Abstract

An investigation was carried out of permanent polarization gratings recorded in films of polymer (elastomer) and azo dye written by two orthogonally circularly polarized Ar-ion laser beams. The films prepared were of two kinds, namely, a mixture of dye and polymer and a layered structure, i.e., a thin polymer film covered with dye. In both samples gratings with long-time stability were observed. The layered sample had higher diffraction efficiency than the mixed sample for low writing intensities when no reliefs were present and pure polarization holograms were recorded. For higher recording intensities, reliefs were observed in both cases: The mixed sample’s efficiency was much higher than that of the layered sample, suggesting that layered systems inhibit formation of reliefs. The stability of the recorded structures can be attributed to molecular interactions between polymer and dye.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Todorov and L. Nikolova, “Spectrophotopolarimeter: fast simultaneous real-time measurement of light parameters,” Opt. Lett. 17, 358–359 (1992), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Huang and K. H. Wagner, “Holographic diffraction in photoanisotropic organic materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 306–315 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3835–3840 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “An analysis of the anisotropic and topographic gratings in a side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1518–1520 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Lagugnè Labarthet, P. Rochon, and A. Natanshon, “Polarization analysis of diffracted orders from a birefringence grating recorded on azobenzene containing polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377–1379 (1999), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Gori, “Measuring Stokes parameters by means of a polarization grating,” Opt. Lett. 24, 584–586 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Schonhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Losche, “Mechanism of photoreorientation of azobenzene dyes in molecular films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558–7565 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes,” Opt. Mater. 9, 323–328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1505–1516 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings in azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

F. Lagugnè Labarthet, P. Rochon, and A. Natanshon, “Polarization analysis of diffracted orders from a birefringence grating recorded on azobenzene containing polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377–1379 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

F. Gori, “Measuring Stokes parameters by means of a polarization grating,” Opt. Lett. 24, 584–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes,” Opt. Mater. 9, 323–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “An analysis of the anisotropic and topographic gratings in a side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1518–1520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (3)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings in azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Andruzzi, F.

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. J.

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings in azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dragostinova, V.

M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, P.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elminyawi, I. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fei, H.

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes,” Opt. Mater. 9, 323–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gori, F.

Grosz, F. G.

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “An analysis of the anisotropic and topographic gratings in a side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1518–1520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.

Hvilsted, S.

Ivanov, M.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3835–3840 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jéro?me, R.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. L.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, P. M.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, K.

K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Labarthet, F. Lagugnè

F. Lagugnè Labarthet, P. Rochon, and A. Natanshon, “Polarization analysis of diffracted orders from a birefringence grating recorded on azobenzene containing polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377–1379 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. S.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefin, P.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes,” Opt. Mater. 9, 323–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, Ph. C.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Losche, M.

M. Schonhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Losche, “Mechanism of photoreorientation of azobenzene dyes in molecular films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558–7565 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maertens, C.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, E.

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mertesdorf, M.

M. Schonhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Losche, “Mechanism of photoreorientation of azobenzene dyes in molecular films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558–7565 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Natanshon, A.

F. Lagugnè Labarthet, P. Rochon, and A. Natanshon, “Polarization analysis of diffracted orders from a birefringence grating recorded on azobenzene containing polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377–1379 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings in azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

Nikolova, L.

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “An analysis of the anisotropic and topographic gratings in a side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1518–1520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, M. Ivanov, F. Andruzzi, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “Polarization holographic gratings in side-chain azobenzene polyesters with linear and circular photoanisotropy,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3835–3840 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov and L. Nikolova, “Spectrophotopolarimeter: fast simultaneous real-time measurement of light parameters,” Opt. Lett. 17, 358–359 (1992), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes,” Opt. Mater. 9, 323–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palto, S. P.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, T. G.

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

Rochon, P.

F. Lagugnè Labarthet, P. Rochon, and A. Natanshon, “Polarization analysis of diffracted orders from a birefringence grating recorded on azobenzene containing polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377–1379 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings in azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sakaguchi, T.

K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schonhoff, M.

M. Schonhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Losche, “Mechanism of photoreorientation of azobenzene dyes in molecular films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558–7565 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tawa, K.

K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K. H.

Wang, C.

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z.

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, S. G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, S. Hvilsted, and P. S. Ramanujam, “An analysis of the anisotropic and topographic gratings in a side-chain liquid crystalline azobenzene polyester,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1518–1520 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Lagugnè Labarthet, P. Rochon, and A. Natanshon, “Polarization analysis of diffracted orders from a birefringence grating recorded on azobenzene containing polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1377–1379 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings in azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, S. P. Palto, S. G. Yudin, and L. M. Blinov, “Permanent polarization gratings in photosensitive Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2106–2109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, “Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azonbenzene functionalized polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096–2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ivanov, T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, and V. Dragostinova, “Photoinduced changes in the refractive-index of azo-dye polymer systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2174–2176 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. J. Barrett, P. L. Rochon, and A. L. Natansohn, “Model of laser-driven mass transport in thin films of dye-functionalized polymers,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 1505–1516 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Schonhoff, M. Mertesdorf, and M. Losche, “Mechanism of photoreorientation of azobenzene dyes in molecular films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 7558–7565 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064–6070 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarization holography reveals the nature of the grating in polymers containing azo-dye,” Opt. Commun. 185, 1–12 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jéro⁁me, “Polarised light induced birefringence in azo dye doped polymer: a new model and polarised holographic experiments,” Opt. Commun. 139, 92–98 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, H. Fei, Y. Yang, Z. Wei, Y. Qiu, and Y. Chen, “Photoinduced anisotropy and polarization holography in azobenzene side-chain polymer,” Opt. Commun. 159, 58–62 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, “Anisotropy of photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes,” Opt. Mater. 9, 323–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. G. Pedersen, P. M. Johansen, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Mean-field theory of photoinduced formation of surface reliefs in side-chain azobenzene polymers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

K. Tawa, K. Kamada, T. Sakaguchi, and K. Ohta, “Local environment dependence of photoinduced anisotropy observed in azo-dye-doped polymer films,” Polymer 41, 3235–3242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, E. Masetti, I. M. Elminyawi, and F. G. Grosz, “Construction, calibration, and testing of a four-detector photopolarimeter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 84–88 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: WPs, quarter-wave plates; S, sample; Phs, photodiodes; FDP, four-detector polarimeter. Inset, the polarization pattern.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamics of efficiency for (a) the layered and (b) the mixed samples at several writing intensities. Curves 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5: 2.2, 3.4, 4.4, 5.6, and 8.8 W/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamics of efficiency for (1) layered and (2) mixed samples at 15.5-W/cm2 writing intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical polarization microscope images (100×) of the layered sample: (a) before irradiation, (b) during low-intensity recording, and (c) during high-intensity recording.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical polarization microscope images (100×) of the mixed sample: (a) before irradiation, (b) during low-intensity recording, and (c) during high-intensity recording.

Equations (7)

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E=22cos(δ/2)sin(δ/2).
T=TPTR.
TP=cos(Δϕ)+i sin(Δϕ)cos δi sin(Δϕ)sin δi sin(Δϕ)sin δcos(Δϕ)-i sin(Δϕ)cos δ
TR=exp[(iΔψ)cos(δ+δ1)]00exp[(iΔψ)cos(δ+δ1)]
E0+E+1+E-1=TPEi=cos(Δϕ)+i sin(Δϕ)cos δi sin(Δϕ)sin δi sin(Δϕ)sin δcos(Δϕ)-i sin(Δϕ)cos δ121-i=cos(Δϕ)121-i+isin(Δϕ)2exp(iδ)+exp(-iδ)i[exp(-iδ)-exp(iδ)]i[exp(-iδ)-exp(iδ)]-[exp(iδ)+exp(-iδ)] 121-i,
E0=cos(Δϕ)121-i,E+1=0,E-1=i sin(Δϕ)1i.
η±1=(sin Δϕ)2/2.

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