Abstract

In a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with copropagating optical pump pulses, the application of a nonlinear phase shift to optical signals provides the driving force for all-optical interferometric switching. We study, both analytically and experimentally, the dependencies of the nonlinear phase shift on the driving frequency (42–168 GHz) and on the SOA parameters. We have found that the nonlinear phase shift (ΔΦNL) decreases with the driving frequency but that this decrease is only linear, i.e., ΔΦNLf-1. We have also found that the nonlinear phase shift in the SOA linearly increases with the injection current (Iop), i.e., ΔΦNLIop, even in this ultrahigh-frequency range.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  36. R. Manning and D. A. O. Davies, “Three-wavelength device for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 889–891 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric–Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469–471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “168-Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast 168 GHz 1.5 ps 1 fJ symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical semiconductor switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L806–L808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

1999 (4)

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Spectral phase-locking in ultrafast all-optical Mach–Zehnder-type semiconductor wavelength converters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1243–L1245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

K. L. Hall and K. A. Rauschenbach, Opt. Lett. 23, 1271–1273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346–348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter and A. Ellis, “Asynchronous digital optical regeneration and networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2068–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Record low-power all-optical semiconductor switch operation at ultrafast repetition rates above the carrier cutoff frequency,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1846–1848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast (200-fs switching, 1.5-Tb/s demultiplexing) and high-repetition (10 GHz) operations of a polarization-discriminating symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1575–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, A. J. Poustie, and K. J. Blow, “Semiconductor laser amplifiers for ultrafast all-optical signal processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3204–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942–954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Cross-correlation measurement of ultrafast switching in a symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2445–2447 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709–3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Manning and D. A. O. Davies, “Three-wavelength device for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Lett. 19, 889–891 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Experimental investigation on high-speed switching characteristics of a novel symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, “A teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787–790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 32, L1746–L1749 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hemyari, K.

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

Bouchoule, S.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, D.

Danielsen, S. L.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daub, K.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. A. O.

Devaux, F.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doussiere, P.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Duelk, M.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942–954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A.

Ellis, A. D.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, A. J. Poustie, and K. J. Blow, “Semiconductor laser amplifiers for ultrafast all-optical signal processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3204–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, St.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamper, E.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Girardi, R.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glesk, I.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, “A teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787–790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

Hansen, P. B.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, H.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hess, R.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hultgren, C. T.

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Idler, W.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, M.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, K. S.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joergensen, C.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kane, M.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, “A teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787–790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, A. E.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, S.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346–348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kloch, A.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lach, E.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laube, G.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R.

Manning, R. J.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, A. J. Poustie, and K. J. Blow, “Semiconductor laser amplifiers for ultrafast all-optical signal processing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3204–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, B.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942–954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “168-Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric–Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469–471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast 168 GHz 1.5 ps 1 fJ symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical semiconductor switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L806–L808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Spectral phase-locking in ultrafast all-optical Mach–Zehnder-type semiconductor wavelength converters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1243–L1245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346–348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Record low-power all-optical semiconductor switch operation at ultrafast repetition rates above the carrier cutoff frequency,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1846–1848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast (200-fs switching, 1.5-Tb/s demultiplexing) and high-repetition (10 GHz) operations of a polarization-discriminating symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1575–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Cross-correlation measurement of ultrafast switching in a symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2445–2447 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709–3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Experimental investigation on high-speed switching characteristics of a novel symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, R. J. S.

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, I. D.

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pommerau, F.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A. J.

Prucnal, P. R.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, “A teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787–790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Puleo, M.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pulsen, H. N.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, K. A.

Sasaki, J.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimoda, T.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, J. P.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, “A teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787–790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942–954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, T.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Cross-correlation measurement of ultrafast switching in a symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2445–2447 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709–3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Experimental investigation on high-speed switching characteristics of a novel symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric–Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469–471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “168-Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast 168 GHz 1.5 ps 1 fJ symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical semiconductor switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L806–L808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Spectral phase-locking in ultrafast all-optical Mach–Zehnder-type semiconductor wavelength converters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1243–L1245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Record low-power all-optical semiconductor switch operation at ultrafast repetition rates above the carrier cutoff frequency,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1846–1848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346–348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast (200-fs switching, 1.5-Tb/s demultiplexing) and high-repetition (10 GHz) operations of a polarization-discriminating symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1575–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Cross-correlation measurement of ultrafast switching in a symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2445–2447 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709–3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Experimental investigation on high-speed switching characteristics of a novel symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 32, L1746–L1749 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tamanuki, T.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, Y.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “168-Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric–Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469–471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast 168 GHz 1.5 ps 1 fJ symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical semiconductor switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L806–L808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Spectral phase-locking in ultrafast all-optical Mach–Zehnder-type semiconductor wavelength converters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1243–L1245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Record low-power all-optical semiconductor switch operation at ultrafast repetition rates above the carrier cutoff frequency,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1846–1848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast (200-fs switching, 1.5-Tb/s demultiplexing) and high-repetition (10 GHz) operations of a polarization-discriminating symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1575–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346–348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vaa, M.

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, W.

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wunstel, K.

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Experimental investigation on high-speed switching characteristics of a novel symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 283–285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and Y. Sugimoto, “Cross-correlation measurement of ultrafast switching in a symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2445–2447 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709–3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Hultgren and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast refractive index dynamics in AlGaAs diode laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 635–637 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3929–3931 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (5)

B. Mikkelsen, S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. J. S. Pedersen, H. N. Poulsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters,” Electron. Lett. 32, 566–567 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Kelly, I. D. Phillips, R. J. Manning, A. D. Ellis, D. Nesset, D. G. Moodie, and R. Kashyap, “80 Gb/s all-optical regenerative wavelength conversion using semiconductor optical amplifier based interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1477–1478 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Hybrid integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch with ultrafast, high extinction switching,” Electron. Lett. 35, 2030–2031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, K. Al-Hemyari, J. U. Kang, C. N. Ironside, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, “Demonstration of all-optical demultiplexing at 1555 nm with an AlGaAs directional coupler,” Electron. Lett. 29, 721–722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Mikkelsen, K. S. Jepsen, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Duelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, and F. Devaux, “All-optical wavelength converter scheme for high speed RZ signal formats,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2137–2139 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, M. Schilling, K. Daub, P. Doussiere, F. Pommerau, P. B. Hansen, H. N. Pulsen, A. Kloch, M. Vaa, B. Mikkelsen, E. Lach, G. Laube, W. Idler, and K. Wunstel, “All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1168–1179 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Penalty-free error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gb/s by using a symmetric–Mach-Zehnder-type semiconductor regenerator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 469–471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “168-Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with a symmetric Mach–Zehnder-type switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1091–1093 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Kitamura, “3.8-THz wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses using a semiconductor delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter (DISC),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 346–348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

St. Fisher, M. Duelk, M. Puleo, R. Girardi, E. Gamper, W. Vogt, W. Hunziker, E. Gini, and H. Melchior, “40-Gb/s OTDM to 4×10 Gb/s WDM conversion in a monolithic InP Mach–Zehnder interferometer module,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1262–1264 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, “A teraherz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787–790 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast (200-fs switching, 1.5-Tb/s demultiplexing) and high-repetition (10 GHz) operations of a polarization-discriminating symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1575–1577 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, M. Itoh, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Demultiplexing of 168-Gb/s data pulses with a hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 425–427 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, J. Sasaki, T. Sugimoto, T. Kato, T. Shimoda, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, and T. Sasaki, “Ultrafast hybrid-integrated symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch and its 168 Gbps error-free demultiplexing operation,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E83-C, 959–965 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. Cotter and A. Ellis, “Asynchronous digital optical regeneration and networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2068–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 942–954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Ultrafast 168 GHz 1.5 ps 1 fJ symmetric-Mach–Zehnder-type all-optical semiconductor switch,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L806–L808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, and K. Tajima, “Spectral phase-locking in ultrafast all-optical Mach–Zehnder-type semiconductor wavelength converters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1243–L1245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, “All-optical switch with switch-off time unrestricted by carrier lifetime,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 32, L1746–L1749 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (8)

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Error-free all-optical data pulse regeneration at 84 Gbps and wavelength conversion at 168 Gbps with symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switches,” in technical digest of the Meeting on Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA 2000), Quebec, Canada, July 9–12, 2000.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, H. Hatakeyama, T. Tamanuki, T. Sasaki, and K. Tajima, “168-Gb/s OTDM wavelength conversion using an all-optical SMZ-type switch,” in technical digest of the 26th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, Sept. 3–7, 2000.

A. E. Siegman, “Pulse amplification with homogeneous gain saturation,” in Lasers, A. Kelly, ed. (University Science, Orlando, Fla., 1986), Chap. 10.

Y. Ueno, S. Nakamura, K. Tajima, and S. Ishikawa, “Effect of spectral hole burning on symmetric Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” in technical digest of the 4th International Workshop on Femtosecond Technology, Tsukuba, Japan, February 13–14, 1997.

L. Billes, J. C. Simon, B. Kowalski, M. Henry, G. Michaud, P. Lamouler, and F. Alard, “20 Gbit/s optical 3R regenerator using SOA based Mach–Zehnder interferometer gate,” in technical digest of the 23rd European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC ’97), Edinburgh, Scotland, September 22–25, 1997.

N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (Benjamin, New York, 1965; reprinted by Addison-Wesley, Redwood, Calif., 1992).

C. Janz, B. Dagens, J.-Y. Emergy, M. Renaud, and B. Lavigne, “Integrated SOA-based interferometers for all-optical signal processing,” in technical digest of the 26th European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC 2000), Munich, Germany, September 3–7, 2000.

S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, and K. Tajima, “Femtosecond switching with semiconductor optical amplifier-based symmetric-Mach–Zehnder all-optical switch,” in technical digest of the 6th International Workshop on Femtosecond Technology, Makuhari, Japan, July 13–15, 1999.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SMZ-type all-optical semiconductor switches driven by digitally coded pulses: (a) a SMZ-type 3R regenerator, (b) a PD-SMZ-type 3R regenerator, (c) a DISC-type wavelength converter. pol, polarizer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SMZ-type all-optical semiconductor switches driven by regular clock pulses: (a) a SMZ-type demultiplexer, (b) a PD-SMZ-type demultiplexer. pol, polarizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic view of the nonlinear phenomena inside a SOA: (a) the change in the carrier density that is induced by the optical control pulses, which causes (b) a nonlinear change in refractive index and (c) a change in the gain. The dashed curves in (a) indicate the waveforms of the input pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mechanism in the SMZ-type all-optical switches: (a) Each of the two split signal components inside the interferometer obtains a nonlinear phase shift. (b) The phase difference between the two components and (c) the switching window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the DISC output (solid curve) and the SOA output (dashed curve) as observed with a streak camera, showing that the SMZ-type switch can form a switching window whose width is much shorter than the carrier lifetime.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured (solid curves) and calculated (dashed curves) SPM spectra of the amplified 10.5-GHz 2.0-ps control pulses at the SOA output. The input pulse energies were (a) 340, (b) 34, and (c) 3.4 fJ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured [(a)–(c)] and calculated [(d)–(f)] XPM spectra of the 1546.5-nm CW light at the SOA output. The input control-pulse energies were (a), (d) 100 fJ, (b), (e) 10 fJ; (c), (f) 0.3 fJ.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured (solid curves) and calculated (dashed curves) autocorrelator traces (a), (c) and spectra (b), (d) of 42-GHz 7.0-ps wavelength-converted pulses at the output of the DISC: (a), (b) with the phase bias (ΔΦb) set to π and (c), (d) with ΔΦb optimized to 1.10 π. The dotted curves in (b) and (d) are the calculated spectrum of a transform-limited 4-ps pulse, which is given as a reference.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated nonlinear phase shift (a), pulse gain (b), and peak carrier density (c). The repetition frequencies of the input pulses are 10.5 (crosses), 42 (triangles), and 168 (circles) GHz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dependences of the calculated nonlinear phase shifts of the injection current to the SOA. The repetition frequencies are 10.5 (crosses), 42 (triangles), and 168 (circles) GHz.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependences of the calculated nonlinear phase shift (a) and pulse gain (b) on the differential gain. The unsaturated gain is assumed to be either 7000 (solid curves) or 700 (dashed curves).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Correlation of the calculated intensity ratios between components of the XPM spectrum with the calculated nonlinear phase shift induced by pulses at 42 GHz (triangles) and 168 GHz (circles). The dashed line in (a) is a line of fit to the set of data points. The dashed curve in (b) was calculated with Eq. (22) of the text.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Analytical derivation of the XPM spectra: (a) a simplified model of the nonlinear phase shifts, (b) 42-GHz-modulated XPM spectrum, analytically derived on the assumptions of the simplified phase-shift model and negligible gain modulation.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Nonlinear phase shifts as measured from respective XPM spectrum ratios at the SOA’s output, induced by 1.5-ps pulses at 42 (crosses), 84 (triangles), and 168 (circles) GHz.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Model of the nonlinear phase shift induced by a SOA by input pulses at a high repetition rate.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental setup for all-optical switching at 168 GHz. The DISC switch structure was used. Mux, multiplexer; P’s polarizers; R, phase retarder; Q, quarter-wave plate; ML, mode locked; Mod, modulator.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Observed 168-GHz switch output waveforms: (a) streak-camera image, (b) autocorrelator trace, and (c) XPM spectrum. The nonlinear phase shift involved here was measured as 0.33π on the basis of the XPM spectrum (d) observed at the SOA output.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Comparison of typical output waveforms when the switch is driven at 168 GHz by digitally coded control pulses with (a) weak and (b) strong CW input.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Typical eye diagram after 168-GHz random switching (wavelength conversion). The eye diagram was measured after demultiplexing of the 168-Gbit/s wavelength-converted output to 10.5-Gbit/s signals because of the limited bandwidth of our sampling scope.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Observed pulse waveforms and spectra under the wavelength-conversion conditions: For the input pulses, (a) a streak-camera image and (b) an autocorrelation trace, and for the pulses at the DISC output, (c) a streak-camera image, (d) an autocorrelation trace, and (e) an XPM spectrum. The nonlinear phase shift involved in this operation was measured as 0.2–0.3π on the basis of the XPM spectrum observed at the SOA output.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Three Types of SMZ Switch and Their Applications in OTDM Communications Systems

Tables Icon

Table 2 Independent SOA Parameters Used for Numerical Calculation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Derived SOA Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated Dependences of the Nonlinear Phase Shift ΔΦNL Induced by SOAs with Input Pulses at Relatively High Repetition Frequencies fREP

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

EOUT(t)=½{G(t) exp[iΦ(t)+ΔΦb]EIN(t)+[G(t-Δt)]1/2 exp[iΦ(t-Δt)]EIN(t)}=½{G(t) exp[iΦ(t)+ΔΦb]+[G(t-Δt)]1/2 exp[iΦ(t-Δt)]}EIN(t)TW(t)EIN(t).
|TW(t)|2=|½{G(t) exp[iΦ(t)+ΔΦb]+[G(t-Δt)]1/2 exp[iΦ(t-Δt)]}|2=[G(t)G(t-Δt)]1/2×cos2 Φ(t)-Φ(t-Δt)+ΔΦb2+¼{G(t)-[G(t-Δt)]1/2}2.
nc(t)¯1Lz=0Lnc(z, t)dz,
nc(z, t)n(z, t)-ntr.
Φ(t)=k0dnr/dnc[nc0-nc(t)¯]ΓL,
G(t)exp[dg/dncnc(t)¯ΓL].
G0exp(dg/dncnc0ΓL).
ddt nc(t)¯=IopqV-nc(t)¯τc-1V{G[nc(t)¯]-1}×|Econtrol(t)|2+|Esignal|2ω,
Econtrol(t)=mEcontrol  secht-TmTw,m=1, 2 ,, .
ΔΦmaxΦ(nc=nc0)-Φ(nc=0)=k0dnr/dncnc0ΓL.
α-2k0 dnr/dncdg/dnc=-2 ΔΦmaxln G0.
nc0=1VPsat  ln G0ω.
ΔΦNL=k0dnr/dncΔncΓL=k0dnr/dnc 1VEout-EinωΓL.
1τc<fREF<1Δtpulse.
ΔΦNLΓIopdaW
ΔΦNLΓdaWIop.
ΔΦNL=0.938(|a1|2/|a0|2)0.372.
E(t)exp(-iht)=a0+a1 exp(-iωt)+a2 exp(-2iωt)+a3 exp(-3iωt)++a-1 exp(iωt)+a-2 exp(2iωt)+a3 exp(3iωt)+,
hΔΦNL/ΔT,
ω2π/ΔT=2πfREP.
an=1ΔT-ΔT/2+ΔT/2exp(-iht)exp(niωt)dt=2i(h-nω)ΔT sin (h-nω)ΔT2=-2i2nπ-ΔΦNL sin 2nπ-ΔΦNL2.
|a1|2|a0|2=ΔΦNL2π-ΔΦNL2  sin22π-ΔΦNL2sin2gΔΦNL2.
ΔΦNLIopfREP,

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