Abstract

We have carried out a detailed experimental study of the behavior of 200-fs pulses in highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber to elucidate the mechanisms for supercontinuum generation. To avoid unwanted polarization effects, our experiments were performed using polarization-maintaining fiber. The experimental evidence shows that, as in conventional fibers, Raman scattering leads to the breakup of higher-order solitons, which is accompanied by the generation of radiation at shorter wavelengths than the pump, leading eventually to an ultrabroad supercontinuum.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air–silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. Ghanta, T. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air–silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. N. Islam, G. Sucha, I. Bar-Joseph, M. Wegener, J. P. Gordon, and D. S. Chemla, “Femtosecond distributed soliton spectrum fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1149–1158 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andres, and M. V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 276–278 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Tateda, N. Shibata, and S. Seikai, “Interferometric method for chromatic dispersion measurement in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 404–407 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, New York, 2001).
  17. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (3)

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. Ghanta, T. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka, and R. S. Windeler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air–silica microstructure optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26, 608–610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (5)

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air–silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25, 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Tateda, N. Shibata, and S. Seikai, “Interferometric method for chromatic dispersion measurement in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 404–407 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andres, M. V.

Andres, P.

Arriaga, J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chau, A. H. L.

Chemla, D. S.

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, I. G.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrando, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghanta, R.

Gordon, J. P.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Harvey, J. D.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodel, W.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Islam, M. N.

Knight, J. C.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T.

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacourt, P. A.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

Li, X. D.

Mangan, B. J.

Miret, J. J.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Reid, D. T.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, W. T.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seikai, S.

M. Tateda, N. Shibata, and S. Seikai, “Interferometric method for chromatic dispersion measurement in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 404–407 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

M. Tateda, N. Shibata, and S. Seikai, “Interferometric method for chromatic dispersion measurement in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 404–407 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, E.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrando, E. Silvestre, J. J. Miret, P. Andres, and M. V. Andres, “Full-vector analysis of a realistic photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 24, 276–278 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

Sucha, G.

Tateda, M.

M. Tateda, N. Shibata, and S. Seikai, “Interferometric method for chromatic dispersion measurement in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 404–407 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1325–1327 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, B. R.

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Windeler, R. S.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysset, B.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm,” Electron. Lett. 36, 53–55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fibre,” Electron. Lett. 38, 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Washburn, S. E. Ralph, P. A. Lacourt, J. M. Dudley, W. T. Rhodes, R. S. Windeler, and S. Coen, “Tunable near-infrared femtosecond soliton generation in photonic crystal fibres,” Electron. Lett. 37, 1510–1512 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Tateda, N. Shibata, and S. Seikai, “Interferometric method for chromatic dispersion measurement in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 404–407 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breaking and fundamental soliton formation in a single mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938–1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807–809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic, New York, 2001).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547–1549 (1996); errata 22, 484 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated (dashed curve) and measured (filled circles) dispersion for the polarization eigenmodes of the polarization-preserving PCF shown in the inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recorded spectra at a pump wavelength of 850 nm for different peak powers coming out of the fiber. The dotted line indicates the zero-dispersion wavelength at 806 nm. Inset: detail of the spectra from 400 to 800 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured autocorrelator signal and spectrum (inset) of the fiber output at 164-W peak power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Recorded spectra at a pump wavelength of 817 nm for different peak powers coming out of the fiber. The dotted line indicates the zero-dispersion wavelength at 806 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Recorded spectra at a pump wavelength of 842 nm for different peak powers coming out of the fiber. The dotted line indicates the zero-dispersion wavelength at 806 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Recorded spectra at a pump wavelength of 870 nm for different peak powers coming out of the fiber. The dotted line indicates the zero-dispersion wavelength at 806 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Recorded spectra for different lengths of fiber at a constant output peak power of 150 W pumping at 842 nm. The fiber is progressively cut back in 3-cm steps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Recorded spectra at a pump wavelength of 842 nm for different peak powers coming out of the fiber: (a) 1.4 kW, (b) 2.6 kW, and (c) 4.6 kW. The vertical axis is a logarithmic scale with each division corresponding to 10 dB.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Recorded spectra at a pump wavelength of 753 nm for different peak powers coming out of the fiber. The dotted line indicates the zero-dispersion wavelength at 806 nm.

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