Abstract

The spectral and temporal properties of single- and two-photon fluorescence of a dye-doped linear homogeneous polymer are reported. The dopant is a new organic dye, trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-ethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (HEASPS), synthesized by researchers at the State Key Laboratory, Jinan China. When the dye is excited by near-infrared laser radiation, strong upcoverted fluorescence and superradiance can be observed. The difference in the blueshift of two-photon superradiance compared with that of two-photon fluorescence is explained by the use of different reabsorption coefficients under different conditions. The lifetime of two-photon fluorescence in a solid was measured to be 4.14 ns, which was much longer than that in solution. Two-photon transmittance and upconversion efficiencies at different wavelengths were measured with an optical parameter amplifier as the pump source. The strongest two-photon absorption occurred at 930 nm. The highest upconversion efficiency was 4.05% at 1030 nm. A possible mechanism is discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Dvornikov and P. M. Rentzepis, “Accessing 3D memory information by means of nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 119, 341–346 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. S. He, R. Signorini, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon-pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5726 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).
  9. H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (2)

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. S. Dvornikov and P. M. Rentzepis, “Accessing 3D memory information by means of nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 119, 341–346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abbotto, A.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dvornikov, A. S.

A. S. Dvornikov and P. M. Rentzepis, “Accessing 3D memory information by means of nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 119, 341–346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Facchetti, A.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, A. M. R.

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomer, C. J.

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, R. Signorini, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon-pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5726 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lei, H.

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

Marder, S. R.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maughon, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A.

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murphree, A. L.

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagani, G. A.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, R. Signorini, and P. N. Prasad, “Two-photon-pumped frequency-upconverted blue lasing in Coumarin dye solution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5720–5726 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Y.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

A. S. Dvornikov and P. M. Rentzepis, “Accessing 3D memory information by means of nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 119, 341–346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Röckel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Signorini, R.

Spangler, G. W.

G. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

Wang, H. Z.

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. M.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

Wei, Z. C.

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N. S.

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. T.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

Yuan, L.

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

Zheng, X. G.

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G. Y.

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Mukherjee, “Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Chem. Lett. (1)

Y. Ren, G. Y. Zhou, C. Wang, X. M. Wang, Z. Liu, X. Zhao, W. T. Yu, and M. H. Jiang, “A new organic upconversion laser dye HEASPS,” Chin. Chem. Lett. 11, 585–688 (2000).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

G. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

A. M. R. Fisher, A. L. Murphree, and C. J. Gomer, “Clinical and preclinical photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 17, 2–31 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. S. Lee, S. M. Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. S. Dvornikov and P. M. Rentzepis, “Accessing 3D memory information by means of nonlinear absorption,” Opt. Commun. 119, 341–346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Lei, H. Z. Wang, Y. Ren, Q. Fang, X. G. Zheng, Z. C. Wei, N. S. Xu, and M. H. Jiang, “Temporal and spectral behaviors of two-photon induced emission laser dyes,” Opt. Commun. 187, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, L. Yuan, P. N. Prasad, A. Abbotto, A. Facchetti, and G. A. Pagani, “Two-photon pumped frequency-upconverted lasing of a new blue–green dye material,” Opt. Commun. 140, 49–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for measurement of the spectral and temporal properties of single- and two-photon fluorescence and superradiance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup used for measurement of two-photon transmittance and upconversion efficiencies at different wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral distribution of single- and two-photon fluorescence and superradiance; p means photon.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal profile of single- and two-photon fluorescence. Solid curves, theoretical curves with best-fit lifetimes of 4.33 and 4.14 ns for single- and two-photon fluorescence, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profiles of a pump laser and single- and two-photon superradiance; p means photon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-photon transmittance at wavelengths from 750 to 1150 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Upconversion efficiencies at wavelengths from 900 to 1130 nm.

Equations (1)

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Tnonlinear=Ttotal/Tlinear.

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