Abstract

The polarization-resolved emission spectra of the  4I13/2 4I15/2,  4I11/2 4I15/2, and  4S3/2+2H11/2 4I15/2 transitions have been measured in situ on an Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide and used to determine the polarization-resolved emission and absorption cross-section distributions of these transitions. The significant differences caused by the Er3+-ion anisotropic environment may have important implications for optimizing Er:LiNbO3 integrated devices.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Minscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1970 (1)

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Amin, J.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bosso, S.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielyan, V. T.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, A.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lázaro, J. A.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Minscalco, W. J.

Quimby, R. S.

Rebolledo, M. A.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, K.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Söchtig, J.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallés, J. A.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wessel, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level scheme of the Er3+ ion in LiNbO3 after Ref. 7. The degeneracies of the states involved in the analyzed transitions are indicated on the left.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup. PC, polarization controller; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; ASE-, counterpropagating amplified spontaneous emission; L1 and L2, lenses; PP, polarizing prism; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; MC, monochromator; PM, photomultiplier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured polarized fluorescence spectra from an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide and the normalized globally emitted fluorescence power profile for the transitions (a)  4I13/2 4I15/2, (b)  4I11/2 4I15/2, (c)  4S3/2+2H11/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization-resolved emission cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  4I13/2 4I15/2, (b)  4I11/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization-resolved absorption cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  4I13/2 4I15/2, (b)  4I11/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization-resolved emission cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  2H11/2 4I15/2, (b)  4S3/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization-resolved absorption cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  2H11/2 4I15/2, (b)  4S3/2 4I15/2.

Equations (1)

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σa(v)=σe(v) exphv-TkT,

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