Abstract

We describe a detailed theoretical investigation of two-photon absorption photoconductivity in semiconductor microcavities. We show that high enhancement (by a factor of >10,000) of the nonlinear response can be obtained as a result of the microcavity effect. We discuss in detail the design and performance (dynamic range, speed) of such a device with the help of the example of an AlGaAs/GaAs microcavity operating at 900 nm. This device shows promise for low-intensity, fast autocorrelation and demultiplexing applications.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  21. J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
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  23. A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).
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  26. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
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  27. A. R. Hassan, “Two-photon absorption in an indirect-gap semiconductor quantum well system. II. Excitonic transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, 303–313 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. H. Weiler, “Nonparabolicity and exciton effects in two-photon absorption in zincblende semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 39, 937–940 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Obeidat and J. Khurgin, “Excitonic enhancement of two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1222–1227 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  39. P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  41. A. T. Obeidat, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Khurgin, “Effects of two-photon absorption in saturable Bragg reflectors used in femtosecond solid state lasers,” Opt. Express 1(3), 68–72 (1997), http://www.optics express.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  43. T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Zhiping Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, C. M. Verber, and A. J. Springthorpe, “Two-photon absorption-induced self-phase modulation in GaAs–AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 756–758 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  44. W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  45. Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  46. H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  47. D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  48. D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (6)

D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Dabbicco and M. Brambilla, “Dispersion of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe,” Solid State Commun. 114, 515–519 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogawa and M. D. Pelusi, “High-sensitivity pulse spectrogram measurement using two-photon absorption in a semiconductor at 1.5μm wavelength,” Opt. Express 7, 135–140 (2000), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Ulmer, R. K. Tan, Zhiping Zhou, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, C. M. Verber, and A. J. Springthorpe, “Two-photon absorption-induced self-phase modulation in GaAs–AlGaAs waveguides for surface-emitted second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 756–758 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

1995 (2)

A. Obeidat and J. Khurgin, “Excitonic enhancement of two-photon absorption in semiconductor quantum well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1222–1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Hassan, “Two-photon absorption in an indirect-gap semiconductor quantum well system. II. Excitonic transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, 303–313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takagi, T. Kobayashi, K. Yoshihara, and S. Imamura, “Multiple- and single-shot autocorrelator based on two-photon conductivity in semiconductors,” Opt. Lett. 17, 658–660 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (2)

H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Manning and R. Olshansky, “The carrier-induced index change in AlGaAs and 1.3 μm InGaAsP diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525–1530 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. H. Weiler, “Nonparabolicity and exciton effects in two-photon absorption in zincblende semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 39, 937–940 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

C. C. Lee and Y. Fan, “Two-photon absorption with exciton effect for degenerate valence bands,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3502–3516 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Azfar, T.

H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

Barrow, D. A.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bollond, P. G.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A. L.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, M.

M. Dabbicco and M. Brambilla, “Dispersion of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe,” Solid State Commun. 114, 515–519 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brandi, H. S.

H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, I. M.

M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. Y.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. J.

Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, C. W.

M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dabbicco, M.

M. Dabbicco and I. M. Catalano, “Measurement of the anisotropy of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe near half the band gap,” Opt. Commun. 178, 117–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Dabbicco and M. Brambilla, “Dispersion of the two-photon absorption coefficient in ZnSe,” Solid State Commun. 114, 515–519 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Araujo, C. B.

H. S. Brandi and C. B. De Araujo, “Multiphoton absorption coefficients in solids: a universal curve,” J. Phys. C 16, 5929–5936 (1983).
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S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

deGouw, J.

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
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H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
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C. C. Lee and Y. Fan, “Two-photon absorption with exciton effect for degenerate valence bands,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3502–3516 (1974).
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H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

T. Feurer, A. Glass, and R. Sauerbrey, “Two-photon photoconductivity in SiC photodiodes and its application to autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 295–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fleischu, S. B.

Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Glass, A.

T. Feurer, A. Glass, and R. Sauerbrey, “Two-photon photoconductivity in SiC photodiodes and its application to autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 295–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gvozdic, D. M.

D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
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A. R. Hassan, “Two-photon absorption in an indirect-gap semiconductor quantum well system. II. Excitonic transitions,” Phys. Status Solidi B 186, 303–313 (1994).
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H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
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M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Ishikawa, M.

J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kao, F.-J.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karkhanehchi, M. M.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kean, A. H.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kenan, R. P.

Khurgin, J.

Khurgin, J. B.

J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
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A. T. Obeidat, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Khurgin, “Effects of two-photon absorption in saturable Bragg reflectors used in femtosecond solid state lasers,” Opt. Express 1(3), 68–72 (1997), http://www.optics express.org.
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J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Kobayashi, T.

Koza, M. A.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laughton, F. R.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, H. P.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee and Y. Fan, “Two-photon absorption with exciton effect for degenerate valence bands,” Phys. Rev. B 9, 3502–3516 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. Y.

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

J. B. Khurgin and S. Li, “Two-photon absorption and nonresonant nonlinear index of refraction in the intersubband transitions in the quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 126–128 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.-C.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. H.

J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, M.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M. P.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manning, J.

J. Manning and R. Olshansky, “The carrier-induced index change in AlGaAs and 1.3 μm InGaAsP diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525–1530 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, and A. H. Kean, “Very sensitive two photon absorption GaAs/GaAlAs waveguide detector for an autocorrelator,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1663–1665 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matavulj, P. S.

D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McGowan, C.

McInerney, J. G.

P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S. S.

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mullane, R. J.

P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, H.

J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nikoloic, P. L.

D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Obeidat, A.

Obeidat, A. T.

Ogawa, K.

Ogawa, T.

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olshansky, R.

J. Manning and R. Olshansky, “The carrier-induced index change in AlGaAs and 1.3 μm InGaAsP diode Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1525–1530 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, D. L.

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Penty, R. V.

H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Portnoi, E. L.

F. R. Laughton, J. H. Marsh, D. A. Barrow, and E. L. Portnoi, “The two-photon absorption semiconductor waveguide autocorrelator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 838–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Preusser, J.

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pschenichnikov, M. S.

Pugnet, M.

S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quattropani, A.

A. Pasquarello and A. Quattropani, “Gauge-invariant two-photon absorption in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 6206–6210 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Radunovic, J. B.

D. M. Gvozdic, P. L. Nikoloic, and J. B. Radunovic, “Optimization of a resonant cavity enhanced MSM photodetector,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 630–637 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Golubovic, P. S. Matavulj, and J. B. Radunovic, “Resonant cavity-enhanced Schottky photodiode modeling and analysis,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 15, 950–956 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, S. E.

Ranka, J. K.

Reid, D. T.

Roberts, J. S.

H. Folliot, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, L. A. Dunbar, J. Hegarty, J. F. Donegan, L. P. Barry, J. S. Roberts, and G. Hill, “Two-photon absorption photocurrent enhancement in bulk AlGaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1328–1330 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, S.

S. Sanchez, C. De Matos, and M. Pugnet, “Instantaneous optical modulation in bulk GaAs semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3779–3781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

T. Feurer, A. Glass, and R. Sauerbrey, “Two-photon photoconductivity in SiC photodiodes and its application to autocorrelation measurements of femtosecond optical pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 295–297 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

W. Schade, J. Preusser, D. L. Osborn, Y. Y. Lee, J. deGouw, and S. R. Leone, “Spatially resolved femtosecond time correlation measurements on a GaAsP photodiode,” Opt. Commun. 162, 200–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of quasi low-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. B 45, 11338–11341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, T. Ogawa, and H. Sakaki, “Two-photon absorption spectra of low-dimensional semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 263, 512–517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, “TPA in QW near bandgap,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 1403–1406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

P. M. W. Skovgaard, R. J. Mullane, D. N. Nikogosyan, and J. G. McInerney, “Two-photon conductivity in semiconductor waveguide autocorrelators,” Opt. Commun. 153, 78–82 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sleat, W. E.

Slusher, R. E.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, “Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515–3522 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C. E.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Springthorpe, A. J.

Stegeman, G. I.

J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Streit, D. C.

H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-K.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tai, K.

K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takagi, Y.

Tan, R. K.

Thomsen, B.

D. T. Reid, W. Sibbett, J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, and J. D. Harvey, “Commercial semiconductor devices for two-photon absorption autocorrelation of ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8142–8144 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsurumachi, N.

J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Udupa, A.

H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, T. G.

Vaidyanathan, A.

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 21, 743–748 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Villeneuve, A.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-C.

C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. H. Weiler, “Nonparabolicity and exciton effects in two-photon absorption in zincblende semiconductors,” Solid State Commun. 39, 937–940 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

White, I. H.

H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
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Yairi, M. B.

M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
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J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. Y.

J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshihara, K.

Young, M. G.

M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Zhiping

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

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C.-K. Sun, J.-C. Liang, J.-C. Wang, F.-J. Kao, S. Keller, M. P. Mack, U. Mishra, and S. P. Denbaars, “Two-photon absorption study of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 439–441 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, J. B. Khurgin, C. C. Yang, H. H. Lin, and G. I. Stegeman, “Two-photon transitions between bound-to-continuum states in AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3638–3640 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Ye, M. Ishikawa, Y. Yamane, N. Tsurumachi, and H. Nakatsuka, “Enhancement of two-photon excited fluorescence using one-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3605–3607 (1999).
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M. B. Yairi, C. W. Coldren, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “High-speed optically controlled surface-normal optical switch based on conductive diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 597–599 (1999).
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Y. J. Chiu, S. Z. Zang, S. B. Fleischu, J. E. Bowers, and U. K. Mishra, “GaAs-based, 1.55 μm high speed, high saturation power, low-temperature grown GaAs p–i–n photodetector,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1253–1254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, B. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Autocorrelation and ultrafast optical thresholding at 1.5 mm using a commercial InGaAsP 1.3 mm laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 34, 358–359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Erlig, S. Wang, T. Azfar, A. Udupa, H. R. Fetterman, and D. C. Streit, “LTGaAs detector with 451fs response at 1.55μm via two-photon absorption,” Electron. Lett. 35, 173–174 (1999).
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H. K. Tsang, L. Y. Chan, J. B. D. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “High sensitivity autocorrelation using two-photon absorption in GaInAsP waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1773–1775 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, P. P. Vasilev, I. H. White, R. V. Penty, and J. S. Aitchison, “First demonstration of two-photon absorption in a semiconductor waveguide pumped by a diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1660–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

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[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, and R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, “Anisotropic two-photon transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2934–2939 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, J. H. Marsh, and M. M. Karkhanehchi, “Ultrafast optical thresholding based on two-photon absorption GaAs waveguide photodetectors,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 493–495 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. N. Islam, C. E. Soccolich, R. E. Slusher, A. F. J. Levi, W. S. Hobson, and M. G. Young, “Nonlinear spectroscopy near half-bandgap in bulk and quantum well GaAs/GaAlAs waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 1927–1936 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

A. Vaidyanathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Two-photon absorption in several direct-gap crystals—an addendum,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 6480–6483 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Tai, “Two-photon absorption spectroscopy in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1784–1787 (1989).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photocurrent versus intensity for an L=1 µm semiconductor for various values of absorption α and β=0.02 cm/MW. The dynamic range is shown for the α=0.1 cm-1 curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photocurrent versus intensity for an L=1 µm cavity for various enhancement factors F with typical semiconductor parameters α=0.1 cm-1 and β=0.02 cm/MW. 26 The dashed horizontal line denotes lower (SPA predominant on TPA) and higher (total absorption) limits of the photocurrent.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photocurrent (average current) versus intensity (average power) for the two simulated cavity devices and a noncavity device.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dI(z)dz=-αI(z)-βI(z)2.
I(z)=I0exp(-αz)1+(βI0/α)[1-exp(-αz)].
IabsSPA=I01-exp(-αL)CαLαL+ln C,
IabsTPA=I01-exp(-αL)Cln CαL+ln C,
C=1+(βI0/α)[1-exp(-αL)].
J=eShυIabsSPA+12IabsTPA,
αβI1βL.
J=eS2hυβI02L.
f=t1(1+r2)(1-r1r2).
4α3FβI83F2βL.
Ei+Ei-=12exp(iki+1di+1)1+ki+1kiexp(-iki+1di+1)1-ki+1kiexp(iki+1di+1)1-ki+1kiexp(-iki+1di+1)1+ki+1kiEi+1+Ei+1-=Mi+1,iEi+1+Ei+1-,
σn=-q22ω2ε0n0meffEg2Eg2-(ω)2,
N=βI02τp2ωπ/2
I(t)=I0 exp(-t2/τp2).
k=2πnλ-iβI2-iα2,
n=n0+n2I+σnN2.
IPC=0LηTPAβI2(z)2E+ηSPAαI(z)Edz.
I(r, t)=I0 exp(-r2/Ω2)exp(-t2/τp2),
I0=WfΩ2π3/2τp,

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