Abstract

We present results of optical measurements that yield clear evidence of localized-plasmon resonances of uniformly sized, submicroscopic structures on a continuous metal surface. Reflectance and inelastic-light-scattering spectra were measured for a silver surface that has randomly located projections, or “bumps,” 60 nm high and 60 nm wide. The reflectance spectra exhibit two absorption bands corresponding to localized plasmons of the silver bumps, which oscillate in directions parallel and perpendicular to the surface. Addition of Rhodamine-dye molecules to the surface yields marked changes in the reflectance spectra. The intensities of the luminescence and the Raman scattering from the dye layer at the surface increase in approximate proportion to the number density of bumps, confirming the role of these bumps as signal amplifiers in the enhancements of the inelastically scattered light. The intensity and the shape of the luminescence spectra depend on the incident and emitted polarizations in a manner that can be qualitatively understood in terms of the polarization dependence of the localized plasmons.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  25. H. Ueba, S. Ichimura, and H. Yamada, “Where are we in the study of SERS? Role of chemisorption and charge transfer,” Surf. Sci. 119, 433–448 (1982).
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  26. S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Lett. 77A, 381–383 (1980).
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  28. D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Enhanced Raman scattering by molecules at the surface of colloidal spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 1777–1790 (1981).
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  30. R. Ruppin, “Electric field enhancement near a surface bump,” Solid State Commun. 39, 903–906 (1981).
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  33. P. C. Das and J. I. Gersten, “Surface shape resonances,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6281–6290 (1982).
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  34. A. Wokaum, J. P. Gordon, and P. F. Liao, “Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957–960 (1982);P. F. Liao and M. B. Stern, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold and aluminum particle arrays,” Opt. Lett. 7, 483–485 (1982).
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  35. K. Arya, R. Zeyher, and A. A. Maradudin, “Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface,” Solid State Commun. 42, 461–464 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  36. P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, and H. Massoudi, “Surface-enhanced electric intensities on large silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997–1000 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  37. M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 8, 581–583 (1983).
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  38. N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Theory of surface-polariton resonances and field enhancements in light scattering from bigratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1240–1248 (1983).
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  39. W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
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  40. C. A. Murray and S. Bodoff, “Depolarization effects in Raman scattering from monolayers on surfaces: the classical microscopic local field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2273–2276 (1984).
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  41. S. S. Jha, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Intensity of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3973–3982 (1980).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  43. D. L. Mills and M. Weber, “Enhanced electric fields near gratings: comments on enhanced Raman scattering from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 1075–1078 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  44. H. Numata, “Contribution to SERS of surface plasmon polariton modes on sinusoidal metal surface,” J. Phys. Sbc. Jpn. 51, 2575–2581 (1982).
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  45. M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
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    [Crossref]
  48. J. A. Creighton, “Metal colloids,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furkas, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 315–337.
    [Crossref]
  49. H. Seki, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine on different silver surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4412–4418 (1982).
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  51. R. M. Hart, J. G. Bergman, and A. Wokaun, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver particles on polymer-replica substrates,” Opt. Lett. 7, 105–107 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics 37, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

1984 (3)

A. Otto, J. Billmann, J. Eickmans, U. Ertürk, and C. Pettenkofer, “The ‘adatom model’ of SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering): the present status,” Surf. Sci. 138, 319–338 (1984).
[Crossref]

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[Crossref]

C. A. Murray and S. Bodoff, “Depolarization effects in Raman scattering from monolayers on surfaces: the classical microscopic local field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2273–2276 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (5)

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, and H. Massoudi, “Surface-enhanced electric intensities on large silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997–1000 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Meier and A. Wokaun, “Enhanced fields on large metal particles: dynamic depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 8, 581–583 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Theory of surface-polariton resonances and field enhancements in light scattering from bigratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1240–1248 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, “The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324–5338 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (11)

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, A. F. Hebard, and F. J. Padden, “Determination of sample morphology of multilayered structures used in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments,” Surf. Sci. 119, 449–478 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. Seki, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine on different silver surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4412–4418 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. M. Hart, J. G. Bergman, and A. Wokaun, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from silver particles on polymer-replica substrates,” Opt. Lett. 7, 105–107 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, “Surface plasmon enhanced Raman spectra of monolayer assemblies,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 2254–2260 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Absorption and luminescence of dye-coated silver and gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2433–2449 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. L. Mills and M. Weber, “Enhanced electric fields near gratings: comments on enhanced Raman scattering from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 1075–1078 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. Numata, “Contribution to SERS of surface plasmon polariton modes on sinusoidal metal surface,” J. Phys. Sbc. Jpn. 51, 2575–2581 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. Ueba, S. Ichimura, and H. Yamada, “Where are we in the study of SERS? Role of chemisorption and charge transfer,” Surf. Sci. 119, 433–448 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. C. Das and J. I. Gersten, “Surface shape resonances,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6281–6290 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. Wokaum, J. P. Gordon, and P. F. Liao, “Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957–960 (1982);P. F. Liao and M. B. Stern, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold and aluminum particle arrays,” Opt. Lett. 7, 483–485 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Arya, R. Zeyher, and A. A. Maradudin, “Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface,” Solid State Commun. 42, 461–464 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (7)

Ph. Avouris and J. E. Demuth, “Electronic excitations of benzine, pyridine, and pyrazine adsorbed on Ag(111),” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4783–4794 (1981).
[Crossref]

R. Ruppin, “Electric field enhancement near a surface bump,” Solid State Commun. 39, 903–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Enhanced Raman scattering by molecules at the surface of colloidal spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 1777–1790 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface enhanced second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. Garoff, D. A. Weitz, T. J. Gramila, and C. D. Hanson, “Optical absorption resonance of dye-coated silver-island films,” Opt. Lett. 6, 245–247 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Ritchie and E. Burstein, “Luminescence of molecules adsorbed at a silver surface,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4843–4846 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (10)

H. G. Craighead and A. M. Glass, “Optical absorption of small metal particles with adsorbed dye coats,” Opt. Lett. 6, 248–250 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, I. Davoli, G. Ritchie, and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering and luminescence by molecules adsorbed on Ag and Au metal island films,” Surf. Sci. 101, 363–366 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, and D. H. Olson, “Interaction of metal particles with adsorbed dye molecules: absorption and luminescence,” Opt. Lett. 5, 368–370 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Sari, D. K. Cohen, and K. D. Scherkoske, “Study of surface plasma wave reflectance and roughness-induced scattering in silver foils,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 2162–2174 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Raman scattering from chemisorbed molecules at surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1660–1662 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980);“Electromagnetic theory: a spheroidal model,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 89–107.
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Lett. 77A, 381–383 (1980).

C. Y. Chen and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering by molecules at metal island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1287–1291 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. S. Jha, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Intensity of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3973–3982 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. I. Gersten, R. L. Birke, and J. R. Lombardi, “Theory of enhanced light scattering from molecules adsorbed at the metal-solution interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 147–150 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. B. Stephens and G. D. Cody, “Inhomogeneous surfaces as selective solar absorbers,” Solar Energy Mater. 1, 397–410 (1979).This reference discusses the use of effective medium theory to formulate the optical properties of rough surfaces produced by the particle-track-etch technique.
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

H. Morawitz and M. R. Philpott, “Coupling of an excited molecule to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 4863–4868 (1974).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, “Influence of surface roughness on the transmission and reflectance spectra of adsorbed species,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, “Study of the interaction of light with rough metal surfaces. I. Experiment; II. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 309–329 (1970).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Anomalous reststrahl structure from slight surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. 163, 855–864 (1967).
[Crossref]

Allara, D. L.

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, A. F. Hebard, and F. J. Padden, “Determination of sample morphology of multilayered structures used in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments,” Surf. Sci. 119, 449–478 (1982).
[Crossref]

Arya, K.

K. Arya, R. Zeyher, and A. A. Maradudin, “Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface,” Solid State Commun. 42, 461–464 (1982).
[Crossref]

Avouris, Ph.

Ph. Avouris and J. E. Demuth, “Electronic excitations of benzine, pyridine, and pyrazine adsorbed on Ag(111),” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4783–4794 (1981).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. W.

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, and H. Massoudi, “Surface-enhanced electric intensities on large silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997–1000 (1983).
[Crossref]

Beaglehole, D.

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, “Study of the interaction of light with rough metal surfaces. I. Experiment; II. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 309–329 (1970).
[Crossref]

Bergman, J. G.

Berreman, D. W.

D. W. Berreman, “Anomalous reststrahl structure from slight surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. 163, 855–864 (1967).
[Crossref]

Billmann, J.

A. Otto, J. Billmann, J. Eickmans, U. Ertürk, and C. Pettenkofer, “The ‘adatom model’ of SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering): the present status,” Surf. Sci. 138, 319–338 (1984).
[Crossref]

Birke, R. L.

J. I. Gersten, R. L. Birke, and J. R. Lombardi, “Theory of enhanced light scattering from molecules adsorbed at the metal-solution interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 147–150 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bodoff, S.

C. A. Murray and S. Bodoff, “Depolarization effects in Raman scattering from monolayers on surfaces: the classical microscopic local field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2273–2276 (1984).
[Crossref]

Burstein, E.

G. Ritchie and E. Burstein, “Luminescence of molecules adsorbed at a silver surface,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4843–4846 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, I. Davoli, G. Ritchie, and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering and luminescence by molecules adsorbed on Ag and Au metal island films,” Surf. Sci. 101, 363–366 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering by molecules at metal island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1287–1291 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. Burstein, S. Lundquist, and D. L. Mills, “The roles of surface roughness,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 67–86.
[Crossref]

E. Burstein and C. Y. Chen, “Raman Scattering by molecules adsorbed at metal surfaces. The role of surface roughness,” in Proceedings of the VIIth International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa, Canada (North-Holland, New York, 1980).

Celli, V.

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics 37, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.
[Crossref]

Chang, R. K.

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, and H. Massoudi, “Surface-enhanced electric intensities on large silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997–1000 (1983).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. K.

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface enhanced second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen, I. Davoli, G. Ritchie, and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering and luminescence by molecules adsorbed on Ag and Au metal island films,” Surf. Sci. 101, 363–366 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering by molecules at metal island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1287–1291 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. Burstein and C. Y. Chen, “Raman Scattering by molecules adsorbed at metal surfaces. The role of surface roughness,” in Proceedings of the VIIth International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, Ottawa, Canada (North-Holland, New York, 1980).

Cody, G. D.

R. B. Stephens and G. D. Cody, “Inhomogeneous surfaces as selective solar absorbers,” Solar Energy Mater. 1, 397–410 (1979).This reference discusses the use of effective medium theory to formulate the optical properties of rough surfaces produced by the particle-track-etch technique.
[Crossref]

Cohen, D. K.

S. O. Sari, D. K. Cohen, and K. D. Scherkoske, “Study of surface plasma wave reflectance and roughness-induced scattering in silver foils,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 2162–2174 (1980).
[Crossref]

Craighead, H. G.

Creighton, J. A.

J. A. Creighton, “Metal colloids,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furkas, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 315–337.
[Crossref]

Das, P. C.

P. C. Das and J. I. Gersten, “Surface shape resonances,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6281–6290 (1982).
[Crossref]

Davoli, I.

C. Y. Chen, I. Davoli, G. Ritchie, and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering and luminescence by molecules adsorbed on Ag and Au metal island films,” Surf. Sci. 101, 363–366 (1980).
[Crossref]

de Castro, A. R. B.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface enhanced second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[Crossref]

Demuth, J. E.

Ph. Avouris and J. E. Demuth, “Electronic excitations of benzine, pyridine, and pyrazine adsorbed on Ag(111),” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4783–4794 (1981).
[Crossref]

Dignam, M. J.

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, “Influence of surface roughness on the transmission and reflectance spectra of adsorbed species,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

Dornhaus, R.

R. Dornhaus, “Surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” in Advances in Solid State Physics, P. Grosse Aachen, ed. (Vieweg, Braunschweig, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982), Vol. 22, pp. 201–228.
[Crossref]

Eickmans, J.

A. Otto, J. Billmann, J. Eickmans, U. Ertürk, and C. Pettenkofer, “The ‘adatom model’ of SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering): the present status,” Surf. Sci. 138, 319–338 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ertürk, U.

A. Otto, J. Billmann, J. Eickmans, U. Ertürk, and C. Pettenkofer, “The ‘adatom model’ of SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering): the present status,” Surf. Sci. 138, 319–338 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, R. L.

R. L. Fleischer, P. B. Price, and R. M. Walker, Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications (U. California Press, Los Angeles, Calif., 1975).

Fleischmann, M.

M. Fleischmann and I. R. Hill, “Electrochemical effects,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 275–292.
[Crossref]

Garoff, S.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, “The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324–5338 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Garoff, D. A. Weitz, T. J. Gramila, and C. D. Hanson, “Optical absorption resonance of dye-coated silver-island films,” Opt. Lett. 6, 245–247 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gersten, J. I.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, “The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324–5338 (1983).
[Crossref]

P. C. Das and J. I. Gersten, “Surface shape resonances,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6281–6290 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980);“Electromagnetic theory: a spheroidal model,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 89–107.
[Crossref]

J. I. Gersten, R. L. Birke, and J. R. Lombardi, “Theory of enhanced light scattering from molecules adsorbed at the metal-solution interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 147–150 (1979).
[Crossref]

Girlando, A.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, “Surface plasmon enhanced Raman spectra of monolayer assemblies,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 2254–2260 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

Glass, A. M.

Glass, N. E.

Gordon, J. P.

A. Wokaum, J. P. Gordon, and P. F. Liao, “Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957–960 (1982);P. F. Liao and M. B. Stern, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold and aluminum particle arrays,” Opt. Lett. 7, 483–485 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramila, T. J.

Hall, D. G.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hanson, C. D.

Hart, R. M.

Hebard, A. F.

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, A. F. Hebard, and F. J. Padden, “Determination of sample morphology of multilayered structures used in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments,” Surf. Sci. 119, 449–478 (1982).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[Crossref]

Heitmann, D.

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

Heritage, J. P.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Glass, “Nonlinear optical effects,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 391–412.
[Crossref]

Hill, I. R.

M. Fleischmann and I. R. Hill, “Electrochemical effects,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 275–292.
[Crossref]

Holland, W. R.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hunderi, O.

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, “Study of the interaction of light with rough metal surfaces. I. Experiment; II. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 309–329 (1970).
[Crossref]

Ichimura, S.

H. Ueba, S. Ichimura, and H. Yamada, “Where are we in the study of SERS? Role of chemisorption and charge transfer,” Surf. Sci. 119, 433–448 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jha, S. S.

S. S. Jha, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Intensity of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3973–3982 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kerker, M.

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Absorption and luminescence of dye-coated silver and gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2433–2449 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Enhanced Raman scattering by molecules at the surface of colloidal spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 1777–1790 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kirtley, J. R.

S. S. Jha, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Intensity of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3973–3982 (1980).
[Crossref]

Knoll, W.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, “Surface plasmon enhanced Raman spectra of monolayer assemblies,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 2254–2260 (1982).
[Crossref]

Liao, P. F.

A. Wokaum, J. P. Gordon, and P. F. Liao, “Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957–960 (1982);P. F. Liao and M. B. Stern, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold and aluminum particle arrays,” Opt. Lett. 7, 483–485 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, and D. H. Olson, “Interaction of metal particles with adsorbed dye molecules: absorption and luminescence,” Opt. Lett. 5, 368–370 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Liao, “Silver structures produced by microlithography,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 379–390.
[Crossref]

Lombardi, J. R.

J. I. Gersten, R. L. Birke, and J. R. Lombardi, “Theory of enhanced light scattering from molecules adsorbed at the metal-solution interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 147–150 (1979).
[Crossref]

Lundquist, S.

E. Burstein, S. Lundquist, and D. L. Mills, “The roles of surface roughness,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 67–86.
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

N. E. Glass, A. A. Maradudin, and V. Celli, “Theory of surface-polariton resonances and field enhancements in light scattering from bigratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1240–1248 (1983).
[Crossref]

K. Arya, R. Zeyher, and A. A. Maradudin, “Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface,” Solid State Commun. 42, 461–464 (1982).
[Crossref]

Massoudi, H.

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, and H. Massoudi, “Surface-enhanced electric intensities on large silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997–1000 (1983).
[Crossref]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Raman scattering from chemisorbed molecules at surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1660–1662 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Lett. 77A, 381–383 (1980).

Meessen, A.

P. Rouard and A. Meessen, “Optical properties of thin metal films” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Vol. 15, pp. 77–137.
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

Mills, D. L.

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. L. Mills and M. Weber, “Enhanced electric fields near gratings: comments on enhanced Raman scattering from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 1075–1078 (1982).
[Crossref]

E. Burstein, S. Lundquist, and D. L. Mills, “The roles of surface roughness,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 67–86.
[Crossref]

Morawitz, H.

H. Morawitz and M. R. Philpott, “Coupling of an excited molecule to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 4863–4868 (1974).
[Crossref]

Moskovits, M.

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, “Influence of surface roughness on the transmission and reflectance spectra of adsorbed species,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

Murray, C. A.

C. A. Murray and S. Bodoff, “Depolarization effects in Raman scattering from monolayers on surfaces: the classical microscopic local field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2273–2276 (1984).
[Crossref]

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, A. F. Hebard, and F. J. Padden, “Determination of sample morphology of multilayered structures used in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments,” Surf. Sci. 119, 449–478 (1982).
[Crossref]

C. A. Murray, “Molecule-silver separation dependence,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 203–221.
[Crossref]

Nitzan, A.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, “The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324–5338 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980);“Electromagnetic theory: a spheroidal model,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 89–107.
[Crossref]

Numata, H.

H. Numata, “Contribution to SERS of surface plasmon polariton modes on sinusoidal metal surface,” J. Phys. Sbc. Jpn. 51, 2575–2581 (1982).
[Crossref]

Olson, D. H.

Otto, A.

A. Otto, J. Billmann, J. Eickmans, U. Ertürk, and C. Pettenkofer, “The ‘adatom model’ of SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering): the present status,” Surf. Sci. 138, 319–338 (1984).
[Crossref]

Padden, F. J.

C. A. Murray, D. L. Allara, A. F. Hebard, and F. J. Padden, “Determination of sample morphology of multilayered structures used in surface enhanced Raman scattering experiments,” Surf. Sci. 119, 449–478 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pettenkofer, C.

A. Otto, J. Billmann, J. Eickmans, U. Ertürk, and C. Pettenkofer, “The ‘adatom model’ of SERS (surface enhanced Raman scattering): the present status,” Surf. Sci. 138, 319–338 (1984).
[Crossref]

Philpott, M. R.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, “Surface plasmon enhanced Raman spectra of monolayer assemblies,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 2254–2260 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Morawitz and M. R. Philpott, “Coupling of an excited molecule to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 4863–4868 (1974).
[Crossref]

Platzman, P. M.

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Raman scattering from chemisorbed molecules at surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1660–1662 (1980).
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Lett. 77A, 381–383 (1980).

Price, P. B.

R. L. Fleischer, P. B. Price, and R. M. Walker, Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications (U. California Press, Los Angeles, Calif., 1975).

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics 37, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.
[Crossref]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, “Surface plasmons and roughness,” pp. 331–403;A. A. Maradudin, “Interaction of surface polaritons and plasmons with surface roughness,”pp. 405–510, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovich and D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982).

Ricard, D.

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, G.

G. Ritchie and E. Burstein, “Luminescence of molecules adsorbed at a silver surface,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4843–4846 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, I. Davoli, G. Ritchie, and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering and luminescence by molecules adsorbed on Ag and Au metal island films,” Surf. Sci. 101, 363–366 (1980).
[Crossref]

Rouard, P.

P. Rouard and A. Meessen, “Optical properties of thin metal films” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977), Vol. 15, pp. 77–137.
[Crossref]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, “Electric field enhancement near a surface bump,” Solid State Commun. 39, 903–906 (1981).
[Crossref]

Santo, R.

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sari, S. O.

S. O. Sari, D. K. Cohen, and K. D. Scherkoske, “Study of surface plasma wave reflectance and roughness-induced scattering in silver foils,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 2162–2174 (1980).
[Crossref]

Schatz, G. C.

G. C. Schatz, “The image field effect: how important is it?” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 35–50.
[Crossref]

Scherkoske, K. D.

S. O. Sari, D. K. Cohen, and K. D. Scherkoske, “Study of surface plasma wave reflectance and roughness-induced scattering in silver foils,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 2162–2174 (1980).
[Crossref]

Seki, H.

H. Seki, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine on different silver surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4412–4418 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface enhanced second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[Crossref]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” in Advances in Chemical Physics 37, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 1–65.
[Crossref]

Stephens, R. B.

R. B. Stephens and G. D. Cody, “Inhomogeneous surfaces as selective solar absorbers,” Solar Energy Mater. 1, 397–410 (1979).This reference discusses the use of effective medium theory to formulate the optical properties of rough surfaces produced by the particle-track-etch technique.
[Crossref]

Swalen, J. D.

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, “Surface plasmon enhanced Raman spectra of monolayer assemblies,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 2254–2260 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tsang, J. C.

S. S. Jha, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Intensity of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3973–3982 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ueba, H.

H. Ueba, S. Ichimura, and H. Yamada, “Where are we in the study of SERS? Role of chemisorption and charge transfer,” Surf. Sci. 119, 433–448 (1982).
[Crossref]

Walker, R. M.

R. L. Fleischer, P. B. Price, and R. M. Walker, Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications (U. California Press, Los Angeles, Calif., 1975).

Wang, D. S.

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Absorption and luminescence of dye-coated silver and gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2433–2449 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Enhanced Raman scattering by molecules at the surface of colloidal spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 1777–1790 (1981).
[Crossref]

Weber, M.

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. L. Mills and M. Weber, “Enhanced electric fields near gratings: comments on enhanced Raman scattering from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 1075–1078 (1982).
[Crossref]

Weitz, D. A.

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, “The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324–5338 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Garoff, D. A. Weitz, T. J. Gramila, and C. D. Hanson, “Optical absorption resonance of dye-coated silver-island films,” Opt. Lett. 6, 245–247 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wokaum, A.

A. Wokaum, J. P. Gordon, and P. F. Liao, “Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957–960 (1982);P. F. Liao and M. B. Stern, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold and aluminum particle arrays,” Opt. Lett. 7, 483–485 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wokaun, A.

Yamada, H.

H. Ueba, S. Ichimura, and H. Yamada, “Where are we in the study of SERS? Role of chemisorption and charge transfer,” Surf. Sci. 119, 433–448 (1982).
[Crossref]

Zeyher, R.

K. Arya, R. Zeyher, and A. A. Maradudin, “Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface,” Solid State Commun. 42, 461–464 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (6)

D. A. Weitz, S. Garoff, J. I. Gersten, and A. Nitzan, “The enhancement of Raman scattering, resonance Raman scattering, and fluorescence from molecules adsorbed on a rough silver surface,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 5324–5338 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Knoll, M. R. Philpott, J. D. Swalen, and A. Girlando, “Surface plasmon enhanced Raman spectra of monolayer assemblies,” J. Chem. Phys. 77, 2254–2260 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ph. Avouris and J. E. Demuth, “Electronic excitations of benzine, pyridine, and pyrazine adsorbed on Ag(111),” J. Chem. Phys. 75, 4783–4794 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. I. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023–3037 (1980);“Electromagnetic theory: a spheroidal model,” in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering, R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1982), pp. 89–107.
[Crossref]

A. Girlando, M. R. Philpott, D. Heitmann, J. D. Swalen, and R. Santo, “Raman spectra of thin organic films enhanced by surface polaritons on holographic metal gratings,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5187–5191 (1980).
[Crossref]

H. Seki, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine on different silver surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4412–4418 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II (1)

M. J. Dignam and M. Moskovits, “Influence of surface roughness on the transmission and reflectance spectra of adsorbed species,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 69, 65 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Sbc. Jpn. (1)

H. Numata, “Contribution to SERS of surface plasmon polariton modes on sinusoidal metal surface,” J. Phys. Sbc. Jpn. 51, 2575–2581 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Lett. (1)

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Lett. 77A, 381–383 (1980).

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. W. Berreman, “Anomalous reststrahl structure from slight surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. 163, 855–864 (1967).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (11)

D. Beaglehole and O. Hunderi, “Study of the interaction of light with rough metal surfaces. I. Experiment; II. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 309–329 (1970).
[Crossref]

S. O. Sari, D. K. Cohen, and K. D. Scherkoske, “Study of surface plasma wave reflectance and roughness-induced scattering in silver foils,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 2162–2174 (1980).
[Crossref]

G. Ritchie and E. Burstein, “Luminescence of molecules adsorbed at a silver surface,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 4843–4846 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. C. Das and J. I. Gersten, “Surface shape resonances,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 6281–6290 (1982).
[Crossref]

S. L. McCall and P. M. Platzman, “Raman scattering from chemisorbed molecules at surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 1660–1662 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Absorption and luminescence of dye-coated silver and gold particles,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 2433–2449 (1982).
[Crossref]

S. S. Jha, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Intensity of Raman scattering from molecules adsorbed on a metallic grating,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 3973–3982 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. L. Mills and M. Weber, “Enhanced electric fields near gratings: comments on enhanced Raman scattering from surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 26, 1075–1078 (1982).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wang and M. Kerker, “Enhanced Raman scattering by molecules at the surface of colloidal spheroids,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 1777–1790 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Weber and D. L. Mills, “Interaction of electromagnetic waves with periodic gratings: enhanced fields and the reflectivity,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 2698–2709 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. Morawitz and M. R. Philpott, “Coupling of an excited molecule to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 10, 4863–4868 (1974).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, and H. Massoudi, “Surface-enhanced electric intensities on large silver spheroids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 997–1000 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[Crossref]

C. A. Murray and S. Bodoff, “Depolarization effects in Raman scattering from monolayers on surfaces: the classical microscopic local field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 2273–2276 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. I. Gersten, R. L. Birke, and J. R. Lombardi, “Theory of enhanced light scattering from molecules adsorbed at the metal-solution interface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 147–150 (1979).
[Crossref]

A. Wokaum, J. P. Gordon, and P. F. Liao, “Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957–960 (1982);P. F. Liao and M. B. Stern, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on gold and aluminum particle arrays,” Opt. Lett. 7, 483–485 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen and E. Burstein, “Giant Raman scattering by molecules at metal island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1287–1291 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. K. Chen, A. R. B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface enhanced second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 145–148 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. K. Chen, T. F. Heinz, D. Ricard, and Y. R. Shen, “Detection of molecular monolayers by optical second harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1010–1012 (1981).
[Crossref]

Solar Energy Mater. (1)

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Solid State Commun. (2)

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Surf. Sci. (4)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM pictures of uranium-shadowed replicas of etched silica plates. Duration of etch and corresponding depth of ion-track-etch pits are a, 45 sec, less than 3 nm; b, 1.5 min, 17 nm; c, 3 min, 60 nm; d, 6 min, 180 nm. Length of shadows is three times actual pit depth; bar at bottom represents 0.1 μm. Samples corresponding to c were used in optical measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental configuration used for reflectance and inelastic-light-scattering measurements of silver surface. Inset represents magnified section of surface with bumps. D, detector used in reflectance measurements; L1 and L2, cylindrical focusing and spherical collecting lenses, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance spectra for s-polarized light, (a) Without dye layer, (b) with dye layer. (These data and those in Fig. 4 are normalized to reflectance of smooth silver–silica interface.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized reflectance spectra for p-polarized light, (a) Without dye layer, (b) with dye layer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Inelastic light-scattering spectra for silver surface with dye layer. Excitation wavelength, 476.5 nm. Lowest curve is spectrum recorded for area of sample without bumps and demonstrates enhancement due to 1-nm background roughness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminescence intensity measured at maximum-intensity point in spectrum (≈540 nm), plotted versus the number density of silver bumps. All data are for p-polarized incident laser light. Open circles, p-polarized emission. Triangles, s-polarized emission. Lowest curve (circles with dots) represents intensity of inelastically scattered light for silver surface without dye layer. Dashed line is intensity measured for sample with dye layer, in area without bumps (i.e., having only the 1-nm background roughness produced by the etching process).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Inelastic-light-scattering spectra recorded for area of surface (area 6) with greatest number density of bumps and with the R6G dye layer for four different combinations of incident- and emitted-light polarizations. The spectra have been corrected for the polarization dependence of the spectrometer response and for differing reflectance losses at the front surface of the silica plate.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Number Densities of 60-nm Bumps on Different Areas of the Silver Surfacea

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