.

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Jewell, J. L.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kabelka, V.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kafka, J. D.

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

Kaiser, W.

T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kenney-Wallace, G.

G. Kenney-Wallace, “Non-linear optical spectroscopy and molecular dynamics in liquids,” in Applications of Picosecond Spectroscopy to Chemistry, K. B. Eisenthal, ed.(Reidel, Boston, 1984), pp. 139–162.
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Amplified femtosecond optical pulses and continuum generation at 5 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. (to be published);I. N. Duling, T. Norris, T. Sizer, P. Bado, G. A. Mourou, “Kilohertz synchronous amplification of 85-femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 616–618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Lecarpentier, Y.

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

Leheny, R.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. C. M.

S. Williamson, G. Mourou, J. C. M. Li, “Time-resolved laser induced phase transformations in aluminium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lowenau, J. P.

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Malyshev, V. I.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
[CrossRef]

Masalov, A. V.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Etchepare, G. Grillon, I. Thomazeau, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, “Third-order electronic susceptibilities of liquids, measured by femtosecond kinetics of optical Kerr effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 649–653 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Mourou, G.

S. Williamson, G. Mourou, J. C. M. Li, “Time-resolved laser induced phase transformations in aluminium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Mourou, T. Sizer, “Generation of pulses shorter than 70 fs with a synchronously pumped CW Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 41, 47–48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Orszag, A.

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Polland, H. P.

T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Polloni, R.

G. Bermamasco, W. Cechiti, R. Polloni, “A subpicosecond dye laser pumped by a xenon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 34, 191–192 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Poyart, C.

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

Saikan, S.

S. Saikan, J. Sei, “Experimental studies of polarization spectroscopy in dye solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4146–4153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sei, J.

S. Saikan, J. Sei, “Experimental studies of polarization spectroscopy in dye solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4146–4153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Seilmaier, A.

T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond optical pulse induced phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, “Amplification of 70 fs optical pulses to GW powers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 223–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1 ps by colliding pulse modelocking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 671–672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics of malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

C. V. Shank, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, “Imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Amplified femtosecond optical pulses and continuum generation at 5 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. (to be published);I. N. Duling, T. Norris, T. Sizer, P. Bado, G. A. Mourou, “Kilohertz synchronous amplification of 85-femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 616–618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultra Short Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

R. Trebino, A. E. Siegman, “Subpicosecond relaxation study of malachite green using a three-laser frequency-domain technique”, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 3621–3626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sizer, T.

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

G. Mourou, T. Sizer, “Generation of pulses shorter than 70 fs with a synchronously pumped CW Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 41, 47–48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sundstrom, V.

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, H. Bergstrom, “Picosecond kinetics of radiationless relaxations of triphenylmethane dyes,” Chem. Phys. 73, 439–459 (1984).

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, “Effects of solvent on TPM photophysics. Transition from no barrier to barrier case, induced by solvent properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3463–3474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Syrus, V.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

A. J. Taylor, D. J. Erskine, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond vibrational relaxation of large organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 430–435 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Erskine, A. J. Taylor, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond study of the recovery dynamics of malachite green in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5388–5389 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, D. J. Erskine, “Femtosecond relaxation of photoexcited nonequilibrium carriers in AlGaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 840–842 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

D. J. Erskine, A. J. Taylor, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond study of the recovery dynamics of malachite green in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5388–5389 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Taylor, D. J. Erskine, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond vibrational relaxation of large organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 430–435 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Thomazeau, I.

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, A. E. Siegman, “Subpicosecond relaxation study of malachite green using a three-laser frequency-domain technique”, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 3621–3626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 30 fsec in a laser-balancing passive mode locking with solitonlike pulse shaping”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) 1984).

Vasil’eva, M. A.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vinet, J. Y.

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vishchakas, J.

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Waldeck, D. H.

A. J. Cross, D. H. Waldeck, G. R. Fleming, “Time resolved polarization spectroscopy: level kinetics and rotational diffusion,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6455–6467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. G. Fujimoto, A. M. Weiner, E. P. Ippen, “Generation and measurement of optical pulses as short as 16 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 832–834 (1984);J. M. Halbout, D. Grischkowsky, “12-fsec compressed laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 1–15;S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, “The effects of cavity dispersion on femtosecond mode-locked dye lasers,” pp. 23–26.

Wiegmann, W.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

Williamson, S.

S. Williamson, G. Mourou, J. C. M. Li, “Time-resolved laser induced phase transformations in aluminium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yen, R.

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond optical pulse induced phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, “Amplification of 70 fs optical pulses to GW powers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 223–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Bermamasco, W. Cechiti, R. Polloni, “A subpicosecond dye laser pumped by a xenon ion laser,” Appl. Phys. B 34, 191–192 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. Grischkowsky, A. C. Balant, “Optical pulse compression based on enhanced frequency chirping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 1–3 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, A. M. Weiner, E. P. Ippen, “Generation and measurement of optical pulses as short as 16 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 832–834 (1984);J. M. Halbout, D. Grischkowsky, “12-fsec compressed laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, B. I. Greene, C. V. Shank, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 0.1 ps by colliding pulse modelocking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 671–672 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, “Amplification of 70 fs optical pulses to GW powers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 223–225 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, G. Grillon, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of highly excited CuCl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 993–995 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewell, “One-picosecond optical NOR gate at room temperature with a GaAs–AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear Fabry–Perot étalon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 70–72 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. News (1)

See “Chemistry briefing gives first glimpses of Pimentel survey effort,” Chem. Eng. News 62(1), 8–39 (1984).

Chem. Phys. (1)

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, H. Bergstrom, “Picosecond kinetics of radiationless relaxations of triphenylmethane dyes,” Chem. Phys. 73, 439–459 (1984).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. P. Ippen, C. V. Shank, A. Bergman, “Picosecond recovery dynamics of malachite green,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 38, 611–614 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Taylor, D. J. Erskine, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond vibrational relaxation of large organic molecules,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 103, 430–435 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond and picosecond time-resolved electron solvation in aqueous and reversed micelles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 108, 319–322 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. (1)

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Spectral evidence for sub-picosecond iron displacement after ligand detachment from hemoproteins by femtosecond light pulses,” Eur. Molec. Biol. Org. J. 2, 1815–1819 (1983).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

T. Sizer, J. D. Kafka, I. N. Duling, C. W. Gabel, G. A. Mourou, “Synchronous amplification of subpicosecond pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-19, 508–511 (1983).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

T. Elsaesser, H. P. Polland, A. Seilmaier, W. Kaiser, “Narrow-band infrared picosecond pulses tunable between 1.2 and 1.4 μm generated by a traveling-wave laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 191–194 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. A. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE 19, 500–505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gauduel, A. Migus, J. L. Martin, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond electron solvation in micellar solutions: applications to one-electron transfer kinetics in the univalent reduction of a coenzyme,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1370–1375 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Vasil’eva, J. Vishchakas, V. Gulbinas, V. I. Malyshev, A. V. Masalov, V. Kabelka, V. Syrus, “Amplitude and phase nonlinear response of bleachable dyes using picosecond excitation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 724–730 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, C. V. Shank, E. Ippen, R. L. Fork, “Amplification of ultrashort light pulses: theory and experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 101–109 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (5)

D. J. Erskine, A. J. Taylor, C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond study of the recovery dynamics of malachite green in solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5388–5389 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. Saikan, J. Sei, “Experimental studies of polarization spectroscopy in dye solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 79, 4146–4153 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, A. E. Siegman, “Subpicosecond relaxation study of malachite green using a three-laser frequency-domain technique”, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 3621–3626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Cross, D. H. Waldeck, G. R. Fleming, “Time resolved polarization spectroscopy: level kinetics and rotational diffusion,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6455–6467 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. Sundstrom, T. Gillbro, “Effects of solvent on TPM photophysics. Transition from no barrier to barrier case, induced by solvent properties,” J. Chem. Phys. 81, 3463–3474 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, “Generation of optical pulses shorter than 30 fsec in a laser-balancing passive mode locking with solitonlike pulse shaping”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 1337 (A) 1984).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Mourou, T. Sizer, “Generation of pulses shorter than 70 fs with a synchronously pumped CW Nd-YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 41, 47–48 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Femtosecond-time-resolved dynamics of optically excited silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 900–902 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Williamson, G. Mourou, J. C. M. Li, “Time-resolved laser induced phase transformations in aluminium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2364–2367 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. Yen, C. Hirlimann, “Time-resolved reflectivity measurements of femtosecond optical pulse induced phase,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 454–457 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Oudar, A. Migus, D. Hulin, G. Grillon, J. Etchepare, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond orientational relaxation of photoexcited carriers in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 384–387 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, H. M. Gibbs, J. L. Jewell, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in multiple-quantum-well structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2433–2436 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, A. Antonetti, L. L. Chase, J. L. Martin, A. Migus, A. Mysyrowicz, J. P. Lowenau, S. Schmitt-Rink, H. Haug, “Dynamics of the exciton screening in CuCl on a subpicosecond time scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 779–782 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. Hulin, M. Combescot, J. Bok, A. Migus, J. Y. Vinet, A. Antonetti, “Energy transfer during silicon irradiation by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1998–2000 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Leheny, J. Shah, “Dynamics of photoexcited GaAs band-edge absorption with subpicosecond resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 112–115 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Tang, D. J. Erskine, “Femtosecond relaxation of photoexcited nonequilibrium carriers in AlGaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 840–842 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

J. L. Martin, A. Migus, C. Poyart, Y. Lecarpentier, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond photolysis of CO-ligated protoheme and hemeproteins: appearance of deoxy species with a 350 fs time constant,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 173–177 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. Forster, G. Hoffman, “Die Viskositatsabhangigkeit der Fluoreszenzquantenausbeuten einiger Farbstoffsysteme,” Z. Phys. Chem. 75, 63–76 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds., Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Kenney-Wallace, “Non-linear optical spectroscopy and molecular dynamics in liquids,” in Applications of Picosecond Spectroscopy to Chemistry, K. B. Eisenthal, ed.(Reidel, Boston, 1984), pp. 139–162.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, C. V. Shank, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, “Femtosecond dynamics of non-equilibrium correlated electron–hole pairs in room temperature GaAs MQW,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, M. Islam, “3 MHz amplifier for femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 38 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 27–29.
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, “Amplified femtosecond optical pulses and continuum generation at 5 kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. (to be published);I. N. Duling, T. Norris, T. Sizer, P. Bado, G. A. Mourou, “Kilohertz synchronous amplification of 85-femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 616–618 (1985).
[CrossRef]

E. Ippen, C. V. Shank, in Ultra Short Light Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977), pp. 83–122.
[CrossRef]

A. Migus, J. L. Martin, R. Astier, A. Antonetti, A. Orszag, “Femtosecond optical pulses: towards tunability at the GW level,” in Picosecond Phenomena III, K. B. Eisenthal, R. M. Hochstrasser, W. Kaiser, A. Lauberau, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1982), pp. 6–9.
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, “Compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), pp. 1–15;S. De Silvestri, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, “The effects of cavity dispersion on femtosecond mode-locked dye lasers,” pp. 23–26.

C. V. Shank, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, “Imaging with femtosecond optical pulses,” in Ultrafast Phenomena IV, Vol. 138 of Springer Series in Chemical Physics, D. H. Auston, K. B. Eisenthal, eds.(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

A. Mysyrowicz, D. Hulin, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, H. M. Gibbs, N. Peyghambarian, J. L. Jewel, “Blue shift of the exciton resonance due to exciton–exciton interactions in a multiple quantum-well-structure,” in Digest of the Thirteenth International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generation and amplification of femtosecond pulses. The bottom insert represents the CPM laser and the corresponding pulse autocorrelation figure. Notice the two different mirrors for the 5145-Å pump and the gain subcavity. In the upper part, 1–4 are the amplifier stages and GP is the grating pair used for pulse compression.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral coverage of the dyes available for the amplification of continuum and pumped by the fundamental or the harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of double-pass amplifier used for continuum amplification. Input pulses (at 620 nm) are focused in C.G to generate a continuum, a portion of which is selected by the filter IF. After a first pass in the dye cell, the pulse polarization is rotated before a second amplification and further separation in the Glan prism. A compressor may be added at the output to compensate for the broadening that is due to group-velocity dispersion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

General scheme of time-resolved absorption experiments. The input beam at 620 nm is split in two parts. One is the test beam, and the other, the pump beam, can be delayed in time by using a translation stage mounted on a stepping motor with an accuracy of 0.1 μm. The pump beam may be used at 620 nm or may generate harmonics or a continuum for further amplification (tunable-excitation box). The test beam, a weak white light generated in C.G. (F is a filter to remove unwanted frequencies), is split into two parts: One probes the excited region of the sample, while the other is used as a reference. The detection apparatus consists of a combination of either a spectrometer and an optical multichannel analyzer or monochromators and photodiodes. Data analysis through a minicomputer permits full resolution of signals of the order of 1%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Proposed energy-level scheme for malachite green in water (see text). The pump excites to the S1 state; the test probes b, the induced bleaching, g, the gain, or a, the excited-state absorption.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Malachite green in (a) water-induced absorption, (b) bleaching, or (g) gain at different test wavelengths: (a) 500 nm, (b) 600 nm, (g) 700 nm. The continuous lines represent the best fits (see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scheme for time-resolved polarization. P1–P3, Glan prisms; F, filter in the continuum probe; I1, reference beam; I2 and I3, respectively, the rejected and transmitted beams after P3; S, sample; M’s, monochromators; D1–D3, diodes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polarization kinetics for malachite green in water. T is the overall transmission normalized to the case where the polarizers P2 and P3 are parallel. Continuous lines are the best fits (for explanation see the text).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Kinetics of the normalized absorption changes following excitation at 580 nm of HbO2 solution. The induced absorption at 480 nm (dashed-dotted line) shows the presence of a short-lived state (HbI*), which appears in less than 50 fsec and has a lifetime of about 350 fsec. The induced absorption at 431 nm corresponds to the deoxy species (Hb) but appears delayed. The dashed curve represents the computed best fit, giving an Hb appearance time constant of 350 fsec.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time-resolved electron solvation in micellar solutions. Transient absorption at 750 nm shows the hydrated electron appearance in the water phase: A, Rise of absorption showing the ultrafast (<100-fsec) capture of photoelectrons by the water pool in aerosol OT reversed micelles W0 = 28. The dotted curve is the computed best fit. B, Induced-absorption kinetics after photolysis of phenothiazine (1.5 10−4 M) in anionic micelles (sodium lauryl sulfate:.0.1 M). The dashed curve represents the computed best fit, giving a solvated electron appearance time constant of 450 fsec.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Amplitude of polarization rotation of transmitted pulse versus pump test relative delay in GaAs at 77 K. Calculated curves are explained in text.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Time-resolved emission spectra of CuCl at 15 K, taken at different delays from the pump pulse (at 310 nm). The estimated e–h pairs density is n ∼ 1020 cm−3. The dashed curve is the time-integrated emission spectrum.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Transmission electron diffraction pattern of a 150-Å aluminium sample, from a 25-keV electron burst generated by a 100-fsec-duration pulse, at 310-nm wavelength.

Equations (9)

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f i ( t , θ ) = g i ( t ) + h i ( t ) P 2 ( cos θ ) + ,
α i ( ν ) = N [ σ a , i ( ν ) σ e , i ( ν ) ] { g i ( t ) + 2 / 5 h i ( t ) P 2 [ cos ( ψ ) ] } ,
g ˙ i ( t ) = j k i j g j ( t ) ,
h ˙ i ( t ) = j ( k i j 6 D j δ i j ) h j ( t ) ,
g 0 ( 0 ) = 1 a , g 1 ( 0 ) = a ( with a 1 ) ,
h 1 ( 0 ) = h 0 ( 0 ) = 2 a .
ρ = I 3 / I 2 h i 2 ( t ) .
( ρ / ρ 0 ) 1 h ( t ) ,
h ( t ) exp ( t / T ) ,

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