Abstract

We propose two double-well magnetic traps for cold neutral atoms that use current-carrying wires. These traps can be used to trap two different atomic species. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields, gradients, and curvatures from these two wire configurations were calculated and analyzed. Our study shows that the double-well traps proposed here can be continuously changed into single-well traps by reduction of the current in a wire (or a coil) and vice versa and that a maximum field gradient greater than 5×104 G/cm and a maximum field curvature (at each trap center) greater than 2.5×107 G/cm2 can be generated in our double-well traps and used to achieve two-species Bose–Einstein condensations and study the properties of double-well Bose–Einstein condensations or to achieve sympathetic cooling between two atomic samples or even to achieve two-species magneto-optical traps and study cold collisions between two atomic samples.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. T.-L. Ho and V. B. Shenoy, “Binary mixtures of Bose condensates of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3276–3279 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).
  3. C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Properties of two-species Bose condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1130–1133 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Collective excitations, metastability, and nonlinear response of a trapped two-species Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1134–1137 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).
  12. J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. Williams, “Optimal conditions for observing Josephson oscillations in a double-well Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013610–1-7 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Holthaus, “Towards coherent control of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a double well,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 011601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  29. U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).
  30. Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. Available from the Internet: fttp://http://amop.phys, gasou.edu/bec.html/popular.
  36. O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).
  40. P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Williams, “Optimal conditions for observing Josephson oscillations in a double-well Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013610–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Holthaus, “Towards coherent control of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a double well,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 011601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Properties of two-species Bose condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1130–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Collective excitations, metastability, and nonlinear response of a trapped two-species Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1134–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T.-L. Ho and V. B. Shenoy, “Binary mixtures of Bose condensates of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3276–3279 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antunes, A.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ba, X.-W.

H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bagnato, V. S.

L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergeman, T.

T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigelow, N. N. P.

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Properties of two-species Bose condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1130–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Collective excitations, metastability, and nonlinear response of a trapped two-species Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1134–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, N. P.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biglow, N. P.

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, J. L.

J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouyer, P.

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, V.

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burke Jr., J. P.

J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burt, E. A.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Busch, Th.

Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

Calarco, T.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cardoma, P. S. P.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carnal, O.

O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cassettari, D.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Castin, Y.

A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chalupczak, W.

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chenet, A.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

Collett, M. J.

M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

Cornell, E. A.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corney, J.

G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dalfovo, F.

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
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A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
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G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
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Engler, H.

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Ensher, J. R.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erez, G.

T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esry, B. D.

J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
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Faulstich, A.

O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fedichev, P. O.

A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flemming, J.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folman, R.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fort, C.

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghrist, R. W.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greene, C. H.

J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Grisenti, R. E.

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. S.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hansel, W.

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helmerson, K.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hessmo, B.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
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T.-L. Ho and V. B. Shenoy, “Binary mixtures of Bose condensates of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3276–3279 (1996).
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Holland, M.

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

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M. Holthaus, “Towards coherent control of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a double well,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 011601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hommelhoff, P.

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
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M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. S.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Josse, V.

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Karft, S.

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, P.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. K.

C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
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Libbrecht, K. G.

P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maddaloni, P.

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maier, T.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manson, J. R.

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marcassa, L. G.

L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, M. R.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

Metsalf, H. J.

T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miburn, G. J.

G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, F.

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miranda, S. G.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Modugno, M.

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mosk, A.

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mudrich, M.

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muniz, S. R.

L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murdoch, S. G.

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Myatt, C. J.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Narachewski, M.

H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, P.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Öhberg, P.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olshanii, M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

Perez-Garcia, V. M.

Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

Prentiss, M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pu, H.

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Properties of two-species Bose condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1130–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Collective excitations, metastability, and nonlinear response of a trapped two-species Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1134–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, J.

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Röhrl, A.

H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santos, L.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Santos, M. S.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savas, T. A.

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schenzle, A.

H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schloder, U.

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Schmiedmayer, J.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, S.

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schollkopf, W.

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, U.

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Shaffer, J. P.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shenoy, V. B.

T.-L. Ho and V. B. Shenoy, “Binary mixtures of Bose condensates of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3276–3279 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuyapnikov, G. V.

A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sinatra, A.

A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Telles, G. D.

L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tells, G. D.

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thywissen, J. H.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toennies, J. P.

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wallis, H.

H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walls, D. F.

G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walser, R.

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

Wang, H.-J.

H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weetervelt, R. M.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weidemuller, M.

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Westervelt, R. M.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

Wieman, C. E.

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willems, P. A.

P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, J.

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

Williams, J. E.

J. E. Williams, “Optimal conditions for observing Josephson oscillations in a double-well Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013610–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wohlleben, W.

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.-X.

H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Young, Y. E.

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zabow, G.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

Zilio, S. C.

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

Appl. Phys. B

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, and T. W. Hänsch, “Applications of integrated magnetic microtraps,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 81–89 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mosk, S. Karft, M. Mudrich, W. Wohlleben, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Mixture of ultracold lithium and cesium atoms in an optical dipole trap,” Appl. Phys. B 73, 791–799 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Cassettari, A. Chenet, R. Folman, B. Hessmo, P. Kruger, T. Maier, S. Schneider, T. Calarco, and J. Schmiedmayer, “Micromanipulation of neutral atoms with nanofabricated structures,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 721–730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Carnal, A. Faulstich, and J. Mlynek, “Diffraction of metastable helium atoms by a transmission grating,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 88–91 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, J. H. Thywissen, M. Prentiss, and R. M. Weetervelt, “Micro-electromagnets for atom manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2906–2908 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.

J. H. Thywissen, M. Olshanii, G. Zabow, M. Drndic, K. S. Johnson, R. M. Westervelt, and M. Prentiss, “Microfabricated magnetic waveguides for neutral atoms,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 361–367 (1999).

U. Schloder, H. Engler, U. Schunemann, R. Grimm, and M. Weidemuller, “Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium,” Eur. Phys. J. D7, 331–340 (2000).

Nature

W. Hansel, P. Hommelhoff, T. W. Hänsch, and J. Reichel, “Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip,” Nature 413, 498–501 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

R. E. Grisenti, W. Schollkopf, J. P. Toennies, J. R. Manson, T. A. Savas, and H. I. Smith, “He-atom diffraction from nanostructure transmission grating: the role of imperfections,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033608–1-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, R. Ejnisman, J. P. Shaffer, and N. P. Bigelow, “Heteronuclear hyperfine-state-changing cold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 055403–1-4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Bergeman, G. Erez, and H. J. Metsalf, “Magnetostatic trapping fields for neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 35, 1535–1546 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Willems and K. G. Libbrecht, “Creating long-lived neutral-atom traps in a cryogenic environment,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1403–1406 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, L. G. Marcassa, K. Helmerson, J. Flemming, S. C. Zilio, and V. S. Bagnato, “Simultaneous trapping of two different atomic species in a vapor-cell magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 52, R4340–R4343 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Tells, L. G. Marcassa, S. R. Muniz, S. G. Miranda, and A. Antunes, “Inelastic cold collisions of a Na/Rb mixture in a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 59, R23–R26 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Santos, P. Nussenzveig, A. Antunes, P. S. P. Cardoma, and V. S. Bagnato, “Hyperfine-changing collision measurements in trap loss for mixed species in a magnetio-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3892–3895 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Bigelow, “Trap loss in a two-species Na–Cs magneto-optical trap: intramultiplet mixing in heteronuclear ultracold collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R3365–R3368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Marcassa, G. D. Telles, S. R. Muniz, and V. S. Bagnato, “Collisional losses in a K–Rb cold mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013413–1-6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Delannoy, S. G. Murdoch, V. Boyer, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Understanding the production of dualBose–Einstein condensation with sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 051602–1-4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Jack, M. J. Collett, and D. F. Walls, “Coherent quantum tunneling between two Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4625–R4628 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Miburn, J. Corney, E. M. Wright, and D. F. Walls, “Quantum dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 4318–4320 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Wang, X.-X. Yi, and X.-W. Ba, “Dynamics of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensation interacting with a laser field in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 023601–1-7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Wallis, A. Röhrl, M. Narachewski, and A. Schenzle, “Phase-space dynamics of Bose condensates: Interference versus interaction,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 2109–2119 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Williams, “Optimal conditions for observing Josephson oscillations in a double-well Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013610–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Holthaus, “Towards coherent control of a Bose–Einstein condensate in a double well,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 011601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Modugno, F. Dalfovo, C. Fort, P. Maddaloni, and F. Minardi, “Dynamics of two colliding Bose–Einstein condensates in an elongated magnetostatic trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 063607–1-8 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Williams, R. Walser, J. Cooper, E. A. Cornell, M. Holland, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Excitation of a dipole topological state in strongly coupled two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 033612–1-9 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. P. Burke, Jr., J. L. Bohn, B. D. Esry, and C. H. Greene, “Prospects for mixed-isotope Bose–Einstein condensates in rubidium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2097–2100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586–589 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Öhberg, L. Santos, D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dark solitons in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2918–2921 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Measurements of relative phase in two-component Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1543–1546 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T.-L. Ho and V. B. Shenoy, “Binary mixtures of Bose condensates of alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3276–3279 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Busch, J. I. Cirac, V. M. Perez-Garcia, and P. Zoller, “Stability and collective excitations of a two-component Bose–Einstein condensed gas: a moment approach,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2978–2981 (1997).

C. K. Law, H. Pu, N. P. Bigelow, and J. H. Eberly, “Stability signature in two-species dilute Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Properties of two-species Bose condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1130–1133 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Pu and N. N. P. Bigelow, “Collective excitations, metastability, and nonlinear response of a trapped two-species Bose–Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1134–1137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hall, M. R. Matthews, J. R. Ensher, C. E. Wieman, and E. A. Cornell, “Dynamics of component separation in a binary mixture of Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1539–1542 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinatra, P. O. Fedichev, Y. Castin, J. Dalibard, and G. V. Shuyapnikov, “Dynamics of two interacting Bose–Einstein condensates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 251–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Shaffer, W. Chalupczak, and N. P. Biglow, “Photoassociative ionization of heteronuclear molecules in a novel two-species magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1124–1127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichel, W. Hansel, and T. W. Hänsch, “Atomic micromanipulation with magnetic surface traps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3398–3401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of a double-well Ioffe trap as described in the text. (b)–(d) Magnetic-field contours on the xoz plane for this wire layout are given in the labels at the top of each figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic diagram of a double Z-shaped wire trap, as described in the text. (b)–(d) Magnetic-field contours on the xoy plane for this wire layout are given in the labels at the top of each figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between the position coordinates (a) x0 and (b) y0 of each trap center and current I2 in the straight wire in our double Z-shaped wire trap as shown in Fig. 2(a), with values of I1, a, and b as shown. Current I2 changes from 0 to 200 mA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distributions of (a) magnetic fields B(x), gradients B/x, and curvatures 2B/x2 in the x direction; (b) B(y), B/y, and 2B/y2 in the y direction; and (c) B(z), B/z, and 2B/z2 in the z direction for our scheme 1 (i.e., a double-well Ioffe trap). Superscripts DT and ST stand for a double-well trap (with I1=I2=I3=300 mA) and a single-well trap (I1=I2=300 mA, I3=0 mA), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distributions of (a) magnetic fields B(x), gradients B/x, and curvatures 2B/x2 in the x direction; (b) B(y), B/y, and 2B/y2 in the y direction; and (c) B(z), B/z, and 2B/z2 in the z direction for our double Z-shaped wire trap. Superscripts DT and ST stand for a double-well trap (with I1=I2=200 mA) and a single-well trap (I1=300 mA, I2=0 mA), respectively.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

B=μ0I4π 02π (z-P)cos ϕiˆ+(z-P)sin ϕjˆ-[sin ϕ(y-R sin ϕ)+cos ϕ(x-R cos ϕ)]kˆ[(x-R cos ϕ)2+(y-sin ϕ)2+(z-P)2]3/2 dϕ,
B=μ0I2π -yiˆ+(x-S)jˆ(x-S)2+y2.
B=μ0I14π -b0 -(y+a)iˆ+xjˆ[x2+(y+a)2+(z-z)2]3/2 dz+0b -(y-a)iˆ+xjˆ[x2+(y-a)2+(z-z)2]3/2 dz+-aa ziˆ-xkˆ[x2+(y-y)2+z2]3/2 dy+μ0I24π b-b yiˆ-xjˆ[x2+y2+(z-z)2]3/2 dz.
y0=12 A1-A21+expI2-I0B+A2[μm],
x0=μ02π (k1I1+k2I2)Bbias,
UMag=-μ·B=gFmμBB,
UMagRb=67.2|B| [μK],

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