Abstract

Based on the ripple transfers of electric-field amplitude and phase in frequency tripling, simple formulas are derived for the harmonic laser’s beam-quality factor M3ω2, with an arbitrary fundamental incidence to ideal nonlinear crystals. Whereas the harmonic beam’s quality is generally degraded, the beam’s divergence is similar to that of the fundamental after nonlinear frequency conversion. For practical crystals with periodic surface ripples that are caused by their machining, a multiorder diffractive model is presented with which the focusing properties of harmonic beams can be studied. Predictions of the theories are shown to be in excellent agreement with full numerical simulations.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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