Abstract

The polarization-resolved emission spectra of the  4I13/2 4I15/2,  4I11/2 4I15/2, and  4S3/2+2H11/2 4I15/2 transitions have been measured in situ on an Er:Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide and used to determine the polarization-resolved emission and absorption cross-section distributions of these transitions. The significant differences caused by the Er3+-ion anisotropic environment may have important implications for optimizing Er:LiNbO3 integrated devices.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Minscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1999

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

1970

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Amin, J.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, I.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bosso, S.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corsini, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dinand, M.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gabrielyan, V. T.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, A.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hempstead, M.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Lázaro, J. A.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Minscalco, W. J.

Quimby, R. S.

Rebolledo, M. A.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, K.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Söchtig, J.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallés, J. A.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wessel, R.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Dinand and W. Sohler, “Theoretical modeling of optical amplification in Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1267–1276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “In situ measurement of absorption and emission cross sections in Er3+-Doped waveguides for transitions involving thermalized states,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 827–831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

I. Baumann, S. Bosso, R. Brinkmann, R. Corsini, M. Dinand, A. Greiner, K. Schäfer, J. Söchtig, W. Sohler, H. Suche, and R. Wessel, “Er-doped integrated optical devices in LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 355–366 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

C. Huang, L. McCaughan, and D. M. Gill, “Evaluation of absorption and emission cross sections of Er-doped LiNbO3 for application to integrated optic amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 803–809 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and M. Hempstead, “Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transitions in lithium-niobate,” J. Lumin. 69, 17–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299–306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

V. T. Gabrielyan, A. A. Kaminskii, and L. Li, “Absorption and luminescence spectra and energy levels of Nd3+ and Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 3, K37 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

J. A. Lázaro, J. A. Vallés, and M. A. Rebolledo, “Determination of emission and absorption cross sections of Er3+ in LiNbO3 waveguides from transversal fluorescence spectra,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 1363–1371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level scheme of the Er3+ ion in LiNbO3 after Ref. 7. The degeneracies of the states involved in the analyzed transitions are indicated on the left.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup. PC, polarization controller; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; ASE-, counterpropagating amplified spontaneous emission; L1 and L2, lenses; PP, polarizing prism; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; MC, monochromator; PM, photomultiplier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured polarized fluorescence spectra from an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide and the normalized globally emitted fluorescence power profile for the transitions (a)  4I13/2 4I15/2, (b)  4I11/2 4I15/2, (c)  4S3/2+2H11/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarization-resolved emission cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  4I13/2 4I15/2, (b)  4I11/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization-resolved absorption cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  4I13/2 4I15/2, (b)  4I11/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization-resolved emission cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  2H11/2 4I15/2, (b)  4S3/2 4I15/2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization-resolved absorption cross sections in an Er-doped Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide for the transitions (a)  2H11/2 4I15/2, (b)  4S3/2 4I15/2.

Equations (1)

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σa(v)=σe(v) exphv-TkT,

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