Abstract

The absorption spectra of neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), erbium (Er), and thulium (Tm) ions in perfluorinated (PF) plastic solutions were measured, and the Judd–Ofelt parameters of the Er and Nd ions have been calculated. The radiative properties of the Nd and Er ions in PF plastic solutions were determined from the absorption measurements and the Judd–Ofelt theory. The fluorescence spectrum of Nd3+ in a PF plastic solution from 900 nm to 1350 nm was measured for the first time, to our knowledge. Furthermore, the PF plastic films containing lanthanide chelates were fabricated by spin coating, and the refractive indices of the films were measured.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  7. R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
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  11. A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Karve, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of optical gain at 1.06 μm in a neodymium-doped polyimide waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1253–1255 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Oh, N. Song, and J. J. Kim, “Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 1–8 (2001).
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  16. C. Koeppen, S. Yamada, G. Jiang, A. F. Garito, and L. R. Dalton, “Rare-earth organic complexes for amplification in polymer optical fibers and waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 155–162 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Lin, R. J. Feuerstein, and A. Mickelson, “A study of neodymium-chelate-doped optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2868–2874 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. H. Dieke and H. M. Crosswhite, “The spectra of the doubly and triply ionized rare earths,” Appl. Opt. 2, 675–686 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides,” Molec. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fiber containing Nd-chelate for optical amplification,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Proceedings, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C. 2000), pp. 67–71.
  25. R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminium, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 4, 182–184 (1964).

2001 (1)

D. Oh, N. Song, and J. J. Kim, “Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Karve, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of optical gain at 1.06 μm in a neodymium-doped polyimide waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1253–1255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, and J. W. Fleming, “Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer-based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 178–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Koeppen, S. Yamada, G. Jiang, A. F. Garito, and L. R. Dalton, “Rare-earth organic complexes for amplification in polymer optical fibers and waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 155–162 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Lin, R. J. Feuerstein, and A. Mickelson, “A study of neodymium-chelate-doped optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2868–2874 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Tchnol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride amplifier using a 1.064 μm upconversion pumping scheme,” Electron. Lett. 29, 110–112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Brierley, S. Carter, P. France, and J. E. Pederson, “Amplification in the 1300 nm telecommunications window in an Nd-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26, 329–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1964 (3)

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminium, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 4, 182–184 (1964).

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides,” Molec. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Koester and E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 3, 1182–1186 (1964).

1963 (1)

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

L. F. Johnson and K. Nassau, “Infrared and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Agarwal, I. D.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, L. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beasley, J. T.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

G. Karve, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of optical gain at 1.06 μm in a neodymium-doped polyimide waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1253–1255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M.

M. Brierley, S. Carter, P. France, and J. E. Pederson, “Amplification in the 1300 nm telecommunications window in an Nd-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26, 329–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. N.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. S.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S.

M. Brierley, S. Carter, P. France, and J. E. Pederson, “Amplification in the 1300 nm telecommunications window in an Nd-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26, 329–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

G. Karve, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of optical gain at 1.06 μm in a neodymium-doped polyimide waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1253–1255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Claude, C. D.

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H. M.

Dai, P.

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Dieke, G. H.

Drexhage, M. G.

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, R. J.

S. Lin, R. J. Feuerstein, and A. Mickelson, “A study of neodymium-chelate-doped optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2868–2874 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

France, P.

M. Brierley, S. Carter, P. France, and J. E. Pederson, “Amplification in the 1300 nm telecommunications window in an Nd-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26, 329–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

Geusic, J. E.

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminium, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 4, 182–184 (1964).

Ginther, R. C.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, Y.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Imai, N.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Iwafuji, T.

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwamuro, M.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, R. R.

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jauncy, I. M.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jedrezejewski, K. P.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, G.

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and K. Nassau, “Infrared and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Jørgensen, C. K.

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides,” Molec. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides,” Molec. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaming, R. I.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Karve, G.

G. Karve, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of optical gain at 1.06 μm in a neodymium-doped polyimide waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1253–1255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

D. Oh, N. Song, and J. J. Kim, “Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kliewer, M. L.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koeppen, C.

Koester, C. J.

C. J. Koester and E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 3, 1182–1186 (1964).

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, Y. Koike, and J. W. Fleming, “Optimum index profile of the perfluorinated polymer-based GI polymer optical fiber and its dispersion properties,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 178–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Tchnol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride amplifier using a 1.064 μm upconversion pumping scheme,” Electron. Lett. 29, 110–112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuriki, K.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

S. Lin, R. J. Feuerstein, and A. Mickelson, “A study of neodymium-chelate-doped optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2868–2874 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, H. M.

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminium, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 4, 182–184 (1964).

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros Neto, J. A.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mickelson, A.

S. Lin, R. J. Feuerstein, and A. Mickelson, “A study of neodymium-chelate-doped optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2868–2874 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride amplifier using a 1.064 μm upconversion pumping scheme,” Electron. Lett. 29, 110–112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murakoshi, K.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamoto, T.

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, N.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, S.

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

L. F. Johnson and K. Nassau, “Infrared and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Nihei, E.

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Tchnol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, S.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Oh, D.

D. Oh, N. Song, and J. J. Kim, “Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, Y.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pederson, J. E.

M. Brierley, S. Carter, P. France, and J. E. Pederson, “Amplification in the 1300 nm telecommunications window in an Nd-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26, 329–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petrin, R. R.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, L. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, M. D.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

C. J. Koester and E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 3, 1182–1186 (1964).

Song, N.

D. Oh, N. Song, and J. J. Kim, “Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride amplifier using a 1.064 μm upconversion pumping scheme,” Electron. Lett. 29, 110–112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. F.

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tagaya, A.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, T.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Uitert, L. G.

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminium, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 4, 182–184 (1964).

Vacha, L. B.

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wada, Y.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wylangowski, G.

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride amplifier using a 1.064 μm upconversion pumping scheme,” Electron. Lett. 29, 110–112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, S.

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, S.

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. J.

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, T. Iwafuji, K. Kuriki, N. Imai, T. Nakamoto, C. D. Claude, K. Sasaki, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and superfluorescence of rare-earth chelate-doped graded index polymer optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2421–2423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Karve, B. Bihari, and R. T. Chen, “Demonstration of optical gain at 1.06 μm in a neodymium-doped polyimide waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1253–1255 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. Zhang, P. Wang, X. F. Sun, Y. Zhai, and P. Dai, “Amplified spontaneous emission of an Nd3+-doped poly(methylmethacrylate) optical fiber at ambient temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 407–409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Hasegawa, K. Murakoshi, Y. Wada, S. Yanagida, J. Kim, N. Nakashima, and T. Yamanaka, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 248, 8–12 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Brierley, S. Carter, P. France, and J. E. Pederson, “Amplification in the 1300 nm telecommunications window in an Nd-doped fluoride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 26, 329–330 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco, L. J. Andrews, A. Thompson, L. J. Quimby, L. B. Vacha, and M. G. Drexhage, “1.3 μm fluoride fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 28–29 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncy, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 mm,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1026–1028 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, and Y. Miyajima, “1.47 μm band Tm3+ doped fluoride amplifier using a 1.064 μm upconversion pumping scheme,” Electron. Lett. 29, 110–112 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. R. Petrin, M. L. Kliewer, J. T. Beasley, R. C. Powell, I. D. Agarwal, and R. C. Ginther, “Spectroscopy and laser operation of Nd:ZBAN glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1031–1038 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jacobs and M. J. Weber, “Dependence of the 4F3/2 to 4I11/2 induced-emission cross section for Nd3+ on glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 102–111 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fibers containing Nd-chelate,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 989–991 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hewak, J. A. Medeiros Neto, B. Samson, R. S. Brown, K. P. Jedrezejewski, J. Wang, E. Taylor, R. I. Kaming, G. Wylangowski, and D. N. Payne, “Quantum-efficiency of praseodymium doped Ga:La:S glass for 1.3 μm optical fibre amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 609–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Lin, R. J. Feuerstein, and A. Mickelson, “A study of neodymium-chelate-doped optical polymer waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 2868–2874 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Geusic, H. M. Marcos, and L. G. Uitert, “Laser oscillations in Nd-doped yttrium aluminium, yttrium gallium and gadolinium garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 4, 182–184 (1964).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tchnol. (1)

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Tchnol. 13, 1475–1489 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

M. Iwamuro, Y. Hasegawa, Y. Wada, K. Murakoshi, N. Nakashima, T. Yamanaka, and S. Yanagawa, “Luminescence of Nd3+ complexes with some asymmetric ligands in organic solutions,” J. Lumin. 79, 29–38 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Tagaya, T. Kobayashi, S. Nakatsuka, E. Nihei, K. Sasaki, and Y. Koike, “High gain and high power organic dye-doped polymer optical fiber amplifiers: absorption and emission cross sections and gain characteristics,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 204–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Molec. Phys. (1)

C. K. Jørgensen and B. R. Judd, “Hypersensitive pseudoquadrupole transitions in lanthanides,” Molec. Phys. 8, 281–290 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

C. J. Koester and E. Snitzer, “Amplification in a fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 3, 1182–1186 (1964).

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. D. Shinn, W. A. Sibley, M. G. Drexhage, and R. N. Brown, “Optical transitions of Er3+ ions in fluorozirconate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6635–6648 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE (1)

L. F. Johnson and K. Nassau, “Infrared and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in CaWO4,” Proc. IRE 49, 1704–1706 (1961).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Oh, N. Song, and J. J. Kim, “Plastic optical amplifier using europium complex,” Proc. SPIE 4282, 1–8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, T. Kitagawa, S. Takahashi, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, “Pr3+-doped fluoride fiber amplifier operating at 1.31 μm,” in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 4 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 237–240.

K. Kuriki, T. Kobayashi, N. Imai, T. Tamura, S. Nishihara, A. Tagaya, Y. Koike, and Y. Okamoto, “Fabrication and properties of polymer optical fiber containing Nd-chelate for optical amplification,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Proceedings, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C. 2000), pp. 67–71.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of Nd(DFA-d)3-doped PF plastic solution. The chelate concentration is 0.010 M.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectrum of Pr(DFA-d)3-doped PF plastic solution. The chelate concentration is 0.010 M.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of Er(DFA-d)3-doped PF plastic solution. The chelate concentration is 0.010 M.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectrum of Tm(DFA-d)3-doped PF plastic solution. The chelate concentration is 0.010 M.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ in PF plastic solution and PMMA-d8 pumped at 580 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The  4F3/24I11/2 transition fluorescence spectra of Nd3+ in PF plastic solution and PMMA-d8 pumped at 580 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Refractive indices of Nd(DFA-d)3 and Er(DFA-d)3-doped PF plastic films at 633 nm.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Judd–Ofelt Parameters (Ωλ) and Radiative Lifetimes (τrad) for Nd(DFA-d)3 and Er(DFA-d)3 in PF Plastic Solution

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Radiative Transition Probabilities (A), Total Radiative Transition Probability (AT), Radiative Lifetime (τrad), and Branching Ratios (β) for Nd3+ in PF Plastic Solution

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated Radiative Transition Probabilities (A), and Radiative Lifetime (τrad) for Er3+ in PF Plastic Solution

Metrics