Abstract

The |n2| of poly(aryleneethynylenes), a novel class of conjugated polymers, their derivatives, and model substances was studied by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing. The measurements were performed in solutions at 1047 nm with picosecond time resolution and on thin films at 800 nm with femtosecond time resolution. A time response of the nonlinearities faster than the pulse durations used was found. |n2| values of as much as 4.9×10-13 cm2/W were measured on thin films of the polymers.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2001 (3)

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Bhowmik and M. Thakur, “Self-phase modulation in polydiacetylene single crystal measured at 720–1064 nm,” Opt. Lett. 26, 902–904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

1994 (2)

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Kim, R. H. Stolen, W. A. Reed, and K. W. Quoi, “Measurement of the nonlinear index of silica-core and dispersion-shifted fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 257–259 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Y. Pang and P. N. Prasad, “Photoinduced processes and resonant third-order nonlinearity in poly(3-dodecylthiophene) studied by femtosecond time resolved degenerate four wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 93, 2201–2204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adant, C.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

Bhowmik, A. K.

Birckner, E.

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J. L.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Couris, S.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Ederle, Y.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Egbe, D. A. M.

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. M. Egbe and E. Klemm, “Preparation of new rigid backbone conjugated organic polymers with large fluorescence quantum yields,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 2683–2688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giribabu, L.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grummt, U.-W.

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hein, J.

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heise, B.

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Hotzel, M.

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, B.

Kafafi, Z. H.

Kim, K. S.

Klemm, E.

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. M. Egbe and E. Klemm, “Preparation of new rigid backbone conjugated organic polymers with large fluorescence quantum yields,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 2683–2688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Konstantaki, M.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koudoumas, E.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M.

M. Kuzyk, “All-optical materials and devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. D. Swalen, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 467–505.

Leach, S.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Maiya, B. G.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mathis, C.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mavromanolakis, A.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

Pang, Y.

Y. Pang and P. N. Prasad, “Photoinduced processes and resonant third-order nonlinearity in poly(3-dodecylthiophene) studied by femtosecond time resolved degenerate four wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 93, 2201–2204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pautzsch, T.

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philipps, J.

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, B. M.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Y. Pang and P. N. Prasad, “Photoinduced processes and resonant third-order nonlinearity in poly(3-dodecylthiophene) studied by femtosecond time resolved degenerate four wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 93, 2201–2204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Quoi, K. W.

Rao, D. N.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. V.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

Rentsch, S.

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Sarkas, H. W.

Sauerbrey, R.

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

Seta, P.

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, N. K. M. N.

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Strohkendl, F. P.

Tackx, P.

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

Töpfer, T.

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Yu, L.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. Töpfer, J. Hein, J. Philipps, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, “Tailoring the nonlinear refractive index of fluoride-phosphate glasses for laser applications,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 203–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Koudoumas, M. Konstantaki, A. Mavromanolakis, S. Couris, Y. Ederle, C. Mathis, P. Seta, and S. Leach, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of C60-polystyrene star polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 335, 533–538 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. L. Bredas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Pang and P. N. Prasad, “Photoinduced processes and resonant third-order nonlinearity in poly(3-dodecylthiophene) studied by femtosecond time resolved degenerate four wave mixing,” J. Chem. Phys. 93, 2201–2204 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Org. Chem. (1)

U.-W. Grummt, E. Birckner, E. Klemm, D. A. M. Egbe, and B. Heise, “Conjugated polymers with 2,2-bipyridine and diethinylenebenzene units: absorption and luminescence properties,” J. Phys. Org. Chem. 13, 112–126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. A. M. Egbe and E. Klemm, “Preparation of new rigid backbone conjugated organic polymers with large fluorescence quantum yields,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 199, 2683–2688 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. V. Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. N. Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, and G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Synth. Met. (1)

M. Hotzel, S. Rentsch, D. A. M. Egbe, T. Pautzsch, and E. Klemm, “Investigation of the third order nonlinear optical coefficients of a new poly(hetero-arylene-ethinylene) and its derivative,” Synth. Met. 119, 545–546 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. J. Weber, ed., Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1986), Vol. 3.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

M. Kuzyk, “All-optical materials and devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. D. Swalen, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 467–505.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of the monomers and model substances investigated in this research.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chemical structure of the polymers that we investigated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity dependence of the DFWM signal of a thin film of polymer 9 (Fig. 2) on a logarithmic scale. The linear fit to the data yields a slope of 3.1, indicating a Kerr-like nonlinearity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of time-resolved DFWM measurements: (a) with fs time resolution on a 2.1-µm-thick film of polymer 10 (Fig. 2) that has been drop cast from a solution of polymer 10 in cyclohexane (the signal of the 200-µm-thick fused-silica substrate was multiplied by 10 for better visibility) and (b) with ps time resolution on a solution of polymer 1 in chloroform. c=0.05 mol/L, in a 1-mm fused-silica cell; the signal of the pure solvent is also shown. The solid curves are Gaussian fits to the data.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 |n2| Values of Solutions Measured with Backreflection Geometry at λ=1047 nmb

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Table 2 |n2| Values of the Polymer Thin Films Measured with Forward Geometry at λ=800 nmb

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IDFWM=const. |χ(3)|2n04L2I3=const.|n2|2L2I3,
|n2s|=|n2ref|IDFWMsIDFWMref-1 LrefLs,

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