Abstract

We demonstrate 1.5-W continuous-wave output power from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) based on InGaAs quantum wells as the gain medium. The VECSEL is pumped by the output of a single-bar diode-laser array at 814 nm and produces an optical-to-optical efficiency of 19%. The high output power is made possible by the use of a sapphire window optically contacted to the intracavity semiconductor surface for heat removal. We demonstrate the good beam quality of the VECSEL output by obtaining 1-W output from a single-mode fiber for 1.5 W launched with simple lenses. Pulsed operation produces a maximum peak power of ∼4.4 W and maximum average power of ∼2 W.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “High-power diode-pumped AlGaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5781–5784 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1127–1129 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. L. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651–653 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959), Chap. 8.

2000 (2)

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651–653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “High-power diode-pumped AlGaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5781–5784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1127–1129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aifer, E. H.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

Allerman, A. A.

Bewley, W. W.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “High-power diode-pumped AlGaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5781–5784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, M. H. Crawford, and A. A. Allerman, “Intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-pumped external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1127–1129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cusumano, P.

Dawson, M. D.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “High-power diode-pumped AlGaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5781–5784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dhanjal, S.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Felix, C. L.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “High-power diode-pumped AlGaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5781–5784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, M. A.

M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haring, R.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holm, M. A.

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, P. Cusumano, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “High-power diode-pumped AlGaAs surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5781–5784 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z. L.

Z. L. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651–653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olafsen, L. J.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

Roberts, J. S.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. S.

M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, D. W.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, G. C.

M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. J.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Z. L. Liau, “Semiconductor wafer bonding via liquid capillarity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 651–653 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hadley, G. C. Wilson, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, “High single-transverse-mode output from external-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1607–1609 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Felix, E. H. Aifer, D. W. Stokes, I. Vurgaftman, L. J. Olafsen, J. R. Meyer, M. J. Yang, and H. Lee, “Thermal characterization of diamond-pressure-bond heat sinking for optically pumped mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1597–1601 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, “Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810–1824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and characteristics of high-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 561–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Hoogland, S. Dhanjal, A. C. Tropper, J. S. Roberts, R. Haring, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Passively mode-locked diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1135–1137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Holm, D. Burns, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “Actively stabilized, single-frequency, vertical external cavity AlGaAs laser,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1551–1553 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, UK, 1959), Chap. 8.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the VECSEL semiconductor layers grown by MOCVD. The Al0.04Ga0.96As layers provide most of the absorption of the pump light while the InGaAs layers provide the gain at ∼980 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the VECSEL cavity. The semiconductor wafer is sandwiched between indium foil and an optically contacted sapphire window to remove heat from the gain region. The dashed curve is a sketch of the lasing mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power (points) and efficiency (curves) versus incident pump power for cw, a, and pulsed, b, operation. The dots and pluses are output power with and without the sapphire window. The solid curves and dashed curve show efficiency with and without the sapphire window.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time profiles of the VECSEL output for a 3-ms, 14-W pulse of pump light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of the VECSEL output at various pump powers for cw, a, and pulsed, b, operation.

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