Abstract

The third- and fifth-order optical nonlinear properties of a new stilbazolium derivative, trans-1-[p-(p-dimethylaminobenzyl-azo)-benzyl]-2-(N-methyl-4-pyridinium)-ethene iodide (DABAZO-PEI), were investigated with a Q-switched and mode-locked pulse laser with a duration of 35 ps at 1064 nm. Its linear optical properties were also discussed. DABAZO-PEI exhibits two-photon absorption and strong excited-state absorption induced by two-photon absorption. A positive third-order nonlinear refraction caused by bound electrons and negative excited-state refraction caused by the two-photon absorption-generated excited states were also observed. The magnitude and the sign of the real (refractive) and the imaginary (two-photon absorption) parts of the molecular third-order polarizability, and the excited-state absorption and refraction cross sections, were measured. A feature worth noting is the values of excited-state absorption and refraction cross sections. They are all as high as 10-17 cm2. Based on the excited-state absorption induced by the two-photon-absorption mechanism, a highly efficient optical-limiting behavior for incident fluence in the range of 0–10 J/cm2 was demonstrated in a 1-cm-path quartz cell containing DABAZO-PEI solution in dimethyl sulfoxide. The optical-limiting threshold was estimated to be as low as 5 mJ/cm2.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Yang, R. Dorsinvulle, Q. Z. Wang, P. X. Ye, and R. R. Alfano, “Excited-state nonlinearity in polythiophene thin films investigated by the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Lett. 17, 323–325 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye-doped solid-matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhartt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, L. L. Brott, S. J. Carlson, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Three-Photon absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1524–1526 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. D. Bhawalhar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Three-photon induced upconverted fluorescence from an organic compound: application to optical power limiting,” Opt. Commun. 119, 587–590 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Perry, K. Mausour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, A. Alvarez, Jr., and J. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable ab-sorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Selected data: 1 H-NMR (δ, ppm, DMSO-d6): 3.08 (s, 6H, (CH 3)2 N), 4.25 (s, 3H, CH3), 6.85 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.60 (d, 1H, CH=CH), 7.81 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.87 (s, 6H, Ar-H), 8.05 (d, 1H, CH=CH), 8.23 (m, 2H, pyridinio-H), 8.86 (m, 2H, pyridinio-H). Analytically calculated: C, 52.18; H, 4.58; N, 11.06. Found: C, 51.31; H, 4.54; N, 10.36.
  16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam N2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).
  19. A. R. Kartritzky, D. W. Zhu, and K. S. Schanze, “Intramolecular charge transfer properties of dicyanovinyl-substituted aromatics,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5737–5742 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Hochbaum, Y. Y. Hsu, and J. J. Hagan, “Molecular structure and its relation to optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2229, 48–58 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1999

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhartt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Three-Photon absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1524–1526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye-doped solid-matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalhar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Three-photon induced upconverted fluorescence from an organic compound: application to optical power limiting,” Opt. Commun. 119, 587–590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. W. Perry, K. Mausour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, A. Alvarez, Jr., and J. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable ab-sorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett. 19, 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hochbaum, Y. Y. Hsu, and J. J. Hagan, “Molecular structure and its relation to optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2229, 48–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

A. R. Kartritzky, D. W. Zhu, and K. S. Schanze, “Intramolecular charge transfer properties of dicyanovinyl-substituted aromatics,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5737–5742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1985

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

Abdel-Mottaleb, M. S. A.

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

Alfano, R. R.

Alvarez Jr., A.

Antonious, M. S.

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

Aranda, F. J.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bhartt, J. C.

Bhawalhar, J. D.

J. D. Bhawalhar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Three-photon induced upconverted fluorescence from an organic compound: application to optical power limiting,” Opt. Commun. 119, 587–590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bhawalkar, J. D.

Bhawalker, J. D.

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brott, L. L.

Byeon, C. C.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, S. J.

Castillo, J.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, N.

Choong, J.

Dillard, A. G.

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhartt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dong, S.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorsinvulle, R.

El Zawawi, F.

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

Fernandez, A.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gray, G. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Habashy, M. M.

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, J. J.

A. Hochbaum, Y. Y. Hsu, and J. J. Hagan, “Molecular structure and its relation to optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2229, 48–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, L. L. Brott, S. J. Carlson, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Three-Photon absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1524–1526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhartt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye-doped solid-matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalhar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Three-photon induced upconverted fluorescence from an organic compound: application to optical power limiting,” Opt. Commun. 119, 587–590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hochbaum, A.

A. Hochbaum, Y. Y. Hsu, and J. J. Hagan, “Molecular structure and its relation to optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2229, 48–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y. Y.

A. Hochbaum, Y. Y. Hsu, and J. J. Hagan, “Molecular structure and its relation to optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2229, 48–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kartritzky, A. R.

A. R. Kartritzky, D. W. Zhu, and K. S. Schanze, “Intramolecular charge transfer properties of dicyanovinyl-substituted aromatics,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5737–5742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lord, A. D.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

Mausour, K.

McKerns, M. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mujica, V.

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. K.

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

Perry, K. J.

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, L. X. Yuan, N. Cheng, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, L. L. Brott, S. J. Carlson, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Nonlinear optical properties of a new chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1079–1087 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhartt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, P. N. Prasad, and B. A. Reinhardt, “Three-Photon absorption-induced fluorescence and optical limiting effects in an organic compound,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1524–1526 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye-doped solid-matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bhawalhar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Three-photon induced upconverted fluorescence from an organic compound: application to optical power limiting,” Opt. Commun. 119, 587–590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

Remy, D. E.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roach, J. F.

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam N2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schanze, K. S.

A. R. Kartritzky, D. W. Zhu, and K. S. Schanze, “Intramolecular charge transfer properties of dicyanovinyl-substituted aromatics,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5737–5742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Sheriff, A. K.

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

Spruce, G.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Swatton, S. N. R.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Till, S. J.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam N2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Q. Z.

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Welford, K. R.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. C.

Yang, L.

Ye, P. X.

Young, J.

Yuan, L. X.

Zhao, C. F.

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye-doped solid-matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D. W.

A. R. Kartritzky, D. W. Zhu, and K. S. Schanze, “Intramolecular charge transfer properties of dicyanovinyl-substituted aromatics,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5737–5742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, and D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalkar, C. F. Zhao, and P. N. Prasad, “Optical limiting effect in a two-photon absorption dye-doped solid-matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2433–2435 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. V. G. L. N. Rao, F. J. Aranda, J. F. Roach, and D. E. Remy, “Third-order, nonlinear optical interactions of some benzporphyrins,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1241–1243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, and J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a Z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

C. F. Zhao, G. S. He, J. D. Bhawalker, C. K. Park, and P. N. Prasad, “Newly synthesized dyes and their polymer/glass composites for one-photon and two-photon pumped solid-state cavity lasing,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1979–1083 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, “Third-order and fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646–650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Indian J. Chem. A

M. M. Habashy, F. El Zawawi, M. S. Antonious, A. K. Sheriff, and M. S. A. Abdel-Mottaleb, “Electronic structures of solvent-polarity indicators: Electronic & proton magnetic resonance spectra of donor-acceptor chromogens,” Indian J. Chem. A 24, 908–912 (1985).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

A. R. Kartritzky, D. W. Zhu, and K. S. Schanze, “Intramolecular charge transfer properties of dicyanovinyl-substituted aromatics,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 5737–5742 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. D. Bhawalhar, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Three-photon induced upconverted fluorescence from an organic compound: application to optical power limiting,” Opt. Commun. 119, 587–590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, G. Spruce, B. S. Wherrett, K. R. Welford, and A. D. Lord, “The saturation limit to Picosecond, induced absorption in dyes,” Opt. Commun. 100, 113–117 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. Castillo, J. Hung, A. Fernandez, and V. Mujica, “Nonlinear optical effect in asphaltenes solutions,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 148–154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Hochbaum, Y. Y. Hsu, and J. J. Hagan, “Molecular structure and its relation to optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE 2229, 48–58 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, S. Dong, D. Wang, and G. M. Gray, “Characterization of the third-order nonlinearity of [(CH3-TXP)Cd]Cl,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 3798, 107–116 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

Selected data: 1 H-NMR (δ, ppm, DMSO-d6): 3.08 (s, 6H, (CH 3)2 N), 4.25 (s, 3H, CH3), 6.85 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.60 (d, 1H, CH=CH), 7.81 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.87 (s, 6H, Ar-H), 8.05 (d, 1H, CH=CH), 8.23 (m, 2H, pyridinio-H), 8.86 (m, 2H, pyridinio-H). Analytically calculated: C, 52.18; H, 4.58; N, 11.06. Found: C, 51.31; H, 4.54; N, 10.36.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear-absorption spectra of a 1-cm path-length liquid cell containing DABAZO-PEI in DMSO with concentrations of 5.1×10-5 and 5.1×10-2 M. The excitation spectrum of the donor moiety in tetrahydrofuran is also shown with a dashed curve. The molecular structure is shown at the top.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-photon-induced fluorescence (1PF) spectra of DABAZO-PEI in DMSO with a concentration of 5.1×10-5 M excited by 490-nm radiation (dotted curve). The 1PF (solid line) and TPF (dashed curve) spectra of another solution in ethanol with a concentration of 1.5×10-5 M are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristic square dependence of the measured upconversion fluorescence intensity on the incident intensity. The data represented by filled circles are for the pure solvent.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Series of typical open-aperture Z scans at several incident irradiances for sample 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of the effective 2PA coefficient βeff versus I0. The initial decrease of βeff with I0 is due to an aggregation, and the subsequent linear increase with I0 is contributed to by a higher-order effect such as a 2PA-generated excited-state absorption.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical series of divided Z scans at several incident irradiances for sample 1, in which a reversed sign of the nonlinear refraction was observed.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Linear plot of Δn/I0 versus I0. The linear decrease of Δn/I0 with I0 shows a negative fifth-order contribution to the nonlinear refraction. The influences of the cell and the solvent have been subtracted.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical-limiting behaviors of samples 1, 2, and 3.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Data of the Aggregation Influence on the Values of 2PA Coefficient and Cross Section, Optical Limiting of DABAZO-PEI, and Experimental Errors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Third- and Fifth-Order Nonlinear Coefficients for Bound Electrons and Excited-State Process from Sample 1, Estimated Experimental Uncertainties

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI/dz=-βeffI2,
T=ln1+q01+x2q01+x2,
Ti=[ln(1+I0Lβeff)]/I0Lβeff.
σ2=hνβ/NAd0×10-3,
γI=n024π2μ013(n02+2)4Nλβ,
Δn/I0=ΔTP-v/[0.406(1-S)0.25kLeff]=n2+BσrI0,
γr=n02πμ013(n02+2)4Nn2,

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