Abstract

We describe efficient soliton compression of femtosecond pulses by use of cascade quadratic nonlinearity and normal dispersion in quadratic media. Pulse compression by a factor of ∼3 is achieved in ∼30-mm-long beta-barium borate at a wavelength of 800 nm. We investigate the dependence of compression performance on phase mismatch, input intensity, and propagation length. The compressed pulses are fully characterized by use of the frequency-resolved optical gating method.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).
  2. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
  3. N. Karasawa, N. Liming Li, A. Suguro, H. Shigekawa, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Optical pulse compression to 5.0 fs by use of only a spatial light modulator for phase compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1742–1746 (2001).
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Extreme picosecond pulse narrowing by means of soliton effect in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 289–291 (1983).
  5. M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).
  6. E. Sidick, A. Knoesen, and A. Dienes, “Ultrashort-pulse second-harmonic generation. I. Transform-limited fundamental pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1704–1712 (1995).
  7. E. Sidick, A. Knoesen, and A. Dienes, “Ultrashort-pulse second-harmonic generation. II. Non-transform-limited fundamental pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1713–1722 (1995).
  8. D. Kim, G. Xiao, and G. Ma, “Temporal properties of the second-harmonic generation of a short pulse,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6788–6793 (1997).
  9. Y. Wang and B. L. Davies, “Frequency-doubling pulse compressor for picosecond high-power neodymium laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1459–1461 (1992).
  10. A. Umbrasas, J.-C. Diels, J. Jacob, G. Valiulis, and A. Piskarskas, “Generation of femtosecond pulses through second-harmonic compression of the output of a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2228–2230 (1995).
  11. A. Dubietis, G. Valiulis, G. Tamosauskas, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear second-harmonic pulse compression with tilted pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1071–1073 (1997).
  12. T. Zhang, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear chirp-compensated second-harmonic generation with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1146–1150 (2000).
  13. M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).
  14. R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17, 28–30 (1992).
  15. G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bhae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18, 13–15 (1993).
  16. X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “High-energy pulse compression by use of negative phase shifts produced by the cascade χ(2)(2) nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1777–1779 (1999).
  17. P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).
  18. X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “Generation of spatiotemporal solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631–4634 (1999).
  19. X. Liu, K. Beckwitt, and F. Wise, “Two-dimensional optical spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1328–1340 (2000).
  20. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
  21. I. Shoji, H. Nakamura, K. Ohdaira, T. Kondo, R. Ito, T. Okamoto, K. Tatsuki, and S. Kubota, “Absolute measurement of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients of β-BaB2O4 for visible to ultraviolet second-harmonic wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 620–624 (1999).
  22. F. Hache, A. Zeboulon, G. Gallot, and G. M. Gale, “Cascaded second-order effects in the femtosecond regime in β-barium borate: self-compression in a visible femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1556–1558 (1995).
  23. E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).
  24. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).
  25. C. R. Menyk, R. Shiek, and L. Torner, “Solitary waves due to χ(2)(2) cascading,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2434–2443 (1994).
  26. O. Albert and J. Etchepare, “Femtosecond temporal behavior measurement of Kerr-like cascaded second-order non-linearities,” Opt. Commun. 154, 345–349 (1998).
  27. R. A. Fisher and W. K. Bischel, “Numerical studies of the interplay between self-phase modulation and dispersion for intense plane-wave laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4921–4934 (1975).
  28. A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).
  29. K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, “Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2152–2154 (1994).
  30. K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, “Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating traces for three common beam geometries,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595–1608 (1994).

2002 (1)

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

T. Zhang, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear chirp-compensated second-harmonic generation with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1146–1150 (2000).

M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).

X. Liu, K. Beckwitt, and F. Wise, “Two-dimensional optical spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1328–1340 (2000).

1999 (4)

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “Generation of spatiotemporal solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631–4634 (1999).

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “High-energy pulse compression by use of negative phase shifts produced by the cascade χ(2)(2) nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1777–1779 (1999).

I. Shoji, H. Nakamura, K. Ohdaira, T. Kondo, R. Ito, T. Okamoto, K. Tatsuki, and S. Kubota, “Absolute measurement of second-order nonlinear-optical coefficients of β-BaB2O4 for visible to ultraviolet second-harmonic wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 620–624 (1999).

1998 (2)

O. Albert and J. Etchepare, “Femtosecond temporal behavior measurement of Kerr-like cascaded second-order non-linearities,” Opt. Commun. 154, 345–349 (1998).

P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).

1995 (4)

1994 (3)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

1987 (1)

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

1975 (1)

R. A. Fisher and W. K. Bischel, “Numerical studies of the interplay between self-phase modulation and dispersion for intense plane-wave laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4921–4934 (1975).

Albert, O.

O. Albert and J. Etchepare, “Femtosecond temporal behavior measurement of Kerr-like cascaded second-order non-linearities,” Opt. Commun. 154, 345–349 (1998).

Aoyama, M.

M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).

T. Zhang, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear chirp-compensated second-harmonic generation with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1146–1150 (2000).

Assanto, G.

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).

Beckwitt, K.

X. Liu, K. Beckwitt, and F. Wise, “Two-dimensional optical spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1328–1340 (2000).

Bischel, W. K.

R. A. Fisher and W. K. Bischel, “Numerical studies of the interplay between self-phase modulation and dispersion for intense plane-wave laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4921–4934 (1975).

Caironi, D.

P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).

Danielius, R.

P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).

A. Dubietis, G. Valiulis, G. Tamosauskas, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear second-harmonic pulse compression with tilted pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1071–1073 (1997).

Davies, B. L.

Davis, L.

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).

Delong, K. W.

DeSalvo, R.

Diels, J.-C.

Dienes, A.

Dubietis, A.

P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).

A. Dubietis, G. Valiulis, G. Tamosauskas, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear second-harmonic pulse compression with tilted pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1071–1073 (1997).

Eimerl, E.

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

Etchepare, J.

O. Albert and J. Etchepare, “Femtosecond temporal behavior measurement of Kerr-like cascaded second-order non-linearities,” Opt. Commun. 154, 345–349 (1998).

Fisher, R. A.

R. A. Fisher and W. K. Bischel, “Numerical studies of the interplay between self-phase modulation and dispersion for intense plane-wave laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4921–4934 (1975).

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fork, R. L.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

Gale, G. M.

Gallot, G.

Gordon, J. P.

Graham, E. K.

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

Hache, F.

Hagan, D. J.

Igarashi, K.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).

Ito, R.

Jacob, J.

Kane, D. J.

Karasawa, N.

Kim, D.

Kishi, M.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).

Knoesen, A.

Kohler, B.

Kondo, T.

Kubota, S.

Liming Li, N.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, K. Beckwitt, and F. Wise, “Two-dimensional optical spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1328–1340 (2000).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “High-energy pulse compression by use of negative phase shifts produced by the cascade χ(2)(2) nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1777–1779 (1999).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “Generation of spatiotemporal solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631–4634 (1999).

Ma, G.

Menyk, C. R.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Morita, R.

Nakamura, H.

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).

Ohdaira, K.

Okamoto, T.

Piskarskas, A.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).

Qian, L. J.

Saito, S.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).

Shank, C. V.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Sheik-Bhae, M.

Shiek, R.

Shigekawa, H.

Shoji, I.

Sidick, E.

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, G. I.

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Extreme picosecond pulse narrowing by means of soliton effect in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 289–291 (1983).

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

Suguro, A.

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).

Tamosauskas, G.

Tatsuki, K.

Tomlinson, W. J.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Extreme picosecond pulse narrowing by means of soliton effect in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 289–291 (1983).

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

Torner, L.

Trapani, P. D.

P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).

Trebino, R.

Tsuchiya, M.

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).

Tsukakoshi, M.

M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).

Umbrasas, A.

Valiulis, G.

Van Stryland, E.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vanherzeele, H.

Velsko, S.

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

Wang, Y.

Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).

Wilson, K.

Wise, F.

X. Liu, K. Beckwitt, and F. Wise, “Two-dimensional optical spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1328–1340 (2000).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “High-energy pulse compression by use of negative phase shifts produced by the cascade χ(2)(2) nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1777–1779 (1999).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “Generation of spatiotemporal solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631–4634 (1999).

Xiao, G.

Yamakawa, K.

T. Zhang, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear chirp-compensated second-harmonic generation with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1146–1150 (2000).

M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).

Yamashita, M.

Yen, R.

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

Zalkin, A.

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

Zeboulon, A.

Zhang, T.

M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).

T. Zhang, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear chirp-compensated second-harmonic generation with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1146–1150 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. V. Shank, R. L. Fork, R. Yen, R. H. Stolen, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Compression of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 761–763 (1982).

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

M. Tsuchiya, K. Igarashi, S. Saito, and M. Kishi, “Sub-100 fs higher order soliton compression in dispersion-flattened fibers,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E85C, 141–149 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. A. Fisher and W. K. Bischel, “Numerical studies of the interplay between self-phase modulation and dispersion for intense plane-wave laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4921–4934 (1975).

E. Eimerl, L. Davis, S. Velsko, E. K. Graham, and A. Zalkin, “Optical, mechanical, and thermal properties of barium borate,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 1968–1983 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Zhang, M. Aoyama, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear chirp-compensated second-harmonic generation with subpicosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 1146–1150 (2000).

M. Aoyama, T. Zhang, M. Tsukakoshi, and K. Yamakawa, “Noncollinear second-harmonic generation with compensation of phase mismatch by controlling frequency chirp and tilted pulse fronts of femtosecond laser pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3394–3399 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

O. Albert and J. Etchepare, “Femtosecond temporal behavior measurement of Kerr-like cascaded second-order non-linearities,” Opt. Commun. 154, 345–349 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (9)

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, “Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2152–2154 (1994).

R. DeSalvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. Stegeman, E. W. Van Stryland, and H. Vanherzeele, “Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP,” Opt. Lett. 17, 28–30 (1992).

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bhae, E. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, “Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical processes,” Opt. Lett. 18, 13–15 (1993).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “High-energy pulse compression by use of negative phase shifts produced by the cascade χ(2)(2) nonlinearity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1777–1779 (1999).

F. Hache, A. Zeboulon, G. Gallot, and G. M. Gale, “Cascaded second-order effects in the femtosecond regime in β-barium borate: self-compression in a visible femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1556–1558 (1995).

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, and W. J. Tomlinson, “Extreme picosecond pulse narrowing by means of soliton effect in single-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 8, 289–291 (1983).

Y. Wang and B. L. Davies, “Frequency-doubling pulse compressor for picosecond high-power neodymium laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1459–1461 (1992).

A. Umbrasas, J.-C. Diels, J. Jacob, G. Valiulis, and A. Piskarskas, “Generation of femtosecond pulses through second-harmonic compression of the output of a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2228–2230 (1995).

A. Dubietis, G. Valiulis, G. Tamosauskas, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Nonlinear second-harmonic pulse compression with tilted pulses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1071–1073 (1997).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

X. Liu, K. Beckwitt, and F. Wise, “Two-dimensional optical spatiotemporal solitons in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. E 62, 1328–1340 (2000).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. D. Trapani, D. Caironi, G. Valiulis, A. Dubietis, R. Danielius, and A. Piskarskas, “Observation of temporal solitons in second-harmonic generation with tilted pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 570–573 (1998).

X. Liu, L. J. Qian, and F. Wise, “Generation of spatiotemporal solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4631–4634 (1999).

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

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