Abstract

Atoms in a thermal beam can be cooled, decelerated, and stopped using the radiation pressure from a nearly resonant laser beam. Several groups have already used this laser-cooling process on an atomic sodium beam. The techniques and results of the various experimental groups are reviewed, and applications of laser-cooled atoms, in particular the possibility of confining them in electromagnetic traps, are discussed.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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1985 (7)

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1707 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Javanainen, M. Kaivola, U. Nielsen, O. Poulsen, and E. Riis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1768 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. Hall, and M. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dalibard and W. D. Phillips, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 748 (1985).

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (15)

R. Blatt, W. Ertmer, and J. L. HallProg. Quantum Electron. 8, 237 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 142 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, and J. Hall, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 249 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 154 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Phys. B 17, 4577 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan and W. D. Phillips, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 231 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 137 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 119 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 1 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. S. Lubell and K. Rubin, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 223 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 125 (1983).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and T. V. Zueva, Appl. Phys. B 35, 149 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A-I. Sidorov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 251 (1984).

J. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, J. Dalibard, and H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(822) 1984.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Opt. Commun. 49, 248 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 86, 2019 (1984).

W. Stwalley, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 203 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 95 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, Opt. Lett. 9, 454 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 169 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 59 (1983).
[Crossref]

L. Moi, Opt. Commun. 50, 349 (1984); J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, Opt. Commun. 52, 131 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (7)

E. Giacombino and et al., Phys. Rev. A 28, 2555 (1983); E. Giabobino and P. A. Berman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 215 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 112 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983); Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 209 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 103 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 357 (1983).
[Crossref]

P. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2513 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin and J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 8, 511 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 395 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (5)

R. Cook and R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

V. G. Minogin, Kvantovaya Electron. (Moscow) 9, 505 (1982) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 299 (1982)].

V. G. Minogin and J. Javanainen, Opt. Commun. 43, 119 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (9)

R. Cook, Opt. Commun. 35, 347 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 463 (1981) [JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)].

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, J. Phys. 42, C8-374 (1981).

W. D. Phillips, Appl. Opt. 20, 3826 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, Phys. Rep. 73, 1 (1981). Much of the early work on laser trapping and cooling is reviewed in this paper.
[Crossref]

N. Djeu and W. T. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 236 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. Breeden and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1726 (1981).
[Crossref]

T. V. Zueva and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 7, 953 (1981) [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 411 (1981)].

T. V. Zueva, V. S. Ketokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 84 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 38 (1981)].

1980 (9)

V. G. Minogin, Opt. Commun. 34, 265 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980). This contains references to early work on both atom trapping and trapping of macroscopic particles.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 631 (1980); Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 181 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 74 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 976 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1078 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1606 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 78, 1376 (1980) [Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692 (1980)].

V. I. Balykin, Opt. Commun. 33, 31 (1980).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (3)

A. Ashkin and J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 4, 161 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 614 (1979) [JETP Lett. 29, 560 (1979)].

D. Wineland and W. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (9)

P. R. Berman and S. Stenholm, Opt. Commun. 24, 155 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. Wineland, R. Drullinger, and F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

A. P. Kazantsev, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 124, 113 (1978) Sov. Phys. Usp. 21, 58 (1978)].

S. Stenholm, Phys. Rep. 43, 151 (1978). Section 6 contains an early review of mechanical effects of light.
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, and D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. J. Kugler, W. Paul, and U. Trinks, Phys. Lett. 72B, 422 (1978).

W. Paul and U. Trinks, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 42, p. 18 (1978).

1976 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and B. D. Pavlik, Opt. Commun. 19, 72 (1976). This proposal was made in connection with cooling of trapped atoms.
[Crossref]

1975 (3)

T. Hänsch and A. Schawlow, Opt. Commun. 13, 68 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

W. Fairbank, T. Hänsch, and A. Schawlow, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 199 (1975).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970); Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1321 (1970).
[Crossref]

I. V. Krasnov and N. Ya. Shaparev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 77, 899 (1970) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 453 (1979)].

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 7, 348 (1968) [JETP Lett. 7, 272 (1968)].

1967 (1)

H. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

C. V. Heer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 532 (1963).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

V. V. Vladimirskii, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 39, 1062 (1960) [Sov. Phys. JETP 12, 740 (1961)].

1959 (1)

E. Fischer, Z. Phys. 156, 1 (1959); R. Wuenker, H. Shelton, and R. V. Langmuir, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1958).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

H. Friedburg and W. Paul, Naturwissenschaften 38, 159 (1951); Z. Phys. 130, 493 (1951).
[Crossref]

1950 (1)

A. Kastler, J. Phys. Rad. 11, 255 (1950).
[Crossref]

1933 (1)

R. Frisch, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933).
[Crossref]

1921 (1)

O. Stern, Z. Phys. 7, 249 (1921); W. Gerlach and O. Stern, Ann. Phy. 74, 673 (1924); Ann. Phy. 76, 163 (1925).
[Crossref]

Aminoff, C. G.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Andreev, S. V.

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 463 (1981) [JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)].

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Opt. Lett. 9, 454 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 8, 511 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980). This contains references to early work on both atom trapping and trapping of macroscopic particles.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1606 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin and J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 4, 161 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, and D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970); Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1321 (1970).
[Crossref]

Atlas, S. R.

P. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[Crossref]

Balykin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Opt. Commun. 49, 248 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 86, 2019 (1984).

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and T. V. Zueva, Appl. Phys. B 35, 149 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A-I. Sidorov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 251 (1984).

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 463 (1981) [JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)].

V. I. Balykin, Opt. Commun. 33, 31 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 78, 1376 (1980) [Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692 (1980)].

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 614 (1979) [JETP Lett. 29, 560 (1979)].

Barger, R. L.

J. C. Berquist, R. L. Barger, and D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walther and K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 120; R. L. Barger, Opt. Lett. 6, 145 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergeman, T.

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bergeman and H. Metcalf, presented at the Ninth Interntional Conference on Atomic Physics, Seattle, Wash., July 23–27, 1984 (preprint, R. S. VanDyck and E. N. Fortson, eds.)

Berman, P. R.

P. R. Berman and S. Stenholm, Opt. Commun. 24, 155 (1978).
[Crossref]

Berquist, J. C.

J. C. Berquist, R. L. Barger, and D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walther and K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 120; R. L. Barger, Opt. Lett. 6, 145 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, and D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978).
[Crossref]

Blatt, R.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. Hall, and M. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Blatt, W. Ertmer, and J. L. HallProg. Quantum Electron. 8, 237 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 142 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, and J. Hall, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 249 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 154 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Breeden, T.

T. Breeden and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1726 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cable, A.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1707 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Phys. B 17, 4577 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 395 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 357 (1983).
[Crossref]

Cook, R.

R. Cook and R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. Cook, Opt. Commun. 35, 347 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cook, R. J.

R. J. Cook, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 976 (1980).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1078 (1980).
[Crossref]

Dalibard, J.

J. Dalibard and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1707 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dalibard and W. D. Phillips, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 748 (1985).

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Phys. B 17, 4577 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, J. Dalibard, and H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(822) 1984.

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 357 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 395 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, École Normale Supérieure, Paris (personal communication, 1984).

Dehmelt, H.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

H. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967).
[Crossref]

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N. Djeu and W. T. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 236 (1981).
[Crossref]

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D. Wineland, R. Drullinger, and F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

Edge, C.

C. Edge, University of Virginia (personal communication, 1985).

Ertmer, W.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. Hall, and M. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Blatt, W. Ertmer, and J. L. HallProg. Quantum Electron. 8, 237 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 142 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, and J. Hall, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 249 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 154 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Fairbank, W.

Fischer, E.

E. Fischer, Z. Phys. 156, 1 (1959); R. Wuenker, H. Shelton, and R. V. Langmuir, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1958).
[Crossref]

Freeman, R. R.

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, and D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978).
[Crossref]

Friedburg, H.

H. Friedburg and W. Paul, Naturwissenschaften 38, 159 (1951); Z. Phys. 130, 493 (1951).
[Crossref]

Frisch, R.

R. Frisch, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933).
[Crossref]

Giacombino, E.

E. Giacombino and et al., Phys. Rev. A 28, 2555 (1983); E. Giabobino and P. A. Berman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 215 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Glaze, D. J.

J. C. Berquist, R. L. Barger, and D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walther and K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 120; R. L. Barger, Opt. Lett. 6, 145 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. P.

Gould, P. L.

P. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hall, J.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. Hall, and M. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, and J. Hall, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 249 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 154 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Hall, J. L.

R. Blatt, W. Ertmer, and J. L. HallProg. Quantum Electron. 8, 237 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 142 (1983).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T.

Hansen, F. C.

F. C. Hansen and K. Harvey, University of Michigan (personal communication, 1984).

Harvey, K.

F. C. Hansen and K. Harvey, University of Michigan (personal communication, 1984).

Heer, C. V.

C. V. Heer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 532 (1963).
[Crossref]

Hill, R.

R. Cook and R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hohenstatt, M.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itano, W.

D. Wineland and W. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521 (1979).
[Crossref]

Javanainen, J.

Kaivola, M.

Kastler, A.

A. Kastler, J. Phys. Rad. 11, 255 (1950).
[Crossref]

Kazantsev, A. P.

A. P. Kazantsev, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 124, 113 (1978) Sov. Phys. Usp. 21, 58 (1978)].

Ketokhov, V. S.

T. V. Zueva, V. S. Ketokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 84 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 38 (1981)].

Krasnov, I. V.

I. V. Krasnov and N. Ya. Shaparev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 77, 899 (1970) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 453 (1979)].

Kugler, K. J.

K. J. Kugler, W. Paul, and U. Trinks, Phys. Lett. 72B, 422 (1978).

Letokhov, V. S.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Opt. Commun. 49, 248 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 86, 2019 (1984).

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A-I. Sidorov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 251 (1984).

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and T. V. Zueva, Appl. Phys. B 35, 149 (1984).
[Crossref]

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 463 (1981) [JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)].

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, Phys. Rep. 73, 1 (1981). Much of the early work on laser trapping and cooling is reviewed in this paper.
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, J. Phys. 42, C8-374 (1981).

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 78, 1376 (1980) [Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692 (1980)].

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 614 (1979) [JETP Lett. 29, 560 (1979)].

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and B. D. Pavlik, Opt. Commun. 19, 72 (1976). This proposal was made in connection with cooling of trapped atoms.
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov, Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 7, 348 (1968) [JETP Lett. 7, 272 (1968)].

Lubell, M. S.

M. S. Lubell and K. Rubin, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 223 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 125 (1983).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, H.

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, J. Dalibard, and H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(822) 1984.

H. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 169 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 59 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

T. Breeden and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1726 (1981).
[Crossref]

H. Metcalf, W. Phillips, and J. Prodan, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(795) 1984.

T. Bergeman and H. Metcalf, presented at the Ninth Interntional Conference on Atomic Physics, Seattle, Wash., July 23–27, 1984 (preprint, R. S. VanDyck and E. N. Fortson, eds.)

Metcalf, H. J.

W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 119 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 1 (1983).
[Crossref]

Migdall, A.

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Migdall, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 1983).

A. Migdall, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 1985).

Minogin, V. G.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and T. V. Zueva, Appl. Phys. B 35, 149 (1984).
[Crossref]

V. G. Minogin, Kvantovaya Electron. (Moscow) 9, 505 (1982) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 299 (1982)].

V. G. Minogin and J. Javanainen, Opt. Commun. 43, 119 (1982).
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, J. Phys. 42, C8-374 (1981).

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 463 (1981) [JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)].

T. V. Zueva, V. S. Ketokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 84 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 38 (1981)].

T. V. Zueva and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 7, 953 (1981) [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 411 (1981)].

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, Phys. Rep. 73, 1 (1981). Much of the early work on laser trapping and cooling is reviewed in this paper.
[Crossref]

V. G. Minogin, Opt. Commun. 34, 265 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and B. D. Pavlik, Opt. Commun. 19, 72 (1976). This proposal was made in connection with cooling of trapped atoms.
[Crossref]

Moi, L.

L. Moi, Opt. Commun. 50, 349 (1984); J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, Opt. Commun. 52, 131 (1985).
[Crossref]

Moskowitz, P.

P. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[Crossref]

Mushin, V. I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 78, 1376 (1980) [Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692 (1980)].

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 614 (1979) [JETP Lett. 29, 560 (1979)].

Neuhauser, W.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Niehues, N.

N. Niehues, thesis, Universität Bonn (Bonn-IR-76-35) (1976), unpublished; B. Martin, thesis, Universität Bonn (Bonn-IR-75-8) (1975), unpublished. Martin saw some indications of magnetic trapping.

Nielsen, U.

Paul, W.

K. J. Kugler, W. Paul, and U. Trinks, Phys. Lett. 72B, 422 (1978).

W. Paul and U. Trinks, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 42, p. 18 (1978).

H. Friedburg and W. Paul, Naturwissenschaften 38, 159 (1951); Z. Phys. 130, 493 (1951).
[Crossref]

W. Paul, Universität Bonn (personal communication, 1985).

Pavlik, B. D.

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and B. D. Pavlik, Opt. Commun. 19, 72 (1976). This proposal was made in connection with cooling of trapped atoms.
[Crossref]

Pearson, D. B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, and D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978).
[Crossref]

Phillips, W.

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Metcalf, W. Phillips, and J. Prodan, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(795) 1984.

Phillips, W. D.

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dalibard and W. D. Phillips, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 748 (1985).

J. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, J. Dalibard, and H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(822) 1984.

J. V. Prodan and W. D. Phillips, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 231 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 137 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 119 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 1 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips, Appl. Opt. 20, 3826 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Phillips and J. V. Prodan in Coherence and Quantum Optics V, L. Mandel and E. Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), p. 15; W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, in Laser Spectroscopy VI, H. P. Weber and W. Luthy, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 162.
[Crossref]

Poulsen, O.

Pritchard, D. E.

P. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983); Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 209 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 103 (1983).
[Crossref]

Prodan, J.

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, J. Dalibard, and H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(822) 1984.

H. Metcalf, W. Phillips, and J. Prodan, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(795) 1984.

Prodan, J. V.

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Prodan and W. D. Phillips, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 231 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 137 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 119 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 1 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips and J. V. Prodan in Coherence and Quantum Optics V, L. Mandel and E. Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), p. 15; W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, in Laser Spectroscopy VI, H. P. Weber and W. Luthy, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 162.
[Crossref]

Reynaud, S.

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Phys. B 17, 4577 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 395 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 357 (1983).
[Crossref]

Riis, E.

Rubin, K.

M. S. Lubell and K. Rubin, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 223 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 125 (1983).
[Crossref]

Salamon, C.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Schawlow, A.

Shaparev, N. Ya.

I. V. Krasnov and N. Ya. Shaparev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 77, 899 (1970) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 453 (1979)].

Sidorov, A. I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 86, 2019 (1984).

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Opt. Commun. 49, 248 (1984).
[Crossref]

Sidorov, A-I.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A-I. Sidorov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 251 (1984).

Snyder, J. J.

J. J. Snyder, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 1981).

So, I.

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenholm, S.

S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2513 (1983).
[Crossref]

S. Stenholm, Phys. Rep. 43, 151 (1978). Section 6 contains an early review of mechanical effects of light.
[Crossref]

P. R. Berman and S. Stenholm, Opt. Commun. 24, 155 (1978).
[Crossref]

Stern, O.

O. Stern, Z. Phys. 7, 249 (1921); W. Gerlach and O. Stern, Ann. Phy. 74, 673 (1924); Ann. Phy. 76, 163 (1925).
[Crossref]

Stwalley, W.

W. Stwalley, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 203 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 95 (1983).
[Crossref]

Toschek, P.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

Toschek, P. E.

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[Crossref]

Trinks, U.

W. Paul and U. Trinks, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 42, p. 18 (1978).

K. J. Kugler, W. Paul, and U. Trinks, Phys. Lett. 72B, 422 (1978).

Vladimirskii, V. V.

V. V. Vladimirskii, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 39, 1062 (1960) [Sov. Phys. JETP 12, 740 (1961)].

Walls, F.

D. Wineland, R. Drullinger, and F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

Whitney, W. T.

N. Djeu and W. T. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 236 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wineland, D.

D. Wineland and W. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. Wineland, R. Drullinger, and F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

Wing, W.

W. Wing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 631 (1980); Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 181 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 74 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. Hall, and M. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Zorn, J.

J. Zorn, presented at Ninth International Conference on Atomic Physics, Seattle, Wash., July 23–27, 1984 (preprint, R. S. Van-Dyck and E. N. Fortson, eds., p. B22).

Zueva, T. V.

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and T. V. Zueva, Appl. Phys. B 35, 149 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. V. Zueva and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 7, 953 (1981) [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 411 (1981)].

T. V. Zueva, V. S. Ketokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 84 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 38 (1981)].

Adv. At. Mol. Phys. (1)

H. Dehmelt, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 3, 53 (1967).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and T. V. Zueva, Appl. Phys. B 35, 149 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (4)

J. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, J. Dalibard, and H. Metcalf, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(822) 1984.

H. Metcalf, W. Phillips, and J. Prodan, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 29(795) 1984.

D. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 637 (1975).

J. Dalibard and W. D. Phillips, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 748 (1985).

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 42 (1)

W. Paul and U. Trinks, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 42, p. 18 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. (1)

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, J. Phys. 42, C8-374 (1981).

J. Phys. B (1)

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, J. Phys. B 17, 4577 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

A. Kastler, J. Phys. Rad. 11, 255 (1950).
[Crossref]

Kvantovaya Electron. (Moscow) (1)

V. G. Minogin, Kvantovaya Electron. (Moscow) 9, 505 (1982) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 299 (1982)].

Naturwissenschaften (1)

H. Friedburg and W. Paul, Naturwissenschaften 38, 159 (1951); Z. Phys. 130, 493 (1951).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (12)

R. Cook, Opt. Commun. 35, 347 (1981).
[Crossref]

L. Moi, Opt. Commun. 50, 349 (1984); J. Liang, L. Moi, and C. Fabre, Opt. Commun. 52, 131 (1985).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, Opt. Commun. 33, 31 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Opt. Commun. 49, 248 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 357 (1983).
[Crossref]

T. Hänsch and A. Schawlow, Opt. Commun. 13, 68 (1975).
[Crossref]

P. R. Berman and S. Stenholm, Opt. Commun. 24, 155 (1978).
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov, V. G. Minogin, and B. D. Pavlik, Opt. Commun. 19, 72 (1976). This proposal was made in connection with cooling of trapped atoms.
[Crossref]

V. G. Minogin, Opt. Commun. 34, 265 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. G. Minogin and J. Javanainen, Opt. Commun. 43, 119 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Dalibard, S. Reynaud, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Opt. Commun. 47, 395 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Cook and R. Hill, Opt. Commun. 43, 258 (1982).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Lett. (1)

K. J. Kugler, W. Paul, and U. Trinks, Phys. Lett. 72B, 422 (1978).

Phys. Rep. (2)

S. Stenholm, Phys. Rep. 43, 151 (1978). Section 6 contains an early review of mechanical effects of light.
[Crossref]

V. S. Letokhov and V. G. Minogin, Phys. Rep. 73, 1 (1981). Much of the early work on laser trapping and cooling is reviewed in this paper.
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

D. Wineland and W. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521 (1979).
[Crossref]

S. Stenholm, Phys. Rev. A 27, 2513 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1078 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. P. Gordon and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. A 21, 1606 (1980).
[Crossref]

E. Giacombino and et al., Phys. Rev. A 28, 2555 (1983); E. Giabobino and P. A. Berman, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 215 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 112 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. E. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. A 22, 1137 (1980).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (17)

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, and A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Breeden and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1726 (1981).
[Crossref]

N. Djeu and W. T. Whitney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 236 (1981).
[Crossref]

D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1336 (1983); Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 209 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 103 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Wing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 631 (1980); Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 181 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 74 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. Wineland, R. Drullinger, and F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 1639 (1978).
[Crossref]

W. Neuhauser, M. Hohenstatt, P. Toschek, and H. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 233 (1978).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970); Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1321 (1970).
[Crossref]

R. J. Cook, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 976 (1980).
[Crossref]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 729 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bjorkholm, R. R. Freeman, A. Ashkin, and D. B. Pearson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1361 (1978).
[Crossref]

P. Moskowitz, P. L. Gould, S. R. Atlas, and D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 370 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. Migdall, J. Prodan, W. Phillips, T. Bergeman, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 2596 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan, W. D. Phillips, and H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1149 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. Hall, and M. Zhu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. V. Prodan, A. Migdall, W. D. Phillips, I. So, H. Metcalf, and J. Dalibard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (3)

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A-I. Sidorov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 40, 251 (1984).

S. V. Andreev, V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 463 (1981) [JETP Lett. 34, 442 (1981)].

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 29, 614 (1979) [JETP Lett. 29, 560 (1979)].

Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (1)

T. V. Zueva and V. G. Minogin, Pis’ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 7, 953 (1981) [Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 7, 411 (1981)].

Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. S. Letokhov, Pisma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 7, 348 (1968) [JETP Lett. 7, 272 (1968)].

Prog. Quantum Electron. (7)

W. Stwalley, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 203 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 95 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 169 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 59 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 119 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 1 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. S. Lubell and K. Rubin, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 223 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 125 (1983).
[Crossref]

R. Blatt, W. Ertmer, and J. L. HallProg. Quantum Electron. 8, 237 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 142 (1983).
[Crossref]

J. V. Prodan and W. D. Phillips, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 231 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ.653, 137 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, and J. Hall, Prog. Quantum Electron. 8, 249 (1984); in Laser-Cooled and Trapped Atoms, W. D. Phillips, ed., Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 653, 154 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. V. Heer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 34, 532 (1963).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980). This contains references to early work on both atom trapping and trapping of macroscopic particles.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Usp. Fiz. Nauk (1)

A. P. Kazantsev, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 124, 113 (1978) Sov. Phys. Usp. 21, 58 (1978)].

Z. Phys. (3)

R. Frisch, Z. Phys. 86, 42 (1933).
[Crossref]

O. Stern, Z. Phys. 7, 249 (1921); W. Gerlach and O. Stern, Ann. Phy. 74, 673 (1924); Ann. Phy. 76, 163 (1925).
[Crossref]

E. Fischer, Z. Phys. 156, 1 (1959); R. Wuenker, H. Shelton, and R. V. Langmuir, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 342 (1958).
[Crossref]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (5)

V. V. Vladimirskii, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 39, 1062 (1960) [Sov. Phys. JETP 12, 740 (1961)].

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and A. I. Sidorov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 86, 2019 (1984).

V. I. Balykin, V. S. Letokhov, and V. I. Mushin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 78, 1376 (1980) [Sov. Phys. JETP 51, 692 (1980)].

T. V. Zueva, V. S. Ketokhov, and V. G. Minogin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 81, 84 (1981) [Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 38 (1981)].

I. V. Krasnov and N. Ya. Shaparev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 77, 899 (1970) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 453 (1979)].

Other (14)

F. C. Hansen and K. Harvey, University of Michigan (personal communication, 1984).

J. Zorn, presented at Ninth International Conference on Atomic Physics, Seattle, Wash., July 23–27, 1984 (preprint, R. S. Van-Dyck and E. N. Fortson, eds., p. B22).

N. Niehues, thesis, Universität Bonn (Bonn-IR-76-35) (1976), unpublished; B. Martin, thesis, Universität Bonn (Bonn-IR-75-8) (1975), unpublished. Martin saw some indications of magnetic trapping.

A. Migdall, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 1983).

J. J. Snyder, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 1981).

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, C. G. Aminoff, M. Zhu, C. Salamon, and J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

J. C. Berquist, R. L. Barger, and D. J. Glaze, in Laser Spectroscopy IV, H. Walther and K. Rothe, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1979), p. 120; R. L. Barger, Opt. Lett. 6, 145 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Phillips and J. V. Prodan in Coherence and Quantum Optics V, L. Mandel and E. Wolf, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), p. 15; W. D. Phillips, J. V. Prodan, and H. J. Metcalf, in Laser Spectroscopy VI, H. P. Weber and W. Luthy, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), p. 162.
[Crossref]

A. Migdall, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md. (personal communication, 1985).

J. Dalibard, École Normale Supérieure, Paris (personal communication, 1984).

The placement of the coils at 30-deg latitudes, as indicated in some papers, does not produce zero field at the origin unless the currents are unequal. It is a simple exercise to determine the optimal placements and currents for particular application.

W. Paul, Universität Bonn (personal communication, 1985).

T. Bergeman and H. Metcalf, presented at the Ninth Interntional Conference on Atomic Physics, Seattle, Wash., July 23–27, 1984 (preprint, R. S. VanDyck and E. N. Fortson, eds.)

C. Edge, University of Virginia (personal communication, 1985).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Na energy-level diagram (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Na energy levels in a magnetic field (not to scale). The nuclear quantum number mI = mFmJ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified schematic of Balykin et al. apparatus.36 The reference beam crosses the laser at right angles and provides a calibration marker for the laser scan.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apparatus of Andreev et al.38

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Deceleration and cooling similar to that observed by Andreev et al. using the nonresonant technique. Dashed curve is the atomic velocity distribution before cooling; solid curve is after cooling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The apparatus of the present authors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Timing diagrams for prompt observation of (a) cooled atoms, (b) delayed observation, and (c) postcooling.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results of Zeeman-tuned cooling. Arrow indicates the highest velocity resonant with the cooling laser. The velocity scale refers only to F = 2 atoms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Laser-cooled velocity distributions for different laser tunings. The highest velocity resonant with the laser in each case is indicated by the arrows. Trace (g) is the uncooled velocity distribution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Velocity distributions obtained with Zeeman-tuned cooling and delayed observation. The delay times are indicated for each curve.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Effect of postcooling after a 10-msec delay. The sloping baseline is from the uncooled thermal distribution, Zeeman shifted into resonance with the probe.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Velocity changes versus laser tuning for postcooling after a 6-msec delay. The arrow indicates the frequency that is resonant with the atomic velocity before postcooling.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Chirp-cooled velocity distribution (solid line) compared with the uncooled thermal distribution (dashed line).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Apparatus of the NBS—JILA group.56

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Chirped-cooling results of the NBS–JILA group.56 The velocity scale is for the F = 2 atoms only.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Optical trap formed from two opposed, diverging laser beams with Gaussian intensity profiles. When tuned below resonance the trap provides transverse confinement by the dipole force. Longitudinal confinement is from radiation pressure.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a max = Δ v / 2 τ = h ν / 2 M c τ 10 6 m / sec 2 .
v ( z ) = ( v 0 2 - 2 a z ) 1 / 2 .
B ( z ) = B 0 ( 1 - x ) 1 / 2 ,             x = 2 a z / v 0 2 ,
d ν d B d B d z · v a max / λ ,
μ r c ( d B / d r ) v 0 r c , r c 2 v 0 μ ( d B / d r ) ,
r 3 2 μ ( d B / d r ) M ,
n v A 4 = n V τ dif
n n = v A τ dif 4 V = 3 v r 4 v c 2 τ cool ,

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