Abstract

We use the relative phase of two coherent fields for the control of light amplification with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer in a Λ system. The population inversion and gain with dynamically irreversible pathways of population transfer are shown as the relative phase is varied. We support our results by numerical calculation and analytical explanation.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. E. Harris, “Laser without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. O. Scully, S.-Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855–1858 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and M. Scully, “Atomic coherence via modified spontaneous relaxation of driven three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2451–2454 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. H. Hahn, D. A. King, and S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear generation of 104.8-nm radiation within an absorption window in zinc,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2777–2780 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S.-Y. Zhu, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-mechanical interference effects in the spontaneous-emission spectrum of a driven atom,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4791–4802 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. X. M. Hu and J. S. Peng, “Dynamically irreversible channels of population transfer in coherently driven Λ systems,” Opt. Commun. 170, 259–263 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump-probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. M. Hu, Z. Z. Xu, and S. Q. Gong, “Irreversibility of coherent excitation in three-level systems: lasing with inversion,” J. Phys. B 33, L265–L274 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge UK, 1997).
  20. L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  22. E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

X. M. Hu, Z. Z. Xu, and S. Q. Gong, “Irreversibility of coherent excitation in three-level systems: lasing with inversion,” J. Phys. B 33, L265–L274 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (3)

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[Crossref]

X. M. Hu and J. S. Peng, “Dynamically irreversible channels of population transfer in coherently driven Λ systems,” Opt. Commun. 170, 259–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump-probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

S.-Y. Zhu, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-mechanical interference effects in the spontaneous-emission spectrum of a driven atom,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4791–4802 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and M. Scully, “Atomic coherence via modified spontaneous relaxation of driven three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2451–2454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855–1858 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Hahn, D. A. King, and S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear generation of 104.8-nm radiation within an absorption window in zinc,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2777–2780 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

S. E. Harris, “Laser without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S.-Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, G. S.

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump-probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ansari, N. A.

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baluschev, S.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boller, K.-J.

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Field, J. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gavrielides, A.

M. O. Scully, S.-Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gea-Banacloche, J.

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, S. Q.

X. M. Hu, Z. Z. Xu, and S. Q. Gong, “Irreversibility of coherent excitation in three-level systems: lasing with inversion,” J. Phys. B 33, L265–L274 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hahn, K. H.

K. H. Hahn, D. A. King, and S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear generation of 104.8-nm radiation within an absorption window in zinc,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2777–2780 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Hahn, D. A. King, and S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear generation of 104.8-nm radiation within an absorption window in zinc,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2777–2780 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Laser without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herezfeld, P. R.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hu, X. M.

X. M. Hu, Z. Z. Xu, and S. Q. Gong, “Irreversibility of coherent excitation in three-level systems: lasing with inversion,” J. Phys. B 33, L265–L274 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. M. Hu and J. S. Peng, “Dynamically irreversible channels of population transfer in coherently driven Λ systems,” Opt. Commun. 170, 259–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huss, A.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

Imamoglu, A.

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keitel, C. H.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

King, D. A.

K. H. Hahn, D. A. King, and S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear generation of 104.8-nm radiation within an absorption window in zinc,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2777–2780 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kocharovskaya, O.

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and M. Scully, “Atomic coherence via modified spontaneous relaxation of driven three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2451–2454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korsunsky, E. A.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lange, W.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leinfellner, N.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mandel, P.

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and M. Scully, “Atomic coherence via modified spontaneous relaxation of driven three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2451–2454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez, M. A. G.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

Meduri, K. K.

K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menon, S.

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump-probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mossberg, T. W.

K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narducci, L. M.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Zhu, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-mechanical interference effects in the spontaneous-emission spectrum of a driven atom,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4791–4802 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[Crossref]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nottelmann, A.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oppo, G.-L.

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paspalakis, E.

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peng, J. S.

X. M. Hu and J. S. Peng, “Dynamically irreversible channels of population transfer in coherently driven Λ systems,” Opt. Commun. 170, 259–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peters, C.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ru, P.

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samuels, C.

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

Scully, M.

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and M. Scully, “Atomic coherence via modified spontaneous relaxation of driven three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2451–2454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

S.-Y. Zhu, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-mechanical interference effects in the spontaneous-emission spectrum of a driven atom,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4791–4802 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855–1858 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S.-Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge UK, 1997).

Sellin, P. B.

K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, C.

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swain, S.

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tredicce, J. R.

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ulrich, B. T.

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, G. A.

K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windholz, L.

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xia, H. R.

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z. Z.

X. M. Hu, Z. Z. Xu, and S. Q. Gong, “Irreversibility of coherent excitation in three-level systems: lasing with inversion,” J. Phys. B 33, L265–L274 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. Y.

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, P.

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. Y.

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Zhu, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-mechanical interference effects in the spontaneous-emission spectrum of a driven atom,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4791–4802 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S.-Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge UK, 1997).

J. Phys. B (1)

X. M. Hu, Z. Z. Xu, and S. Q. Gong, “Irreversibility of coherent excitation in three-level systems: lasing with inversion,” J. Phys. B 33, L265–L274 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. M. Hu and J. S. Peng, “Dynamically irreversible channels of population transfer in coherently driven Λ systems,” Opt. Commun. 170, 259–263 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic systems,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (7)

E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, “Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302–2305 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. G. Martinez, P. R. Herezfeld, C. Samuels, L. M. Narducci, and C. H. Keitel, “Quantum interference effects in spontaneous atomic emission: dependence of the resonance fluorescence spectrum on the phase of the driving field,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4483–4491 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, G.-L. Oppo, P. Ru, and J. R. Tredicce, “Spontaneous emission and absorption properties of a driven three-level system,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 1630–1649 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Menon and G. S. Agarwal, “Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the pump-probe response of a Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4014–4018 (1998).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Zhu, L. M. Narducci, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum-mechanical interference effects in the spontaneous-emission spectrum of a driven atom,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4791–4802 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Ansari, J. Gea-Banacloche, and M. S. Zubairy, “Phase-sensitive amplification in a three-level atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 5179–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, M. O. Scully, C. Su, B. T. Ulrich, and S.-Y. Zhu, “Resonantly enhanced refractive index without absorption via atomic coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 1468–1487 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and M. Scully, “Atomic coherence via modified spontaneous relaxation of driven three-level atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2451–2454 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. H. Hahn, D. A. King, and S. E. Harris, “Nonlinear generation of 104.8-nm radiation within an absorption window in zinc,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2777–2780 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Laser without inversion: interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S.-Y. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, “Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855–1858 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhou and S. Swain, “Phase-dependent spectra in a driven two-level atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2500–2504 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Paspalakis and P. L. Knight, “Phase control of spontaneous emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 293–296 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. K. Meduri, G. A. Wilson, P. B. Sellin, and T. W. Mossberg, “Dynamically induced irreversibility in coherently driven systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4311–4314 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Xia, C. Y. Ye, and S. Y. Zhu, “Experimental observation of spontaneous emission cancellation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1032–1037 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge UK, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the atomic configurations discussed in this paper; the two coherent fields have the Rabi frequencies 2g and 2G. γ1 and γ2 represent the spontaneous-emission rate. Δ1=ω13ω1 and Δ2=ω12ω2 are the detunings, where ωij is energy separation between states |i〉 and |j〉. The field polarizations are chosen so that one field drives only one transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Population difference ρ11ρ22 (dashed curve) and gain A(ωω12) (solid curve) versus relative phase φ for Δ1=-10. Other parameters are g=G=10 sin θ, θ=π/4, Δ2=0, and γ2=1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Population difference ρ11ρ33 (dashed curve) and gain A(ωω13) (solid curve) versus relative phase φ for Δ1=0 and Δ2=-10. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain A(ωω13) versus relative phase φ for Δ1=-15 (dashed curve), Δ1=-10 (dotted curve), Δ1=10 (dashed–dotted curve) and Δ1=15 (solid curve) for Δ2=0. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain A(ωω13) versus relative phase φ for Δ2=-15 (dashed curve), Δ2=-10 (dotted curve), Δ2=10 (dashed–dotted curve) and Δ2=15 (solid curve) for Δ1=0. Other parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Equations (12)

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ρ˙11=-2(γ1+γ2)ρ11+igρ31+iGρ21-iG*ρ12-ig*ρ13,
ρ˙22=2γ2ρ11+iG*ρ12-iGρ21,
ρ˙33=2γ1ρ11+ig*ρ13-iGρ31,
ρ˙12=-(γ1+γ2+iΔ2)ρ12+igρ32-iG(ρ11-ρ22),
ρ˙13=-(γ1+γ2+iΔ1)ρ13+iGρ23-ig(ρ11-ρ33),
ρ˙23=-i(Δ1-Δ2)ρ23+2γ1γ2 cos θηρ11+iG*ρ13-igρ21,
ρ11=2g2G2(Δ1-Δ2)2D,
ρ22=g2(G2+g2)g2-(η+η*)2gG+G2D+(Δ1-Δ2)2g4-(η+η*)g3G2Δ2+i(η-η*)g3G2+(Δ1-Δ2)24+Δ22+G2g2D
ρ33=G2(G2+g2)g2-(η+η*)2gG+G2D+(Δ1-Δ2)2G4+(η+η*)2gG3Δ2+i(η-η*)2gG3D+(Δ1-Δ2)2(4+Δ12+g2)G2+(Δ1-Δ2)2(η+η*)2g-2GG3D,
D={(g2+G2)2[g2-(η+η*)cos θgG+G2]}+{[2g2-(η+η*)cos θgG+2G2]×(g2-G2)Δ2(Δ1-Δ2)}+[4G2+4g2+4G2g2+(η+η*)cos θgG3-2G4+(g2+G2)Δ22](Δ1-Δ2)2+[2G2Δ2(Δ1-Δ2)3+G2(Δ1-Δ2)4]+2igG cos θ(η-η*)(g2+G2)×(Δ1-Δ2).
A(ω)=const×{[P(-)(τ1),P(+)(τ0)]},
A(ω)=Re{M(2,6) * [1-Ψ(4)-2Ψ(8)]+M(2, 7) * Ψ(1)+M(2, 8) * Ψ(2)-M(2, 3) * Ψ(5)},

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