Abstract

The characteristics of laser operation near the threshold of mode locking are investigated in a Nd:YAG laser. In the threshold region the off states of the laser operation are intermittently interrupted by chaotic laser pulsations of the on states. Through an analysis of the scalings of laminar phases, i.e., intervals between two bursts in the neighborhood, we verify that the phenomenon is on–off intermittency.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. T. Arecchi and R. G. Harrison, eds., Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).
  2. D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, and D. Hennequin, “Chaos in a CO2 laser with modulated parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4775–4791 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. Midavaine, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, “Observation of chaos in a frequency-modulated CO2 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1989–1992 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Bracikowski and R. Roy, “Chaos in a multimode solid-state laser system,” Chaos 1, 49–64 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S.-H. Gong and C.-M. Kim, “On-off intermittency in the threshold of a cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).
  6. H. Fujisaka and T. Yamada, “A new intermittency in coupled dynamical systems,” Prog. Theor. Phys. 74, 918–921 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Platt, E. A. Spiegel, and C. Tresser, “On-off intermittency: a mechanism for bursting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 279–282 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. F. Heagy, N. Platt, and S. M. Hammel, “Characterization of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140–1150 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, and J. F. Heagy, “Effects of additive noise on on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3498–3501 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Yu, E. Ott, and Q. Chen, “Transition to chaos for random dynamical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2935–2938 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. J. Gauthier and J. C. Bienfang, “Intermittent loss of synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators: toward a new criterion for high-quality synchronization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1751–1754 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. L. Yang and E. J. Ding, “Synchronization of chaotic systems and on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1361 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. C. Lai and C. Grebogi, “Intermingled basins and two-state on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R3313 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Xie, G. Hu, and Z. Qu, “On-off intermittency in a coupled-map lattice system,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R1265 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Ding and W. Yang, “Distribution of the first return time in fractional Brownian motion and its application to the study of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 207 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

D. J. Gauthier and J. C. Bienfang, “Intermittent loss of synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators: toward a new criterion for high-quality synchronization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1751–1754 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. L. Yang and E. J. Ding, “Synchronization of chaotic systems and on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1361 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

Y. C. Lai and C. Grebogi, “Intermingled basins and two-state on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R3313 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, G. Hu, and Z. Qu, “On-off intermittency in a coupled-map lattice system,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R1265 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Ding and W. Yang, “Distribution of the first return time in fractional Brownian motion and its application to the study of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 207 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

J. F. Heagy, N. Platt, and S. M. Hammel, “Characterization of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140–1150 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, and J. F. Heagy, “Effects of additive noise on on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3498–3501 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

N. Platt, E. A. Spiegel, and C. Tresser, “On-off intermittency: a mechanism for bursting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 279–282 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. Bracikowski and R. Roy, “Chaos in a multimode solid-state laser system,” Chaos 1, 49–64 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

L. Yu, E. Ott, and Q. Chen, “Transition to chaos for random dynamical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2935–2938 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, and D. Hennequin, “Chaos in a CO2 laser with modulated parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4775–4791 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

T. Midavaine, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, “Observation of chaos in a frequency-modulated CO2 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1989–1992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fujisaka and T. Yamada, “A new intermittency in coupled dynamical systems,” Prog. Theor. Phys. 74, 918–921 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bienfang, J. C.

D. J. Gauthier and J. C. Bienfang, “Intermittent loss of synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators: toward a new criterion for high-quality synchronization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1751–1754 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bracikowski, C.

C. Bracikowski and R. Roy, “Chaos in a multimode solid-state laser system,” Chaos 1, 49–64 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

L. Yu, E. Ott, and Q. Chen, “Transition to chaos for random dynamical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2935–2938 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dangoisse, D.

D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, and D. Hennequin, “Chaos in a CO2 laser with modulated parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4775–4791 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Midavaine, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, “Observation of chaos in a frequency-modulated CO2 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1989–1992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, E. J.

H. L. Yang and E. J. Ding, “Synchronization of chaotic systems and on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1361 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

M. Ding and W. Yang, “Distribution of the first return time in fractional Brownian motion and its application to the study of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 207 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fujisaka, H.

H. Fujisaka and T. Yamada, “A new intermittency in coupled dynamical systems,” Prog. Theor. Phys. 74, 918–921 (1985).
[Crossref]

Gauthier, D. J.

D. J. Gauthier and J. C. Bienfang, “Intermittent loss of synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators: toward a new criterion for high-quality synchronization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1751–1754 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glorieux, P.

D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, and D. Hennequin, “Chaos in a CO2 laser with modulated parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4775–4791 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Midavaine, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, “Observation of chaos in a frequency-modulated CO2 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1989–1992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, S.-H.

S.-H. Gong and C.-M. Kim, “On-off intermittency in the threshold of a cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Grebogi, C.

Y. C. Lai and C. Grebogi, “Intermingled basins and two-state on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R3313 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hammel, S. M.

N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, and J. F. Heagy, “Effects of additive noise on on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3498–3501 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Heagy, N. Platt, and S. M. Hammel, “Characterization of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140–1150 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hammer, P. W.

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heagy, J. F.

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Heagy, N. Platt, and S. M. Hammel, “Characterization of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140–1150 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, and J. F. Heagy, “Effects of additive noise on on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3498–3501 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hennequin, D.

D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, and D. Hennequin, “Chaos in a CO2 laser with modulated parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4775–4791 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, G.

F. Xie, G. Hu, and Z. Qu, “On-off intermittency in a coupled-map lattice system,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R1265 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hwang, D. W.

S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C. M.

S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.-M.

S.-H. Gong and C.-M. Kim, “On-off intermittency in the threshold of a cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

Kim, I.

S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, Y. C.

Y. C. Lai and C. Grebogi, “Intermingled basins and two-state on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R3313 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. D.

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Midavaine, T.

T. Midavaine, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, “Observation of chaos in a frequency-modulated CO2 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1989–1992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ott, E.

L. Yu, E. Ott, and Q. Chen, “Transition to chaos for random dynamical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2935–2938 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Platt, N.

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, and J. F. Heagy, “Effects of additive noise on on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3498–3501 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Heagy, N. Platt, and S. M. Hammel, “Characterization of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140–1150 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Platt, E. A. Spiegel, and C. Tresser, “On-off intermittency: a mechanism for bursting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 279–282 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, Z.

F. Xie, G. Hu, and Z. Qu, “On-off intermittency in a coupled-map lattice system,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R1265 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rim, S.

S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roy, R.

C. Bracikowski and R. Roy, “Chaos in a multimode solid-state laser system,” Chaos 1, 49–64 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiegel, E. A.

N. Platt, E. A. Spiegel, and C. Tresser, “On-off intermittency: a mechanism for bursting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 279–282 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tresser, C.

N. Platt, E. A. Spiegel, and C. Tresser, “On-off intermittency: a mechanism for bursting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 279–282 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

F. Xie, G. Hu, and Z. Qu, “On-off intermittency in a coupled-map lattice system,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R1265 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

H. Fujisaka and T. Yamada, “A new intermittency in coupled dynamical systems,” Prog. Theor. Phys. 74, 918–921 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. L.

H. L. Yang and E. J. Ding, “Synchronization of chaotic systems and on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1361 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

M. Ding and W. Yang, “Distribution of the first return time in fractional Brownian motion and its application to the study of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 207 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yu, L.

L. Yu, E. Ott, and Q. Chen, “Transition to chaos for random dynamical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2935–2938 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaos (1)

C. Bracikowski and R. Roy, “Chaos in a multimode solid-state laser system,” Chaos 1, 49–64 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. Dangoisse, P. Glorieux, and D. Hennequin, “Chaos in a CO2 laser with modulated parameters,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4775–4791 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (5)

J. F. Heagy, N. Platt, and S. M. Hammel, “Characterization of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1140–1150 (1994).
[Crossref]

H. L. Yang and E. J. Ding, “Synchronization of chaotic systems and on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1361 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Lai and C. Grebogi, “Intermingled basins and two-state on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R3313 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Xie, G. Hu, and Z. Qu, “On-off intermittency in a coupled-map lattice system,” Phys. Rev. E 52, R1265 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Ding and W. Yang, “Distribution of the first return time in fractional Brownian motion and its application to the study of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. E 52, 207 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

S. Rim, D. W. Hwang, I. Kim, and C. M. Kim, “Chaotic transition of random dynamical systems and chaos synchronization by common noises,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2304–2307 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Platt, E. A. Spiegel, and C. Tresser, “On-off intermittency: a mechanism for bursting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 279–282 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, and J. F. Heagy, “Effects of additive noise on on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3498–3501 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Hammer, N. Platt, S. M. Hammel, J. F. Heagy, and B. D. Lee, “Experimental observation of on-off intermittency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1095–1098 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yu, E. Ott, and Q. Chen, “Transition to chaos for random dynamical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2935–2938 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Gauthier and J. C. Bienfang, “Intermittent loss of synchronization in coupled chaotic oscillators: toward a new criterion for high-quality synchronization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1751–1754 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Midavaine, D. Dangoisse, and P. Glorieux, “Observation of chaos in a frequency-modulated CO2 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1989–1992 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Theor. Phys. (1)

H. Fujisaka and T. Yamada, “A new intermittency in coupled dynamical systems,” Prog. Theor. Phys. 74, 918–921 (1985).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

F. T. Arecchi and R. G. Harrison, eds., Instabilities and Chaos in Quantum Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987).

S.-H. Gong and C.-M. Kim, “On-off intermittency in the threshold of a cw Nd:YAG laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: R, laser rod; L, krypton arc lamp; M1, M2; mirrors; A, aperture; ML, acoustic-optic mode locker; HG, high-frequency generator; PD, photodiode; OS, oscilloscope; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental laser outputs of a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with different cavity lengths: (a) δ=0.05 mm, (b) δ=0.25 mm, (c) δ=0.45 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser-output signals expanded in time: (a) the same figure as Fig. 2(a). (b), (c), (d) Expansion of a small part (box) from Fig. 2(a). (e) Mode-locking signals in perfect mode-locked operation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probability distribution of laminar phases versus laminar length. The circles represent the experimental results. The cavity length is 135.38 cm. The solid line shows a slope of -3/2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average laminar length versus difference of cavity length δ=|a-ac|. a is the cavity length for a measurement, and ac is the onset point of intermittency. Circles represent the results of measurements. The solid line shows a slope of -1.

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