Abstract

We used intensity-dependent prism coupling of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) waveguides to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficients and nonlinear refractive indices of these waveguides in the range 700–1200 nm. The material’s strong nonlinearity combined with low linear waveguide losses (<1 dB/cm) led to promising figures of merit and have made it attractive for use in all-optical switching applications at wavelengths of >1150 nm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Ueberhofen, A. Deutesfeld, K. Koynov, and C. Bubeck, “Nonlinear optical waveguide spectroscopy of a conjugated polymer: poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1921–1935 (1999).
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  27. A. Mathy, H. U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
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  28. R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly(p-phenylenevinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1410 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, “Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817–825 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

1999 (3)

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Pfeiffer and H.-H. Hörhold, “Investigation of poly(arylene vinylene)s, 41–synthesis of soluble dialkoxy-substituted poly(phenylene alkenylidene)s by applying the Horner-reaction for condensation polymerization,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 200, 1870–1878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueberhofen, A. Deutesfeld, K. Koynov, and C. Bubeck, “Nonlinear optical waveguide spectroscopy of a conjugated polymer: poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1921–1935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, “Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817–825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Advanced Materials, S. Etemad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Astill, “Material figures of merit for nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 204, 1–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, H. U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly(p-phenylenevinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1410 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. M. Carter and Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear optical coupling between radiation and confined modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643–645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1970 (2)

Adant, C.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Astill, A. G.

A. G. Astill, “Material figures of merit for nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 204, 1–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baier, U.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Bao, Z.

Barton, T.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartuch, U.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Benner, R.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly(p-phenylenevinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1410 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Brédas, J. L.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bubeck, C.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

K. Ueberhofen, A. Deutesfeld, K. Koynov, and C. Bubeck, “Nonlinear optical waveguide spectroscopy of a conjugated polymer: poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1921–1935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, H. U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter and Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear optical coupling between radiation and confined modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643–645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chellil, H.

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

G. M. Carter and Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear optical coupling between radiation and confined modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643–645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Deutesfeld, A.

Ding, Y.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eichner, H.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Etemad, S.

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fitrilawati, F.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Former, C.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Fortenberry, R. M.

Gabler, T.

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gabler, Th.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Galvao, D. S.

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garay, R.

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gregorius, H.

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grund, A.

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hörhold, H.-H.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

S. Pfeiffer and H.-H. Hörhold, “Investigation of poly(arylene vinylene)s, 41–synthesis of soluble dialkoxy-substituted poly(phenylene alkenylidene)s by applying the Horner-reaction for condensation polymerization,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 200, 1870–1878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Hsieh, B.

Kaltbeitzel, A.

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koster, A.

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Koynov, K.

Lane, P. A.

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

LeClerc, M.

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, R. W.

J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liess, M.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Maradudin, A. A.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. J.

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mathy, A.

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, H. U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mellor, H.

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, R.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paraire, N.

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, S.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

S. Pfeiffer and H.-H. Hörhold, “Investigation of poly(arylene vinylene)s, 41–synthesis of soluble dialkoxy-substituted poly(phenylene alkenylidene)s by applying the Horner-reaction for condensation polymerization,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 200, 1870–1878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, D.

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Ramasesha, S.

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, R.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Schenk, R.

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Simmrock, H. U.

A. Mathy, H. U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singh, B. P.

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Soos, Z. G.

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Advanced Materials, S. Etemad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stenger-Smith, J. D.

J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stockmann, R.

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Tackx, P.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Tillmann, H.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Torge, R.

Ueberhofen, K.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

K. Ueberhofen, A. Deutesfeld, K. Koynov, and C. Bubeck, “Nonlinear optical waveguide spectroscopy of a conjugated polymer: poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1921–1935 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Vardeny, Z.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vitrant, G.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Waldhausl, R.

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waldhäusl, R.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Zanoni, R.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, J.

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

G. M. Carter and Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear optical coupling between radiation and confined modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643–645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. D (2)

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly(p-phenylenevinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1410 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, H. U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Pfeiffer and H.-H. Hörhold, “Investigation of poly(arylene vinylene)s, 41–synthesis of soluble dialkoxy-substituted poly(phenylene alkenylidene)s by applying the Horner-reaction for condensation polymerization,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 200, 1870–1878 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

C. Bubeck, K. Ueberhofen, J. Ziegler, F. Fitrilawati, U. Baier, H. Eichner, C. Former, K. Müllen, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Waveguides of conjugated polymers with large cubic nonlinearities,” Nonlinear Opt. 25, 93–104 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, P. A. Lane, H. Mellor, and P. L. Burn, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the conjugated polymers PPV and MEH-PPV,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 15133–15142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. I. Stegeman, “Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Advanced Materials, S. Etemad, ed., Proc. SPIE 1852, 75–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

R. Meyer, R. Benner, Z. Vardeny, M. Liess, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Y. Ding, and T. Barton, “Two photon absorption spectra of luminescent conducting polymers,” Synth. Met. 84, 549–550 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. G. Astill, “Material figures of merit for nonlinear optics,” Thin Solid Films 204, 1–17 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Messier, F. Kajzar, P. N. Prasad, and D. Ulrich, eds., Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989).

F. Kajzar and J. D. Swalen, eds., Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, R. W. Lenz, D. Neher, J. D.Stenger-Smith, and G. Wegner, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(p-phenylenvinylene) thin films,” in Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, P. N. Prasad, and D. Ulrich, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989), pp. 143–147.

F. Fitrilawati, M. O. Tjia, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillmann, H.-H. Hörhold, A. Deutesfeld, H. Eichner, and C. Bubeck, “Planar waveguides of PPV derivatives: attenuation loss, third-harmonic generation and photostability,” submitted to Opt. Mater.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure and linear absorption spectrum of a thin film of MEH-PPV after correction of reflection losses at interfaces.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Prism coupling of a planar waveguide. See text for definitions of symbols.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TE0 waveguide modes of a 590-nm-thick film of MEH-PPV upon a fused-silica substrate that were excited with prism coupling at laser wavelength λ=806 nm. The angular dependencies of the reflected intensities IR were measured for low incident intensities I0 (linear case) and various clamping pressures, p1<p2<p3. The curves represent numerical simulations calculated for nf=1.68555, αf=3.8 cm-1, and air-gap thicknesses da(p1)=315 nm, da(p2)=270 nm, and da(p3)=180 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical calculation for minimal reflection Rmin (at the minimum of the coupling curve, θ=θm) as a function of air-gap thickness da for three absorption coefficients. The ratios between incident beam diameter db and air-gap length la, db\la, are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TE0 waveguide modes of a 590-nm-thick film of MEH-PPV upon a fused-silica substrate that were excited with prism coupling at laser wavelength λ=1080 nm. The angular dependencies of the reflected intensities IR were measured at the pulse energies shown (measured in front of the prism). The lines were calculated by means of our numerical model and fitted to the experimental points. Air gap thickness da=240 nm was held constant. Only nf and αf of the film were varied to fit the measurements at the three energies (0.07 µJ: nf=1.655, αf=0.1 cm-1; 0.5 µJ: nf=1.6553, αf=14 cm-1; 1.0 µJ: nf=1.6557, αf=21 cm-1).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical spectra of MEH-PPV measured at laser wavelengths λ. (a) Linear attenuation loss αgw(λ) determined from coupling curves at low intensity (filled circles) and from waveguide-loss experiments (open diamonds). Dispersions of α2 and n2 are shown in (b) and (c).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral dependences of FOMs (a) W and (b) T of MEH–PPV waveguides. The arrow in (b) indicates the divergence of T because n2=0 at λ=980 nm.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=n0+n2I,
α=α0+α2I,
W=n2Iα0λ1,
T=2α2λn21
ddzagw(y, z, t)=tinain(y, z, t)×exp{-i[(k0βm(Igw)-kzp)]z}-tout+αgw(Igw)2agw(y, z, t),
aR(y, z, t)=rpfain(y, z, t)-2(rpf/tin)agw(y, z, t),
kzp=k0{cos(γ)sin(θ)+sin(γ)[np2-sin2(θ)]1/2}
IR(y, z, t)=npcε02|aR(y, z, t)|2.
Δnf=n2Igw,
Δαf=α2Igw.

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