Abstract

Stokes-like IR (1560–1600-nm) emissions, which have been observed in laser-diode- (LD-) pumped microchip Nd-doped lasers, are re-examined experimentally. Dependences of IR emissions on pump wavelengths, pump densities, and operating temperatures are studied. The response of IR emissions to coherent probe-beam injection is investigated by use of a tunable LD light source. Optical phonons emitted through Auger recombination processes that result from LD high-density pumping are proposed to induce resonant intracavity stimulated phonon-sideband emissions.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. S. Eremenko, S. N. Karpukhin, and A. I. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman scattering of the second harmonic of a neodymium laser in nitrate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 113–114 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).
  3. A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Otsuka, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Breakup of multimode oscillations and low frequency instability in a microchip solid-state laser by high density pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3226–3232 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Otsuka, R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions in a laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 201–203 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, and K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions and antiphase relaxation oscillation dynamics in laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1542–1547 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. O’Conner, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, “Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 330–335 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Koizumi, “An efficient laser material, lithium phosphate LiNdP4O12,” Acta Crystallogr. 32, 266–268 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-L. Hwong, W.-L. Tsai, T.-S. Lim, and J.-L. Chern, “Influence of pump-beam conditions on laser-diode-pumped microchip Nd:YVO4 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1330–L1332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of high density pumping on relaxation oscillations and mode spectra in lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 419–424 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of Auger recombination process on laser dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 538–541 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (1)

A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, and K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions and antiphase relaxation oscillation dynamics in laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1542–1547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Asakawa, R. Kawai, K. Ohki, and K. Otsuka, “Laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L515–L517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Hwong, W.-L. Tsai, T.-S. Lim, and J.-L. Chern, “Influence of pump-beam conditions on laser-diode-pumped microchip Nd:YVO4 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1330–L1332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Otsuka, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Breakup of multimode oscillations and low frequency instability in a microchip solid-state laser by high density pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3226–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Jin, S. Erdei, A. S. Bhalla, and F. W. Ainger, “Micro-probe Raman spectroscopy of YVO4 single crystals grown by different growth techniques for investigation of micro-inhomogeneities,” Mater. Lett. 22, 281–284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

1980 (3)

A. S. Eremenko, S. N. Karpukhin, and A. I. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman scattering of the second harmonic of a neodymium laser in nitrate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 113–114 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of high density pumping on relaxation oscillations and mode spectra in lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 419–424 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of Auger recombination process on laser dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 538–541 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous oscillations of different transitions in lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1007–1013 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Koizumi, “An efficient laser material, lithium phosphate LiNdP4O12,” Acta Crystallogr. 32, 266–268 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, “Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. R. O’Conner, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ainger, F. W.

B. Jin, S. Erdei, A. S. Bhalla, and F. W. Ainger, “Micro-probe Raman spectroscopy of YVO4 single crystals grown by different growth techniques for investigation of micro-inhomogeneities,” Mater. Lett. 22, 281–284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Andryunas, K.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

Asakawa, Y.

R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, and K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions and antiphase relaxation oscillation dynamics in laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1542–1547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Asakawa, R. Kawai, K. Ohki, and K. Otsuka, “Laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L515–L517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions in a laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 201–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A. S.

B. Jin, S. Erdei, A. S. Bhalla, and F. W. Ainger, “Micro-probe Raman spectroscopy of YVO4 single crystals grown by different growth techniques for investigation of micro-inhomogeneities,” Mater. Lett. 22, 281–284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chern, J.-L.

S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Hwong, W.-L. Tsai, T.-S. Lim, and J.-L. Chern, “Influence of pump-beam conditions on laser-diode-pumped microchip Nd:YVO4 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1330–L1332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erdei, S.

B. Jin, S. Erdei, A. S. Bhalla, and F. W. Ainger, “Micro-probe Raman spectroscopy of YVO4 single crystals grown by different growth techniques for investigation of micro-inhomogeneities,” Mater. Lett. 22, 281–284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eremenko, A. S.

A. S. Eremenko, S. N. Karpukhin, and A. I. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman scattering of the second harmonic of a neodymium laser in nitrate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 113–114 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.-H.

Hwong, S.-L.

S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Hwong, W.-L. Tsai, T.-S. Lim, and J.-L. Chern, “Influence of pump-beam conditions on laser-diode-pumped microchip Nd:YVO4 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1330–L1332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B.

B. Jin, S. Erdei, A. S. Bhalla, and F. W. Ainger, “Micro-probe Raman spectroscopy of YVO4 single crystals grown by different growth techniques for investigation of micro-inhomogeneities,” Mater. Lett. 22, 281–284 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karpukhin, S. N.

A. S. Eremenko, S. N. Karpukhin, and A. I. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman scattering of the second harmonic of a neodymium laser in nitrate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 113–114 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kavelka, V.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

Kawaguchi, H.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, R.

S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Asakawa, R. Kawai, K. Ohki, and K. Otsuka, “Laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L515–L517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, and K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions and antiphase relaxation oscillation dynamics in laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1542–1547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions in a laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 201–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, “Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, H.

H. Koizumi, “An efficient laser material, lithium phosphate LiNdP4O12,” Acta Crystallogr. 32, 266–268 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of Auger recombination process on laser dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 538–541 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of high density pumping on relaxation oscillations and mode spectra in lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 419–424 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. X.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T.-S.

S.-L. Hwong, W.-L. Tsai, T.-S. Lim, and J.-L. Chern, “Influence of pump-beam conditions on laser-diode-pumped microchip Nd:YVO4 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1330–L1332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. S.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

K. Otsuka, R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions in a laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 201–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Breakup of multimode oscillations and low frequency instability in a microchip solid-state laser by high density pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3226–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, T.

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mochalov, I. V.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

O’Conner, J. R.

J. R. O’Conner, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, K.

S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Asakawa, R. Kawai, K. Ohki, and K. Otsuka, “Laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L515–L517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, K.

S.-L. Hwong, J.-L. Chern, K. Otsuka, Y.-H. Huang, R. Kawai, and K. Ohki, “1.5-μm emissions from a laser-diode-pumped Nd-diode microchip solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 646–648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Asakawa, R. Kawai, K. Ohki, and K. Otsuka, “Laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser under different pump-beam focusing conditions,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L515–L517 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, and K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions and antiphase relaxation oscillation dynamics in laser-diode-pumped microchip LiNdP4O12 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1542–1547 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions in a laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 201–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Breakup of multimode oscillations and low frequency instability in a microchip solid-state laser by high density pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3226–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kawaguchi, K. Inoue, T. Matsuoka, and K. Otsuka, “Bistable output characteristics in semiconductor laser injection locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1314–1317 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of high density pumping on relaxation oscillations and mode spectra in lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 419–424 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka and K. Kubodera, “Effects of Auger recombination process on laser dynamics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 538–541 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, “Simultaneous oscillations of different transitions in lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1007–1013 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, “Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

Petrovskii, G. T.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

Saruwatari, M.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, “Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. I.

A. S. Eremenko, S. N. Karpukhin, and A. I. Stepanov, “Stimulated Raman scattering of the second harmonic of a neodymium laser in nitrate crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 113–114 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Syrus, V.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

Tsai, W.-L.

S.-L. Hwong, W.-L. Tsai, T.-S. Lim, and J.-L. Chern, “Influence of pump-beam conditions on laser-diode-pumped microchip Nd:YVO4 laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1330–L1332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.

A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Viktorov, E. A.

K. Otsuka, R. Kawai, Y. Asakawa, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Simultaneous single-frequency oscillations on different transitions in a laser-diode-pumped LiNdP4O12 laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 201–203 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Otsuka, P. Mandel, and E. A. Viktorov, “Breakup of multimode oscillations and low frequency instability in a microchip solid-state laser by high density pumping,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 3226–3232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vischakas, Yu.

K. Andryunas, Yu. Vischakas, V. Kavelka, I. V. Mochalov, A. A. Pavlyuk, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. Syrus, “Stimulated-Raman self-conversion of Nd+3 laser light in double tungstenate crystals,” JETP Lett. 42, 410–412 (1985).

Wu, B.

A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xia, H. R.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, and T. Kimura, “Spectroscopy and laser oscillation properties of lithium neodymium tetraphosphate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11, 330–335 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. H.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

H. R. Xia, L. X. Li, H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, Z. H. Yang, and X. S. Liu, “Raman spectra and laser properties of Yb-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 87, 269–273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

A. Brenier, C. Tu, J. Li, Z. Zhu, and B. Wu, “Eye-safe radiation from stimulated Raman scattering frequency self-conversion in KGd(WO4)2:Nd3+,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 4097–4103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. (1)

H. Koizumi, “An efficient laser material, lithium phosphate LiNdP4O12,” Acta Crystallogr. 32, 266–268 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. O’Conner, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra of LD-pumped microchip solid-state lasers: 1-mm-thick Nd:YVO4 and LNP lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Four-wave-mixing associated with IR emission in the LNP laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ar-laser-pumped Raman spectra: 1-mm-thick Nd:YVO4 and 0.15-mm-thick LNP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input–output characteristics for various pumping densities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transition diagram of Nd atoms in LNP. Dashed arrows, nonradiative transitions. Auger recombination processes associated with the 4F3/2(1)4I11/2(1, 2, 3) transitions are depicted by wavy curves. In LNP, the upper laser level splits into two manifolds and the lower laser level splits into six manifolds.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence on temperature of the IR emission threshold for the LNP laser pumped by a Ti:sapphire at 808 nm. The threshold pump power is normalized by the laser threshold.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup; inset, a typical IR output pattern recorded by a CCD.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Nonlinear enhancement of the probe beam’s intensity for a 5-mm-thick Nd:YAG laser. Wavelengths of original IR emission are shown by filled triangles. (a), (b) Injected signals; the input power was P=2.1 mW and the probe-beam wavelength was tuned from the longer-wavelength side. (c), (e) Output power for three values of P. Observations were made as the injected probe-beam power increased at an injected wavelength of λi=1561.7 nm, where the probe-beam wavelength was tuned from the shorter-wavelength side.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pump–probe experiment with the LNP laser operating in the simultaneous multitransition oscillation regime. The probing experiment was done near the IR emission line at 1581.5 nm, which was generated to correspond to the 1055-nm emission line mode that is shown in the top figure in the absence of the probe beam. The probe-beam wavelength was increased from 1581.1 to 1581.9 nm, as shown in the bottom figures.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Amplification behavior in the Nd:YAG laser operated below the IR emission threshold. (a) Reference: original IR emission (λs) above threshold and without injected signal. (b), (e) Responses as the wavelength of the injected signal (λi) is swept across the original IR emission, which is denoted in each case by filled triangles. The power of the injected signal is 2.1 mW.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Response characteristics of the Stokes-like emission at λ3 and of the emission at λ4 that is due to four-wave mixing in the Nd:YVO4 laser. The upward-pointing arrows indicate the wavelengths of the injected signal when the injected power is 2.1 mW.

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