Abstract

Spectroscopic and laser properties at ∼1 µm of seven new ytterbium-doped crystalline materials—silicates Y2SiO5, Ca2Al2SiO7, SrY4(SiO4)3O, borates Ca3Y2(BO3)4, Ca3Gd2(BO3)4, Sr3Y(BO3)3, and Ba3Lu(BO3)3— are investigated. Absorption and emission cross sections are strongly dependent on the crystalline host. Good agreement is obtained between emission cross sections calculated by the reciprocity method and by the Füchtbauer–Ladenburg method. The wavelength dependence of the gain cross sections are also determined. Except for Ba3Lu(BO3)3, which is of poor crystalline quality, laser oscillations in a plano-concave cavity are obtained for all the presented hosts. From optical spectroscopy and laser results, large tunability of the emission is expected for these materials. Slope efficiencies are in the range 40%–60% with very low threshold values.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “New criteria to choose the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 55, 647–652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd:GGG,” Opt. Commun. 198, 155–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “On the maximum splitting of the (2F7/2) ground state in Yb3+-doped solid state laser materials,” J. Lumin. 93, 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Krupke, “New laser materials for diode pumped solid state lasers,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4, 197–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1987

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

1982

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–934 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1966

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in four-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136, A954–A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abdolvand, A.

Aka, G.

Aka, G. P.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopy and efficient laser action under diode-pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1083–1091 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Druon, S. Chenais, P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, G. P. Aka, B. Viana, S. Mohr, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped largely tunable femtosecond Yb:Sr3Y(BO3)3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 197–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Antic-Fidancev, E.

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aron, A.

Aull, B. F.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–934 (1982).
[CrossRef]

aus der Au, J.

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “On the maximum splitting of the (2F7/2) ground state in Yb3+-doped solid state laser materials,” J. Lumin. 93, 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balembois, F.

Benitez, J.-M.

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biswal, S.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “New criteria to choose the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 55, 647–652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “New criteria to choose the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 55, 647–652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

Brunner, F.

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

Caird, J. A.

Chai, B. H. T.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chenais, S.

Chénais, S.

Clay, R. A.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in four-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Contag, K.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW cw thin disc laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Courjaud, A.

Dane, B.

M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd:GGG,” Opt. Commun. 198, 155–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Loach, L. D.

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DeLoach, L. D.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Druon, F.

Equall, R.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

Ferrand, B.

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Findlay, D.

D. Findlay and R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in four-level-lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gaumé, R.

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Druon, S. Chenais, P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, G. P. Aka, B. Viana, S. Mohr, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped largely tunable femtosecond Yb:Sr3Y(BO3)3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 197–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopy and efficient laser action under diode-pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1083–1091 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

Giesen, A.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW cw thin disc laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graf, M.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harder, C.

Haumesser, P. H.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopy and efficient laser action under diode-pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1083–1091 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haumesser, P.-H.

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, A. Courjaud, C. Hönninger, F. Salin, A. Aron, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “90-fs pulse generation from a mode-locked diode-pumped Yb3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 423–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hügel, H.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW cw thin disc laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheson, R.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jenssen, H. P.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–934 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Johannsen, I.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

F. Brunner, G. J. Spuhler, J. aus der Au, L. Kreiner, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1 W average power,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1119–1121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

Kreiner, L.

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “New laser materials for diode pumped solid state lasers,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4, 197–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Larionov, M.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW cw thin disc laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le Boulanger, P.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenstein, N.

Loutts, G.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marjerie, J.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136, A954–A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Mohr, S.

Moncorgé, R.

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

F. Brunner, G. J. Spuhler, J. aus der Au, L. Kreiner, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1 W average power,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1119–1121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

F. Brunner, G. J. Spuhler, J. aus der Au, L. Kreiner, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, N. Lichtenstein, S. Weiss, C. Harder, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Abdolvand, N. V. Kuleshov, and U. Keller, “Diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGd(WO4)2 laser with 1.1 W average power,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1119–1121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patel, F. D.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, A. J.

Raybaut, P.

Rotter, M. D.

M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd:GGG,” Opt. Commun. 198, 155–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

Seeber, W.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Speth, J.

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

Staver, P. R.

Stewen, C.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW cw thin disc laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tassano, J. B.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopy and efficient laser action under diode-pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1083–1091 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Druon, S. Chenais, P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, G. P. Aka, B. Viana, S. Mohr, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped largely tunable femtosecond Yb:Sr3Y(BO3)3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 27, 197–199 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopy and efficient laser action under diode-pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal: Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1083–1091 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, A. Courjaud, C. Hönninger, F. Salin, A. Aron, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “90-fs pulse generation from a mode-locked diode-pumped Yb3+:Ca4GdO(BO3)3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 423–425 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

Zhang, G.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. Moser, S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 3–17 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.

W. F. Krupke, “New laser materials for diode pumped solid state lasers,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4, 197–201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

A. Brenier and G. Boulon, “New criteria to choose the best Yb3+-doped laser crystals,” Europhys. Lett. 55, 647–652 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

B. F. Aull and H. P. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 925–934 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946-nm Nd: YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 605–612 (1987).

L. D. De Loach, S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, and W. L. Kway, “Evaluation of absorption and emission properties of Yb3+-doped crystals for laser applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1179–1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. D. Patel, E. C. Honea, J. Speth, S. A. Payne, R. Hutcheson, and R. Equall, “Laser demonstration of Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) and material properties of highly doped Yb: YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 135–144 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Stewen, K. Contag, M. Larionov, A. Giesen, and H. Hügel, “A 1-kW cw thin disc laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 650–657 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. A. Payne, L. D. DeLoach, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, J. B. Tassano, W. F. Krupke, B. H. T. Chai, and G. Loutts, “Ytterbium-doped apatite-structure crystals: a new class of laser materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 497–503 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, J.-M. Benitez, B. Viana, B. Ferrand, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Czochralski growth of six Yb-doped double borate and silicate laser materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 233, 233–242 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

F. Auzel, “On the maximum splitting of the (2F7/2) ground state in Yb3+-doped solid state laser materials,” J. Lumin. 93, 129–135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

P.-H. Haumesser, R. Gaumé, B. Viana, E. Antic-Fidancev, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopic and crystal field analysis of new Yb-doped laser materials,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 5427–5447 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. D. Rotter and B. Dane, “Measuring the stimulated-emission cross-section: a case study in Nd:GGG,” Opt. Commun. 198, 155–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, D. Vivien, G. P. Aka, and B. Ferrand, “New ytterbium-doped laser crystals and discussion of the relevant parameters to compare them,” Opt. Mater. 19, 81–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. Le Boulanger, J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Marjerie, and R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers, 4th ed. (Plenum, New York, 1998).

R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, D. Vivien, S. Chenais, F. Balembois, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser operation of a new broadly tunable crystal,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 2001), pp. 635–641.

I. Johannsen, S. Erhard, and A. Giesen, “Q-switched Yb:YAG thin disc laser,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, C. Marshall, ed., Vol. 50 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), pp. 191–196.

C. A. Morrison and P. Leavitt, “Spectroscopic properties of triply ionized lanthanides in transparent host lasers,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gshneidner and L. Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), Vol. 5, Chap. 46, pp. 461–692.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy levels of ytterbium and laser operating scheme; EZL means zero line energy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized absorption spectra of Yb:YSO.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Room temperature fluorescence decay at 1020 nm of 13.7-at. %- and 0.5-at. %-doped BOYS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determination of stimulated emission cross sections by the reciprocity and Füchtbauer–Ladenburg (F.L.) methods. (a) Yb:SYS, no reabsorption, τeff=τrad=0.8 ms (Table 2). (b) Yb:YSO, reabsorption is not negligible. When τeff=τrad=0.7 ms (Table 2), no matching between both methods. (c) Convergence is reached for τeff=τexp=0.86 ms. The reciprocity method is limited to shorter wavelengths since absorption vanishes at longer wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gain cross sections σg for ytterbium-doped materials for different values of the population inversion rate β.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical curves of laser output versus absorbed pump power; corresponding characteristics can be found in Table 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output power of Yb:SYS for different output coupling under Ti:Sa pumping at 915 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectral characteristics of laser beams emitted by (a) 5-at. %-doped Yb:YSO and (b) 10-at. %-doped Yb:CYB for various output mirror transmissions.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ytterbium Energy Levels in the Studied Host Matrices

Tables Icon

Table 2 Absorption Properties of the Ytterbium-Doped Compounds as a Function of Wavelength λp and Polarization

Tables Icon

Table 3 Radiative, Experimental, and Effective [See Eq. (6)] Lifetimes of Ytterbium in the Various Hosts

Tables Icon

Table 4 Imin Values and Quantum Efficiencies for Each Material at Different Pumping Wavelengths in a Given Laser Wavelength Range

Tables Icon

Table 5 Best Laser Performances Obtained for Each Ytterbium-Doped Compound

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σe(λ)=σa(λ) 12 ZfZe1 expEZL1-1/λkT+ZfZe2 expEZL2-1/λkT,
σe(λ)=18πnq2c 1τrad λ5I(λ)λI(λ)dλ.
expλI(λ)dλ=AλI(λ)dλ,
σe(λ)=18πnq2 1τradA λ5I(λ)expλI(λ)dλ,
σe(λ)=18πnq2c 1τeff λ5I(λ)expλI(λ)dλ,
τeff=τradA.
Imin=Ipsatβmin,
σg(λ1)=βσe(λl)-(1-β)σa(λl),
γγi+T1+T22,
σgNl=γ.
Pth=σaNl+γηp hcτradλp π(w02+wp2)2(σe+σa),
ηp=1-exp(-σpNl).
Pth0=10.632 π2(w02+wp2) hcτradλpσp σa(σe+σa).
Ipsat=hcτradλpσp,
1τrad=86 8πn2cλ¯4 σabs(λ)dλ,
βmin=σaσe+σa,
βmin=11+ZfZe expEZL-1/λlkT,
ηs=dPoutdPpumpPpump>Pth=ηpηq T22γ.
ηq=λpλl.

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