Abstract

We report a study on the influence of the pedestal in laser–gas jet interaction experiments at very high intensity. The dynamic of the plasma resulting from the interaction is probed on a 3.8-ns time scale with a 60-fs time and a 5-μm space resolution using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer. It is observed that a plasma is created by the amplified spontaneous emission pedestal before the ultrashort pulse reaches the jet. We show that this preplasma modifies dramatically the propagation of the laser beam, which splits into two parts when it reaches the preplasma. The major part of the beam is strongly refracted by the preplasma while a small fraction is guided in the channel resulting from the hydrodynamic expansion of the preplasma.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).
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  11. M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).
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  20. T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).
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  23. O. F. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: Effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1793–1802 (1972).
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2000 (2)

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).

1999 (1)

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. J. Grout, G. J. Pert, and A. Djaoui, “Propagation effects optical-field-induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” J. Phys. B 31, 197–207 (1998).

1997 (2)

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 165–178 (1997).

1996 (3)

1994 (1)

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

1993 (1)

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

1992 (1)

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, and S. C. Wilks, “Optical-field-ionized plasma x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761–6772 (1992).

1991 (4)

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589–2592 (1991).

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

U. Teubner, G. Kühnle, and F. P. Schäfer, “Soft x-ray spectra produced by subpicosecond laser double-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2672–2674 (1991).

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szöke, and R. W. Falcone, “Prepulse energy suppression for high-energy ultrashort pulses using self-induced plasma shuttering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 490–492 (1991).

1990 (1)

N. H. Burnett and G. D. Enright, “Population inversion in the recombination of optically-ionized plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1797–1808 (1990).

1989 (1)

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

1988 (1)

A. G. Michette, A. M. Rogoyski, and R. E. Burge, “A laser-generated plasma source for x-ray lithography and VSLI,” J. Phys. E 21, 959–65 (1988).

1985 (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).

1981 (1)

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active–passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59–62 (1981).

1972 (1)

O. F. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: Effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1793–1802 (1972).

Albrecht, G.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active–passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59–62 (1981).

Amendt, P.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, and S. C. Wilks, “Optical-field-ionized plasma x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761–6772 (1992).

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589–2592 (1991).

Antonetti, A.

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active–passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59–62 (1981).

Auguste, T.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

Barrow, V.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Barty, C. P. J.

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).

Bonnet, L.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

Bougeard, M.

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

Browne, M. T.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Buckley, C. J.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Burge, R. E.

A. G. Michette, A. M. Rogoyski, and R. E. Burge, “A laser-generated plasma source for x-ray lithography and VSLI,” J. Phys. E 21, 959–65 (1988).

Burnett, N. H.

N. H. Burnett and G. D. Enright, “Population inversion in the recombination of optically-ionized plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1797–1808 (1990).

Caprin, C.

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

Chambaret, J. P.

Chériaux, G.

Cobble, J. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

Curley, P.

D’Oliveira, P.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

Darpentigny, G.

DaSilva, L. B.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Dimauro, L. F.

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).

Djaoui, A.

M. J. Grout, G. J. Pert, and A. Djaoui, “Propagation effects optical-field-induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” J. Phys. B 31, 197–207 (1998).

Donnelly, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).

Donnelly, T. D.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Eder, D. C.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, and S. C. Wilks, “Optical-field-ionized plasma x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761–6772 (1992).

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589–2592 (1991).

Edwards, J.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Enright, G. D.

N. H. Burnett and G. D. Enright, “Population inversion in the recombination of optically-ionized plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1797–1808 (1990).

Falcone, R. W.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, A. Szöke, and R. W. Falcone, “Prepulse energy suppression for high-energy ultrashort pulses using self-induced plasma shuttering,” Opt. Lett. 16, 490–492 (1991).

Fluck, P.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Förster, F.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Fulton, R. D.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

Grout, M. J.

M. J. Grout, G. J. Pert, and A. Djaoui, “Propagation effects optical-field-induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” J. Phys. B 31, 197–207 (1998).

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).

Hagena, O. F.

O. F. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: Effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1793–1802 (1972).

Healy, S. B.

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 165–178 (1997).

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).

Hulin, S.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

Jacquemot, S.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

Janulewicz, K. A.

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 165–178 (1997).

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).

Jones, L. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kiehn, G.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Kühnle, G.

U. Teubner, G. Kühnle, and F. P. Schäfer, “Soft x-ray spectra produced by subpicosecond laser double-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2672–2674 (1991).

Kyrala, G. A.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

Le-Blanc, C.

Lefebvre, E.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

London, R. A.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

MacGowan, B. J.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Matthews, D. L.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

A. G. Michette, A. M. Rogoyski, and R. E. Burge, “A laser-generated plasma source for x-ray lithography and VSLI,” J. Phys. E 21, 959–65 (1988).

Monot, P.

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

Morrison, G. R.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active–passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59–62 (1981).

Murnane, M. M.

Obert, W.

O. F. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: Effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1793–1802 (1972).

Penetrante, B. M.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).

Pert, G. J.

M. J. Grout, G. J. Pert, and A. Djaoui, “Propagation effects optical-field-induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” J. Phys. B 31, 197–207 (1998).

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 165–178 (1997).

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).

Rogoyski, A. M.

A. G. Michette, A. M. Rogoyski, and R. E. Burge, “A laser-generated plasma source for x-ray lithography and VSLI,” J. Phys. E 21, 959–65 (1988).

Rosen, M. D.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Rousseau, P.

Rubenchik, A. M.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).

Salin, F.

Schäfer, F. P.

U. Teubner, G. Kühnle, and F. P. Schäfer, “Soft x-ray spectra produced by subpicosecond laser double-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2672–2674 (1991).

Schappert, G. T.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

Schulz, M. S.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Smith, R. A.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).

Strobel, G. L.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Szöke, A.

Taylor, A. J.

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

Teubner, U.

U. Teubner, G. Kühnle, and F. P. Schäfer, “Soft x-ray spectra produced by subpicosecond laser double-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2672–2674 (1991).

Turcu, E.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Turcu, I. C. E.

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

Walker, B.

Wark, J.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Wilks, S. C.

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, and S. C. Wilks, “Optical-field-ionized plasma x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761–6772 (1992).

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589–2592 (1991).

Willi, O.

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

Yamakawa, K.

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

U. Teubner, G. Kühnle, and F. P. Schäfer, “Soft x-ray spectra produced by subpicosecond laser double-pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2672–2674 (1991).

Europhys. Lett. (1)

O. Willi, G. Kiehn, J. Edwards, V. Barrow, R. A. Smith, J. Wark, and E. Turcu, “observations of high-density plasmas produced with a picosecond high-power KrF Irradiation,” Europhys. Lett. 10, 141–146 (1989).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. H. Burnett and G. D. Enright, “Population inversion in the recombination of optically-ionized plasmas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1797–1808 (1990).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Yamakawa and C. P. J. Barty, “Ultrafast, ultrahigh-peak, and high-average power Ti:sapphire laser system and its applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 658–675 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. A. Cobble, G. T. Schappert, L. A. Jones, A. J. Taylor, G. A. Kyrala, and R. D. Fulton, “The interaction of a high-irradiance, subpicosecond laser pulse with aluminum: The effects of the prepulse on x-ray production,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3369–3371 (1991).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

O. F. Hagena and W. Obert, “Cluster formation in expanding supersonic jets: Effect of pressure, temperature, nozzle size, and test gas,” J. Chem. Phys. 56, 1793–1802 (1972).

J. Phys. B (1)

M. J. Grout, G. J. Pert, and A. Djaoui, “Propagation effects optical-field-induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” J. Phys. B 31, 197–207 (1998).

J. Phys. E (1)

A. G. Michette, A. M. Rogoyski, and R. E. Burge, “A laser-generated plasma source for x-ray lithography and VSLI,” J. Phys. E 21, 959–65 (1988).

Opt. Commun. (4)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, “Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 56, 219–221 (1985).

G. Albrecht, A. Antonetti, and G. Mourou, “Temporal shape analysis of Nd3+:YAG active–passive mode-locked pulses,” Opt. Commun. 40, 59–62 (1981).

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 141, 213–220 (1997).

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 140, 165–178 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. DaSilva, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Wilks, T. D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and G. L. Strobel, “Tabletop x-ray lasers,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1744–1752 (1994).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, and S. C. Wilks, “Optical-field-ionized plasma x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 6761–6772 (1992).

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Hulin, T. Auguste, P. D’Oliveira, P. Monot, S. Jacquemot, L. Bonnet, and E. Lefebvre, “Soft x-ray laser scheme in a plasma created by optical-field-induced ionization of nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 5693–5700 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Amendt, D. C. Eder, and S. C. Wilks, “X-ray lasing by optical-field-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2589–2592 (1991).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. G. Michette, I. C. E. Turcu, M. S. Schulz, M. T. Browne, G. R. Morrison, P. Fluck, C. J. Buckley, and F. Förster, “Scanning X-ray microscopy using a laser-plasma source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1478–82 (1993).

T. Auguste, M. Bougeard, C. Caprin, P. D’Oliveira, and P. Monot, “Characterization of a high-density large scale pulsed gas jet for laser-gas interaction experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2349–2354 (1999).

Other (2)

O. F. Hagena, “Cluster beams from nozzle sources,” in Molecular Beams and Low Density Gas Dynamics, P. P. Wegener, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1974), pp. 93–167.

Ya. B. Zel’dovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic, New York, 1966).

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