Abstract

A short discussion of the properties of far-infrared (FIR) lasers shows that these are suitable systems to observe instabilities and chaos. Experiments on 15NH3 FIR waveguide lasers show a single-mode self-pulsing instability and period doubling. A CH2F2 Fabry–Perot resonator laser shows the same single-mode self-pulsing, period-doubling, and chaotic emission. The experiments are done at relatively high pressure, at which inhomogeneous broadening can occur only through the ac-Stark effect. Qualitatively, the observations agree with theoretical model calculations.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. O. Weiss, H. King, Opt. Commun. 44, 59–61 (1982);C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, A. Olafsson, Phys. Rev. A 28, 892–895 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. O. Weiss, M. Fourrier, G. Gastaud, M. Redon, in Review of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 277–335.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Haken, Phys. Lett. 53A, 77–78 (1975).
  4. C. O. Weiss, W. Klische, Opt. Commun. 51, 47 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. W. Casperson, in Laser Physics, Vol. 182 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 88–106.
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lefebvre, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 29, 758–767 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 705–707 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, J. O. Hennigsen, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 105–150.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Reid, K. Siemsen, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2712–2717 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 222–223 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Lugiato, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy (personal communication).
  15. J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 590–592 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, Appl. Phys. B. (to be published).

1985 (1)

N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

C. O. Weiss, W. Klische, Opt. Commun. 51, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Lefebvre, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 29, 758–767 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

C. O. Weiss, H. King, Opt. Commun. 44, 59–61 (1982);C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, A. Olafsson, Phys. Rev. A 28, 892–895 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 705–707 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 590–592 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 222–223 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

J. Reid, K. Siemsen, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2712–2717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. Haken, Phys. Lett. 53A, 77–78 (1975).

Abdul-Halim, I.

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, N. B.

N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Casperson, L. W.

L. W. Casperson, in Laser Physics, Vol. 182 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 88–106.
[CrossRef]

Dangoisse, D.

N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Lefebvre, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 29, 758–767 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Danielewicz, E. J.

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 705–707 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 222–223 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fourrier, M.

C. O. Weiss, M. Fourrier, G. Gastaud, M. Redon, in Review of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 277–335.
[CrossRef]

Gastaud, G.

C. O. Weiss, M. Fourrier, G. Gastaud, M. Redon, in Review of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 277–335.
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, P.

N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Lefebvre, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 29, 758–767 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, Appl. Phys. B. (to be published).

Haken, H.

H. Haken, Phys. Lett. 53A, 77–78 (1975).

Hennigsen, J. O.

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, J. O. Hennigsen, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 105–150.
[CrossRef]

Heppner, J.

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 590–592 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, U.

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, J. O. Hennigsen, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 105–150.
[CrossRef]

King, H.

C. O. Weiss, H. King, Opt. Commun. 44, 59–61 (1982);C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, A. Olafsson, Phys. Rev. A 28, 892–895 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Klische, W.

C. O. Weiss, W. Klische, Opt. Commun. 51, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lefebvre, M.

M. Lefebvre, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 29, 758–767 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lugiato, L.

L. Lugiato, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy (personal communication).

Mandel, P.

N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marx, R.

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y. C.

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Redon, M.

C. O. Weiss, M. Fourrier, G. Gastaud, M. Redon, in Review of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 277–335.
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

J. Reid, K. Siemsen, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2712–2717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Schinn, G.

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Siemsen, K.

J. Reid, K. Siemsen, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2712–2717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Strumia, F.

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, J. O. Hennigsen, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 105–150.
[CrossRef]

Weiss, C. O.

C. O. Weiss, W. Klische, Opt. Commun. 51, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Weiss, H. King, Opt. Commun. 44, 59–61 (1982);C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, A. Olafsson, Phys. Rev. A 28, 892–895 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 590–592 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 222–223 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 705–707 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, Appl. Phys. B. (to be published).

C. O. Weiss, M. Fourrier, G. Gastaud, M. Redon, in Review of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 277–335.
[CrossRef]

Willenberg, G. D.

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 590–592 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 222–223 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Heppner, C. O. Weiss, U. Hübner, G. Schinn, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 392–402 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Marx, U. Hübner, I. Abdul-Halim, J. Heppner, Y. C. Ni, G. D. Willenberg, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1123–1127 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Danielewicz, C. O. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 705–707 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Reid, K. Siemsen, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 2712–2717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.Soc. Am. B (1)

N. B. Abraham, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, P. Mandel, J. Opt.Soc. Am. B 2, 23–34 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. O. Weiss, H. King, Opt. Commun. 44, 59–61 (1982);C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, A. Olafsson, Phys. Rev. A 28, 892–895 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Weiss, W. Klische, Opt. Commun. 51, 47 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Haken, Phys. Lett. 53A, 77–78 (1975).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Lefebvre, D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, Phys. Rev. A 29, 758–767 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

L. Lugiato, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy (personal communication).

C. O. Weiss, A. Godone, Appl. Phys. B. (to be published).

L. W. Casperson, in Laser Physics, Vol. 182 of Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983), pp. 88–106.
[CrossRef]

C. O. Weiss, M. Fourrier, G. Gastaud, M. Redon, in Review of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 277–335.
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, J. O. Hennigsen, in Reviews of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. II, Optically Pumped Far Infrared Lasers, K. J. Button, M. Inguscio, F. Strumia, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1984), pp. 105–150.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup to observe FIR-laser instabilities: SD, Schottky diode, 1-μm diameter; G, Golay cell; D, fast HgCdTe detector; Gr, diffraction grating; R, reststrahlen plate (CsBr); solid lines, pump radiation; dashed lines, FIR radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Period-doubled self-pulsing instability in a 15NH3 FIR laser: NH3 pressure, 15 Pa; pump power, 10 W. Pulsing spectrum is shown.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-pulsing instability in the 117-μm CH2F2 FIR laser: (a) time picture of self-pulsing, (b) spectrum of (a), (c) period-doubled self-pulsing, (d) spectrum of (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transition to chaos in the 117-μm CH2F2 FIR laser observed when the pump rate is increased: (a) spectrum of self-pulsing, (b) period-doubled state, (c) chaotic emission.

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