Abstract

A two-pass quadrature scheme using CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) crystals was used to frequency double a Nd:YAG laser with high efficiency with tens of watts of average output power and low input laser intensities. The 532-nm bidirectional output of this scheme is readily suited for pumping Ti:sapphire crystals, making it possible to build compact high-power chirped-pulse amplification systems. Using this scheme, we obtained 2.73 J of second-harmonic pulse energy from 3.27 J of input 1064-nm fundamental laser pulse energy at a modest intensity of 330 MW/cm2 and 10 Hz, corresponding to an energy-conversion efficiency of 83%. We discuss in detail the design and performance of this frequency-conversion scheme in terms of output parameters, stability, and scalability.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. Kiriyama, S. Matsuoka, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme,” Opt. Commun. 174, 499–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

Y. K. Yap, T. Inoue, H. Sakai, Y. Kagebayashi, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, K. Deki, and M. Horiguchi, “Long-term operation of CsLiB6O10 at elevated crystal temperature,” Opt. Lett. 23, 34–36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Kuramoto, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Generation of 0.66 TW pulses at 1 kHz by a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1384–1386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, “100-TW sub-20fs Ti:sapphire laser system operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1468–1470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. P. Fève, B. Boulanger, G. Marnier, and H. Albrecht, “Repetition rate dependence of gray-tracking in KTiOPO4 during second-harmonic generation at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 277–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

C. P. J. Barty, C. L. Gordon III, and B. E. Lemoff, “Multiterawatt 30-fs Ti:sapphire laser system,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1442–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray-tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2401–2403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1991 (3)

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001–1003 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Borsutzky, R. Brünger, Ch. Huang, and R. Wallenstein, “Harmonic and sum-frequency generation of pulsed laser radiation in BBO, LBO, and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 55–62 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, C. Chen, and B. Wu, “Noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in a lithium triborate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1579–1581 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. C. Bhar, S. Das, and P. K. Datta, “Efficient frequency doubling of Nd laser radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K173–K176 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

O. I. Lavrovskaya, N. I. Pavlova, and A. V. Tarasov, “Second harmonic generation of light from an AlG:Nd3+ laser in an optically biaxial crystal of KTiOPO4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 678–681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Stolzenberger, “Nonlinear optical properties of flux growth KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3883–3886 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “Quadrature frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1361–1371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

R. M. Kogan, R. M. Pixton, and T. G. Crow, “High-efficiency frequency doubling of Nd:YAG,” Opt. Eng. 17, 120–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

D. T. Attwood, E. S. Bliss, E. L. Pierce and L. W. Coleman, “Laser frequency doubling in the presence of small-scale beam breakup,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 203–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kogan and T. G. Crow, “A high-brightness one Joule, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 70 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. T. Attwood, E. L. Pierce, and L. W. Coleman, “Conversion efficiency and pulse shortening of a frequency-tripled, subnanosecond, 1.064 μm pulse,” Opt. Commun. 15, 10–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

F. Zernike, Jr., and P. R. Berman, “Generation of far infrared as a difference frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999–1001 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

J. A. Giordmaine, “Mixing of light beams in crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miller and A. Savage, “Harmonic generation and mixing of CaWO4:Nd3+ and ruby pulsed laser beams in piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2175–2179 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Albrecht, H.

J. P. Fève, B. Boulanger, G. Marnier, and H. Albrecht, “Repetition rate dependence of gray-tracking in KTiOPO4 during second-harmonic generation at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 277–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allais, I.

Aoyama, M.

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, “100-TW sub-20fs Ti:sapphire laser system operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1468–1470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arisawa, T.

H. Kiriyama, S. Matsuoka, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme,” Opt. Commun. 174, 499–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, E. S. Bliss, E. L. Pierce and L. W. Coleman, “Laser frequency doubling in the presence of small-scale beam breakup,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 203–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, E. L. Pierce, and L. W. Coleman, “Conversion efficiency and pulse shortening of a frequency-tripled, subnanosecond, 1.064 μm pulse,” Opt. Commun. 15, 10–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. J. Barty, C. L. Gordon III, and B. E. Lemoff, “Multiterawatt 30-fs Ti:sapphire laser system,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1442–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berman, P. R.

F. Zernike, Jr., and P. R. Berman, “Generation of far infrared as a difference frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999–1001 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bhar, G. C.

G. C. Bhar, S. Das, and P. K. Datta, “Efficient frequency doubling of Nd laser radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K173–K176 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blachman, R.

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray-tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2401–2403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, E. S.

D. T. Attwood, E. S. Bliss, E. L. Pierce and L. W. Coleman, “Laser frequency doubling in the presence of small-scale beam breakup,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 203–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bolt, R. J.

R. J. Bolt and M. van der Mooren, “Single shot bulk damage threshold and conversion efficiency measurements on flux grown KTiOPO4 (KTP),” Opt. Commun. 100, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bordui, P. F.

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray-tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2401–2403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borsutzky, A.

A. Borsutzky, R. Brünger, Ch. Huang, and R. Wallenstein, “Harmonic and sum-frequency generation of pulsed laser radiation in BBO, LBO, and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 55–62 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boulanger, B.

J. P. Fève, B. Boulanger, G. Marnier, and H. Albrecht, “Repetition rate dependence of gray-tracking in KTiOPO4 during second-harmonic generation at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 277–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray-tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2401–2403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. D.

Brünger, R.

A. Borsutzky, R. Brünger, Ch. Huang, and R. Wallenstein, “Harmonic and sum-frequency generation of pulsed laser radiation in BBO, LBO, and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 55–62 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, C. Chen, and B. Wu, “Noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in a lithium triborate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1579–1581 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, L. W.

D. T. Attwood, E. S. Bliss, E. L. Pierce and L. W. Coleman, “Laser frequency doubling in the presence of small-scale beam breakup,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 203–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, E. L. Pierce, and L. W. Coleman, “Conversion efficiency and pulse shortening of a frequency-tripled, subnanosecond, 1.064 μm pulse,” Opt. Commun. 15, 10–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Crow, T. G.

R. M. Kogan, R. M. Pixton, and T. G. Crow, “High-efficiency frequency doubling of Nd:YAG,” Opt. Eng. 17, 120–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kogan and T. G. Crow, “A high-brightness one Joule, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 70 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Das, S.

G. C. Bhar, S. Das, and P. K. Datta, “Efficient frequency doubling of Nd laser radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K173–K176 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Datta, P. K.

G. C. Bhar, S. Das, and P. K. Datta, “Efficient frequency doubling of Nd laser radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K173–K176 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Deki, K.

Driscoll, T. A.

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Eimerl, D.

Fejer, M. M.

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray-tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2401–2403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

Fève, J. P.

J. P. Fève, B. Boulanger, G. Marnier, and H. Albrecht, “Repetition rate dependence of gray-tracking in KTiOPO4 during second-harmonic generation at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 277–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, “Mixing of light beams in crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Gordon III, C. L.

Hall, G. J.

Haramura, S.

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hildum, J. S.

Hill, A. E.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Horiguchi, M.

Huang, Ch.

A. Borsutzky, R. Brünger, Ch. Huang, and R. Wallenstein, “Harmonic and sum-frequency generation of pulsed laser radiation in BBO, LBO, and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 55–62 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Y.

J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, C. Chen, and B. Wu, “Noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in a lithium triborate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1579–1581 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, J. J.

Inoue, T.

Izawa, Y.

Johnson, B. L.

Kagebayashi, Y.

Kase, T.

Kimura, T.

Kiriyama, H.

H. Kiriyama, S. Matsuoka, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme,” Opt. Commun. 174, 499–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Srinivasan, H. Kiriyama, T. Kimura, M. Ohmi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, and C. Yamanaka, “Efficient low energy near-infrared KTiOPO4 optical parametric converter,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1265–1267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kmetec, J. D.

Kogan, R. M.

R. M. Kogan, R. M. Pixton, and T. G. Crow, “High-efficiency frequency doubling of Nd:YAG,” Opt. Eng. 17, 120–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Kogan and T. G. Crow, “A high-brightness one Joule, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 70 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kuramoto, Y.

Kuroda, I.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystals: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lavrovskaya, O. I.

O. I. Lavrovskaya, N. I. Pavlova, and A. V. Tarasov, “Second harmonic generation of light from an AlG:Nd3+ laser in an optically biaxial crystal of KTiOPO4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 678–681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

Linford, G. J.

Macklin, J. J.

Marnier, G.

J. P. Fève, B. Boulanger, G. Marnier, and H. Albrecht, “Repetition rate dependence of gray-tracking in KTiOPO4 during second-harmonic generation at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 277–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martin, W. E.

Maruyama, Y.

H. Kiriyama, S. Matsuoka, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme,” Opt. Commun. 174, 499–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, S.

H. Kiriyama, S. Matsuoka, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme,” Opt. Commun. 174, 499–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, “100-TW sub-20fs Ti:sapphire laser system operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1468–1470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazataud, É.

Miller, R. C.

R. C. Miller and A. Savage, “Harmonic generation and mixing of CaWO4:Nd3+ and ruby pulsed laser beams in piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2175–2179 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Y. K. Yap, T. Inoue, H. Sakai, Y. Kagebayashi, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, K. Deki, and M. Horiguchi, “Long-term operation of CsLiB6O10 at elevated crystal temperature,” Opt. Lett. 23, 34–36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystals: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nakai, S.

Nakajima, S.

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystals: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohmi, M.

Pavlova, N. I.

O. I. Lavrovskaya, N. I. Pavlova, and A. V. Tarasov, “Second harmonic generation of light from an AlG:Nd3+ laser in an optically biaxial crystal of KTiOPO4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 678–681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C. W.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, E. L.

D. T. Attwood, E. S. Bliss, E. L. Pierce and L. W. Coleman, “Laser frequency doubling in the presence of small-scale beam breakup,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 203–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, E. L. Pierce, and L. W. Coleman, “Conversion efficiency and pulse shortening of a frequency-tripled, subnanosecond, 1.064 μm pulse,” Opt. Commun. 15, 10–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, A.

Pixton, R. M.

R. M. Kogan, R. M. Pixton, and T. G. Crow, “High-efficiency frequency doubling of Nd:YAG,” Opt. Eng. 17, 120–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rouyer, C.

Sakai, H.

Sasaki, T.

Y. K. Yap, T. Inoue, H. Sakai, Y. Kagebayashi, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, K. Deki, and M. Horiguchi, “Long-term operation of CsLiB6O10 at elevated crystal temperature,” Opt. Lett. 23, 34–36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystals: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

Savage, A.

R. C. Miller and A. Savage, “Harmonic generation and mixing of CaWO4:Nd3+ and ruby pulsed laser beams in piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2175–2179 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sayder, K.

Sekikawa, T.

Seznec, S.

Shen, Y. R.

J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, C. Chen, and B. Wu, “Noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in a lithium triborate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1579–1581 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

Srinivasan, N.

Stolzenberger, R. A.

Stone, R. E.

Taguchi, A.

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takuma, H.

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, “100-TW sub-20fs Ti:sapphire laser system operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1468–1470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, A. V.

O. I. Lavrovskaya, N. I. Pavlova, and A. V. Tarasov, “Second harmonic generation of light from an AlG:Nd3+ laser in an optically biaxial crystal of KTiOPO4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 678–681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Togashi, T.

van der Mooren, M.

R. J. Bolt and M. van der Mooren, “Single shot bulk damage threshold and conversion efficiency measurements on flux grown KTiOPO4 (KTP),” Opt. Commun. 100, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vercimak, C. L.

Wallenstein, R.

A. Borsutzky, R. Brünger, Ch. Huang, and R. Wallenstein, “Harmonic and sum-frequency generation of pulsed laser radiation in BBO, LBO, and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 55–62 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Weinreich, G.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, C. Chen, and B. Wu, “Noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in a lithium triborate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1579–1581 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamakawa, K.

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, “100-TW sub-20fs Ti:sapphire laser system operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1468–1470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

Yamanaka, M.

Yap, Y. K.

Y. K. Yap, T. Inoue, H. Sakai, Y. Kagebayashi, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, K. Deki, and M. Horiguchi, “Long-term operation of CsLiB6O10 at elevated crystal temperature,” Opt. Lett. 23, 34–36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

Zernike Jr., F.

F. Zernike, Jr., and P. R. Berman, “Generation of far infrared as a difference frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999–1001 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Borsutzky, R. Brünger, Ch. Huang, and R. Wallenstein, “Harmonic and sum-frequency generation of pulsed laser radiation in BBO, LBO, and KD*P,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 55–62 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Boulanger, M. M. Fejer, R. Blachman, and P. F. Bordui, “Study of KTiOPO4 gray-tracking at 1064, 532, and 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2401–2403 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Fève, B. Boulanger, G. Marnier, and H. Albrecht, “Repetition rate dependence of gray-tracking in KTiOPO4 during second-harmonic generation at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 277–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mori, I. Kuroda, S. Nakajima, T. Sasaki, and S. Nakai, “New nonlinear optical crystals: cesium lithium borate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1818–1820 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Huang, Y. R. Shen, C. Chen, and B. Wu, “Noncritically phase-matched second-harmonic generation and optical parametric amplification in a lithium triborate crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1579–1581 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. M. Kogan and T. G. Crow, “A high-brightness one Joule, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 70 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “Quadrature frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 1361–1371 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, E. S. Bliss, E. L. Pierce and L. W. Coleman, “Laser frequency doubling in the presence of small-scale beam breakup,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 203–204 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 575–592 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, H. Takuma, D. N. Fittinghoff, and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrahigh-peak and high-average power chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20-fs pulses with Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 385–393 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (4)

R. J. Bolt and M. van der Mooren, “Single shot bulk damage threshold and conversion efficiency measurements on flux grown KTiOPO4 (KTP),” Opt. Commun. 100, 399–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Kiriyama, S. Matsuoka, Y. Maruyama, and T. Arisawa, “High efficiency second-harmonic generation in four-pass quadrature frequency conversion scheme,” Opt. Commun. 174, 499–502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Yap, S. Haramura, A. Taguchi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “CsLiB6O10 crystal for frequency doubling the Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 145, 101–104 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, E. L. Pierce, and L. W. Coleman, “Conversion efficiency and pulse shortening of a frequency-tripled, subnanosecond, 1.064 μm pulse,” Opt. Commun. 15, 10–12 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. M. Kogan, R. M. Pixton, and T. G. Crow, “High-efficiency frequency doubling of Nd:YAG,” Opt. Eng. 17, 120–124 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

N. Srinivasan, H. Kiriyama, T. Kimura, M. Ohmi, M. Yamanaka, Y. Izawa, S. Nakai, and C. Yamanaka, “Efficient low energy near-infrared KTiOPO4 optical parametric converter,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1265–1267 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Yap, T. Inoue, H. Sakai, Y. Kagebayashi, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, K. Deki, and M. Horiguchi, “Long-term operation of CsLiB6O10 at elevated crystal temperature,” Opt. Lett. 23, 34–36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Kuramoto, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, “Generation of 0.66 TW pulses at 1 kHz by a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1384–1386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamakawa, M. Aoyama, S. Matsuoka, T. Kase, Y. Akahane, and H. Takuma, “100-TW sub-20fs Ti:sapphire laser system operating at a 10-Hz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1468–1470 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Rouyer, É. Mazataud, I. Allais, A. Pierre, S. Seznec, and C. Sauteret, “Generation of 50-TW femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass chain,” Opt. Lett. 18, 214–216 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetec, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001–1003 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Hall and A. I. Ferguson, “LiB3O5 optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched frequency-doubled all-solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1511–1513 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. P. J. Barty, C. L. Gordon III, and B. E. Lemoff, “Multiterawatt 30-fs Ti:sapphire laser system,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1442–1444 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918–1939 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miller and A. Savage, “Harmonic generation and mixing of CaWO4:Nd3+ and ruby pulsed laser beams in piezoelectric crystals,” Phys. Rev. 128, 2175–2179 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

F. Zernike, Jr., and P. R. Berman, “Generation of far infrared as a difference frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999–1001 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Giordmaine, “Mixing of light beams in crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 19–20 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

G. C. Bhar, S. Das, and P. K. Datta, “Efficient frequency doubling of Nd laser radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi A 119, K173–K176 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. (1)

O. I. Lavrovskaya, N. I. Pavlova, and A. V. Tarasov, “Second harmonic generation of light from an AlG:Nd3+ laser in an optically biaxial crystal of KTiOPO4,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 31, 678–681 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. V. Ortiz, J. H. Fair, and D. J. Kuizenga, “High average power second harmonic generation with KTiOPO4,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1992), pp. 361–365.

J. Golden, “Green lasers score good marks in semiconductor material processing,” Laser Focus World, June 1992, pp. 75–76.

V. Higgins, “Laser entertainment gets down to business at ILDA ’91,” Laser Focus World, February 1992, pp. 15–16.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 10.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, A. E. Siegman, ed., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Chap. 4.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated second-harmonic conversion efficiencies in KTP, DKDP, and CLBO crystals as a function of 1064-nm-input-fundamental-laser intensity in a one-pass quadrature scheme. The solid, dotted, and dashed curves are for KTP, DKDP, and CLBO, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated second-harmonic conversion efficiencies in KTP, DKDP, and CLBO crystals as a function of 1064-nm-input-fundamental laser intensity in a two-pass quadrature scheme. The solid, dotted, and dashed curves are for KTP, DKDP, and CLBO, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated second-harmonic conversion efficiencies in KTP, DKDP, and CLBO crystals as a function of 1064-nm-input-fundamental laser intensity in a four-pass quadrature scheme. The solid, dotted, and dashed curves are for KTP, DKDP, and CLBO, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for SHG in a two-pass quadrature scheme using CLBO crystals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total 532-nm second-harmonic output energy emitted through both dichroic mirrors D1 and D2 versus the input 1064-nm fundamental laser energy in a two-pass quadrature scheme with CLBO crystals. The energy emitted through each dichroic mirror D1 and D2 is also shown.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Total 532-nm second-harmonic conversion efficiency of beams emitted through both dichroic mirrors D1 and D2 versus the input 1064-nm fundamental laser intensity in a two-pass quadrature scheme with CLBO crystals. The efficiency of the beam emitted through each dichroic mirror D1 and D2 is also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field spatial profile of the second-harmonic output beam from a two-pass quadrature scheme with CLBO crystals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated conversion efficiencies for SHG of the 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser with CLBO crystals in a four-pass quadrature scheme along with the calculated and measured SHG conversion efficiencies in a two-pass quadrature scheme.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinear Parameters for SHG of the 1064-nm Nd:YAG Laser in Three Optical Crystalsa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E2z=CE12 exp(iΔkz),
E1z=-CE2E1* exp(-iΔkz),
C=5.46deff/λ1(n1n2n3),
η=tanh2{1/2 tanh-1[sn(2η01/2,1+δ2/4η0)]},
η0=C2IL2,
δ=1/2 ΔkL,
Δk=βθΔθ,
η=tanh2(η01/2).
η=η0(sin δ/δ)2.
E1(r, t)=E0 exp[-(t/t0)2-(r/r0)2].

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