Abstract

Pump–probe experiments are used as a controllable way to investigate the properties of photoexcited semiconductors, in particular, the absorption saturation. We present an experiment–theory comparison for ZnSe quantum wells, investigating the energy renormalization and bleaching of the excitonic resonances. Experiments were performed with spin-selective excitation and above-bandgap pumping. The model, based on the semiconductor Bloch equations in the screened Hartree–Fock approximation, takes various scattering processes into account phenomenologically. Comparing numerical results with available experimental data, we explain the experimental results and find that the electron spin-flip occurs on a time scale of 30 ps.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), and references therein.
  2. W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).
  3. S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, and H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Binder, I. Galbraith, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of band-edge optical nonlinearities in type-I and type-II quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3031–3042 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Ell, R. Blank, S. Benner, and H. Haug, “Simplified calculations of the optical spectra of two- and three-dimensional laser-excited semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2006–2012 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Shah, ed., Hot Carriers in Semiconductor Nanostructures: Physics and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).
  9. R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. C. Scott, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast dephasing through acoustic plasmon undamping in nonequilibrium electron–hole plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 347–350 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast intensity switching and nonthermal carrier effects in semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2278–2280 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory for semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1712–1727 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. J. Elliott, “Theory of the effect of spin–orbit coupling on magnetic resonance in some semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 96, 266–279 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Yaffet, Solid State Physics (Academic, New York, 1963).
  15. M. I. D’Yakonov and V. I. Perel, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1053–1073 (1971).
  16. T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Spin-flip scattering of holes in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9687–9691 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Rosencher and B. Vinter, Optoélectronique (Thomson-CSF/Masson, Paris, 1998).
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  22. G. Bastard, Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures (Éditions Physique, Les Ulis, 1988).
  23. F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast intensity switching and nonthermal carrier effects in semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2278–2280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory for semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1712–1727 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast dephasing through acoustic plasmon undamping in nonequilibrium electron–hole plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 347–350 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Spin-flip scattering of holes in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9687–9691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. Binder, I. Galbraith, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of band-edge optical nonlinearities in type-I and type-II quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3031–3042 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, and H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. I. D’Yakonov and V. I. Perel, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1053–1073 (1971).

1954 (1)

R. J. Elliott, “Theory of the effect of spin–orbit coupling on magnetic resonance in some semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 96, 266–279 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Bastard, G.

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Spin-flip scattering of holes in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9687–9691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benner, S.

Berger, J. D.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, R.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast dephasing through acoustic plasmon undamping in nonequilibrium electron–hole plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 347–350 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, I. Galbraith, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of band-edge optical nonlinearities in type-I and type-II quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3031–3042 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blank, R.

Cunningham, J. E.

T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Yakonov, M. I.

M. I. D’Yakonov and V. I. Perel, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1053–1073 (1971).

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, C.

C. Ell, R. Blank, S. Benner, and H. Haug, “Simplified calculations of the optical spectra of two- and three-dimensional laser-excited semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2006–2012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, and H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, R. J.

R. J. Elliott, “Theory of the effect of spin–orbit coupling on magnetic resonance in some semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 96, 266–279 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, R.

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Spin-flip scattering of holes in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9687–9691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Galbraith, I.

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Binder, I. Galbraith, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of band-edge optical nonlinearities in type-I and type-II quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3031–3042 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gravier, L.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hägele, D.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

C. Ell, R. Blank, S. Benner, and H. Haug, “Simplified calculations of the optical spectra of two- and three-dimensional laser-excited semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2006–2012 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, and H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Henneberger, K.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, J.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hommel, D.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoyer, W.

M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jahnke, F.

M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast intensity switching and nonthermal carrier effects in semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2278–2280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory for semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1712–1727 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalt, H.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kira, M.

M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory for semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1712–1727 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast intensity switching and nonthermal carrier effects in semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2278–2280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Scott, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast dephasing through acoustic plasmon undamping in nonequilibrium electron–hole plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 347–350 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Binder, I. Galbraith, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of band-edge optical nonlinearities in type-I and type-II quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3031–3042 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lindmark, E. K.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyn-gnes, O.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, D.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nelson Jr., T. R.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oestreich, M.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohkawa, K.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A. E.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perel, V. I.

M. I. D’Yakonov and V. I. Perel, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1053–1073 (1971).

Pérez, E.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perozzo, P.

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Potemski, M.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, W. W.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, and H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D.

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

D. C. Scott, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast dephasing through acoustic plasmon undamping in nonequilibrium electron–hole plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 347–350 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snelling, M. J.

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tai, K.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viña, L.

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wachter, S.

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wick, D. V.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast intensity switching and nonthermal carrier effects in semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2278–2280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. J. Elliott, “Theory of the effect of spin–orbit coupling on magnetic resonance in some semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 96, 266–279 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Jahnke and S. W. Koch, “Many-body theory for semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 1712–1727 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

R. Binder, D. Scott, A. E. Paul, M. Lindberg, K. Henneberger, and S. W. Koch, “Carrier–carrier scattering and optical dephasing in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 1107–1115 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Spin-flip scattering of holes in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 9687–9691 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Schmitt-Rink, C. Ell, and H. Haug, “Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 33, 1183–1189 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Binder, I. Galbraith, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of band-edge optical nonlinearities in type-I and type-II quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 3031–3042 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Snelling, P. Perozzo, D. C. Hutchings, I. Galbraith, and A. Miller, “Investigation of excitonic saturation by time-resolved circular dichroism in GaAs–AlxGa1−xAs multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17160–17169 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

T. C. Damen, L. Viña, J. E. Cunningham, and J. Shah, “Subpicosecond spin relaxation dynamics of excitons and free carriers in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3432–3435 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Scott, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Ultrafast dephasing through acoustic plasmon undamping in nonequilibrium electron–hole plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 347–350 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Khitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, Jr., D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyn-gnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic nonlinearities of semiconductor microcavities in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica B (1)

D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, W. W. Rühle, J. Hoffmann, S. Wachter, H. Kalt, K. Ohkawa, and D. Hommel, “Relation between spin and momentum relaxation in ZnSe/ZnMgSSe quantum wells,” Physica B 272, 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kira, F. Jahnke, W. Hoyer, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of spontaneous emission and coherent effects in semiconductor microstructures,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 23, 189–279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

M. Potemski, E. Pérez, D. Martin, L. Viña, L. Gravier, A. Fisher, and K. Ploog, “Spin polarization of an optically pumped electron gas,” Solid State Commun. 110, 163–168 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. I. D’Yakonov and V. I. Perel, Sov. Phys. JETP 33, 1053–1073 (1971).

Other (7)

J. Shah, ed., Hot Carriers in Semiconductor Nanostructures: Physics and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

Y. Yaffet, Solid State Physics (Academic, New York, 1963).

E. Rosencher and B. Vinter, Optoélectronique (Thomson-CSF/Masson, Paris, 1998).

R. Zimmermann, Many-Particle Theory of Highly Excited Semiconductors (Teubner, Berlin, 1988).

G. Bastard, Wave Mechanics Applied to Semiconductor Heterostructures (Éditions Physique, Les Ulis, 1988).

H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), and references therein.

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured absorption spectra. Comparison of OCP and SCP absorption.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured absorption spectra dynamics. Comparison of OCP and SCP heavy-hole exciton peaks’ bleaching and shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Selection rules for optical transitions achieved with polarized pump light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time evolution of the spin-polarized gas populations (1011 cm-2) created by spin-selective excitation. Note the short time scale for the light-hole density decay.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time evolution of spin-polarized gas energy loss [eV/μm2]. Note the very short time scale for the light-hole gases’ energy loss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time evolution of the spin-polarized gases’ temperatures [K]. Note the very short time scale for the light-hole temperature evolution.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated absorption spectra. Comparison of OCP, SLP, and SCP absorption.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated absorption spectra dynamics. Comparison of OCP, SLP, and SCP heavy-hole exciton (HHX) peaks’ bleaching and shift.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated absorption spectra dynamics. Comparison of OCP, SLP, and SCP light-hole exciton (LHX) peaks’ bleaching and shift.

Equations (13)

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tpkλ(t)=-i(ee,k+eλ,k)pkλ(t)-i[ne,kσ(t)+nλ,kσ(t)-1]ωR,kλ(t),
ωR,kλ(t)=dcvλE(t)+qk V|k-q|spqλ(t)
ei,k=i,k+Σexc,i(k)+½ΔECH,i=e, hh, lh,
χ(ω)=Pˆ(ω)Eˆ(ω),
dne,kσdt=ne,keq,σ-ne,kστeqe+ne,ktherm,σ-ne,kστtherme+ne,kσ-ne,kστsfe+ne,kσnhh,kστrade,hh-ne,kσnlh,kστrade,lh-ne,kστnre,
dnhh,kσdt=nhh,keq,σ-nhh,kστeqhh+nhh,ktherm,σ-nhh,kστthermhh+nhh,kσ-nhh,kστsfhh-nhh,kσne,kστrade,hh-nhh,kστnrhh+nlh,kσ2τlh+nlh,kσ2τlh,
dnlh,kσdt=nlh,keq,σ-nlh,kστeqlh+nlh,ktherm,σ-nlh,kστthermlh+nlh,kσ-nlh,kστsflh-nlh,kσne,kστrade,lh-nlh,kστnrlh-nlh,kστlh.
Iplλ(t)k|dcvλ|2ne,kσ(t)nλ,kσ(t)
dEtot,cσdt=Etot,ceq,σ-Etot,cστcool,
Eceq,σ(Tcσ)=mc2π2[exp(2π2βcσNcσ/mc)-1]×0 EdEexp(βcσE)+exp(2π2βcσNcσ/mc)-1.
q(ω)=1-Vq σ,kc nc,k-qσ-nc,kσ(ω-iδ)+ec,k-qσ-ec,kσ.
(q0, ω)=1-Vqq2ω2 c,σ Ncσmc,
Vqs=Vqq.

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