Abstract

Amplification of high-bandwidth phase-modulated optical signals from integrated-optics phase modulators at 793 nm is experimentally demonstrated using an injection-locking technique. Off-the-shelf wide-bandwidth integrated-optics modulators are power limited at 793 nm owing to photorefractive damage of the LiNbO3 waveguides. Typical optical input powers for these devices at this wavelength are less than 10 mW with optical output powers typically less than 1 mW. To amplify the outputs of these modulators, we injected the phase-modulated light into an antireflection-coated 100-mW single-mode diode laser. With the injection-locking technique, small-signal gains of 23 dB are demonstrated with good signal fidelity up to bandwidths of 3 GHz. A bandwidth limitation is found at approximately 3 GHz for sinusoidal phase-modulated signals, above which signal fidelity is seriously degraded. This limitation is significantly less than the measured relaxation oscillations of ∼5.6 GHz, suggesting a new limitation to injection locking of phase-modulated signals. Amplification of binary-phase-shift-keyed-modulated signals to 6 Gbit/s is also demonstrated with no bit errors over the 256-bit test sequences.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  4. J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
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  5. S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000).
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  6. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–792 (1985).
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  7. S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “A unifying view of bifurcations in a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 172, 279–295 (1999).
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  8. R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976–983 (1982).
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  9. E. K. Lee and H. S. Pang, “Bistability and chaos in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 736–739 (1993).
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  14. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. F. Chen, J. M. Liu, and T. B. Simpson, “Response characteristics of direct current modulation on a bandwidth-enhanced semiconductor laser under strong injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 173, 349–355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
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  23. K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage in a solid-state material,” Opt. Commun. 65, 185–188 (1988).
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  25. K. D. Merkel, Z. Cole, and W. R. Babbitt, “Signal correlator with programmable variable time delay based on optical coherent transients,” J. Lumin. 86, 375–382 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. D. Merkel, Z. Cole, and W. R. Babbitt, “Signal correlator with programmable variable time delay based on optical coherent transients,” J. Lumin. 86, 375–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Chen, J. M. Liu, and T. B. Simpson, “Response characteristics of direct current modulation on a bandwidth-enhanced semiconductor laser under strong injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 173, 349–355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “A unifying view of bifurcations in a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 172, 279–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Troger, P. A. Nicati, L. Thevanaz, and P. A. Robert, “Novel measurement scheme for injection-locking experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 32–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2780–2782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong cw light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 418–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. MacFarlane, “Photon-echo measurements on the trivalent thulium ion,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1958–1960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Lee and H. S. Pang, “Bistability and chaos in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 736–739 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

M. P. van Exter, W. A. Hamel, J. P. Woerdman, and B. R. P. Zeijlmans, “Spectral signature of relaxation oscillations in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1470–1478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Modulation properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 344–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage in a solid-state material,” Opt. Commun. 65, 185–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Theory of gain, modulation response, and spectral linewidth in AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1666–1674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–792 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobayashi and T. Kimura, “Optical phase modulation in an injection locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1662–1668 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, S.

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alsing, P. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrekson, P.

P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Theory of gain, modulation response, and spectral linewidth in AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1666–1674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Babbitt, W. R.

K. D. Merkel, Z. Cole, and W. R. Babbitt, “Signal correlator with programmable variable time delay based on optical coherent transients,” J. Lumin. 86, 375–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage in a solid-state material,” Opt. Commun. 65, 185–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baums, D.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bondurant, R.

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, H.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong cw light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 418–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carlsten, J.

K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. F.

H. F. Chen, J. M. Liu, and T. B. Simpson, “Response characteristics of direct current modulation on a bandwidth-enhanced semiconductor laser under strong injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 173, 349–355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, C. M.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cole, Z.

K. D. Merkel, Z. Cole, and W. R. Babbitt, “Signal correlator with programmable variable time delay based on optical coherent transients,” J. Lumin. 86, 375–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elsässer, W.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erasme, D.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Modulation properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 344–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gallion, P.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Modulation properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 344–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2780–2782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, E.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haldar, M. K.

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, W. A.

M. P. van Exter, W. A. Hamel, J. P. Woerdman, and B. R. P. Zeijlmans, “Spectral signature of relaxation oscillations in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1470–1478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

C. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Huang, K. F.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. K.

S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, G.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–792 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kaufmann, J.

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, T.

S. Kobayashi and T. Kimura, “Optical phase modulation in an injection locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1662–1668 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

S. Kobayashi and T. Kimura, “Optical phase modulation in an injection locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1662–1668 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kovanis, V.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2780–2782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krauskopf, B.

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “A unifying view of bifurcations in a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 172, 279–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lang, R.

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. K.

E. K. Lee and H. S. Pang, “Bistability and chaos in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 736–739 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenstra, D.

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “A unifying view of bifurcations in a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 172, 279–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lidoyne, O.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Modulation properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 344–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

H. F. Chen, J. M. Liu, and T. B. Simpson, “Response characteristics of direct current modulation on a bandwidth-enhanced semiconductor laser under strong injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 173, 349–355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2780–2782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Livas, J. C.

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, R.

R. MacFarlane, “Photon-echo measurements on the trivalent thulium ion,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1958–1960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mendis, F. V. C.

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meng, L.

K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. J.

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merkel, K. D.

K. D. Merkel, Z. Cole, and W. R. Babbitt, “Signal correlator with programmable variable time delay based on optical coherent transients,” J. Lumin. 86, 375–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mogensen, F.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–792 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mohrdiek, S.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong cw light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 418–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage in a solid-state material,” Opt. Commun. 65, 185–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nicati, P. A.

J. Troger, P. A. Nicati, L. Thevanaz, and P. A. Robert, “Novel measurement scheme for injection-locking experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 32–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olesen, H.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–792 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pang, H. S.

E. K. Lee and H. S. Pang, “Bistability and chaos in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 736–739 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panknin, P.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Repasky, K.

K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P. A.

J. Troger, P. A. Nicati, L. Thevanaz, and P. A. Robert, “Novel measurement scheme for injection-locking experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 32–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roos, P.

K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sacher, J.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, T. B.

H. F. Chen, J. M. Liu, and T. B. Simpson, “Response characteristics of direct current modulation on a bandwidth-enhanced semiconductor laser under strong injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 173, 349–355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2780–2782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M.

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tai, K.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanbun-Ek, T.

P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thevanaz, L.

J. Troger, P. A. Nicati, L. Thevanaz, and P. A. Robert, “Novel measurement scheme for injection-locking experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 32–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Troger, J.

J. Troger, P. A. Nicati, L. Thevanaz, and P. A. Robert, “Novel measurement scheme for injection-locking experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 32–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M. P.

M. P. van Exter, W. A. Hamel, J. P. Woerdman, and B. R. P. Zeijlmans, “Spectral signature of relaxation oscillations in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1470–1478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walter, H.

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong cw light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 418–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Washington, M.

P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wieczorek, S.

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “A unifying view of bifurcations in a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 172, 279–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

C. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. P. van Exter, W. A. Hamel, J. P. Woerdman, and B. R. P. Zeijlmans, “Spectral signature of relaxation oscillations in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1470–1478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Theory of gain, modulation response, and spectral linewidth in AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1666–1674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zeijlmans, B. R. P.

M. P. van Exter, W. A. Hamel, J. P. Woerdman, and B. R. P. Zeijlmans, “Spectral signature of relaxation oscillations in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1470–1478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2780–2782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. C. Livas, S. Alexander, R. Bondurant, J. Kaufmann, and M. Stevens, “1 Gbit/s injection-locked distributed feedback laser oscillator,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1042–1044 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (7)

J. Troger, P. A. Nicati, L. Thevanaz, and P. A. Robert, “Novel measurement scheme for injection-locking experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 32–38 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arakawa and A. Yariv, “Theory of gain, modulation response, and spectral linewidth in AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 1666–1674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. P. van Exter, W. A. Hamel, J. P. Woerdman, and B. R. P. Zeijlmans, “Spectral signature of relaxation oscillations in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1470–1478 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–792 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Lang, “Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 976–983 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Kobayashi and T. Kimura, “Optical phase modulation in an injection locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1662–1668 (1982).
[CrossRef]

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, and D. Erasme, “Modulation properties of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 344–328 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. M. Liu, H. F. Chen, X. J. Meng, and T. B. Simpson, “Modulation bandwidth, noise and stability of a semiconductor laser subject to strong injection locking,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1325–1327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322–1324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, and A. Gavrielides, “Bandwidth enhancement and broadband noise reduction in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Wang, M. K. Haldar, L. Li, and F. V. C. Mendis, “Enhancement of modulation bandwidth of laser diodes by injection locking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 34–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. Mohrdiek, H. Burkhard, and H. Walter, “Chirp reduction of directly modulated semiconductor lasers at 10 Gb/s by strong cw light injection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 418–424 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Andrekson, N. A. Olsson, T. Tanbun-Ek, and M. Washington, “High power semiconductor laser injection-locking at 1.3 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 903–907 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. D. Merkel, Z. Cole, and W. R. Babbitt, “Signal correlator with programmable variable time delay based on optical coherent transients,” J. Lumin. 86, 375–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

H. F. Chen, J. M. Liu, and T. B. Simpson, “Response characteristics of direct current modulation on a bandwidth-enhanced semiconductor laser under strong injection locking,” Opt. Commun. 173, 349–355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Babbitt and T. W. Mossberg, “Time-domain frequency-selective optical data storage in a solid-state material,” Opt. Commun. 65, 185–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Hwang and J. M. Liu, “Dynamical characteristics of an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Commun. 183, 195–205 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Wieczorek, B. Krauskopf, and D. Lenstra, “A unifying view of bifurcations in a semiconductor laser subject to optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 172, 279–295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. Repasky, P. Roos, L. Meng, and J. Carlsten, “Amplified output of a frequency chirped diode source via injection locking,” Opt. Eng. 40, 2505–2509 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

R. MacFarlane, “Photon-echo measurements on the trivalent thulium ion,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1958–1960 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

E. K. Lee and H. S. Pang, “Bistability and chaos in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 736–739 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1893–1904 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4181–4185 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, K. Tai, C. M. Clayton, A. Gavrielides, and V. Kovanis, “Cavity enhancement of resonant frequencies in semiconductor lasers subject to optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4348–4351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, K. F. Huang, and K. Tai, “Nonlinear dynamics induced by external optical injection in semiconductor lasers,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 9, 765–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. D. Merkel and R. K. Mohan, “Thulium-doped fiber amplifier at 77 K around 794 nm,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Mecozzi, M. Shimizu, and J. Zyskind, eds., Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical injection-locking setup with a fiber-coupled integrated-optics phase modulator. See text for discussion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectra of (a) master laser, (b) slave laser before injection locking, (c) slave laser after injection locking.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical spectrum of the different regions on the period doubling route to chaos showing (a) stable locking, (b) undamped relaxation oscillations, (c) period-doubled relaxation oscillations, (d) the chaotic region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed regions of injection locking versus the detuning and the injection ratio (Pin/Pout as measured just outside the slave). The symbols represent observations of the boundaries between different regions, while the lines and shading are there to guide the eye. The various regions are stable locking (S), undamped relaxation oscillations (P1), period-doubled relaxation oscillations (P2), chaotic regions (C), four-wave mixing (4W), multilongitudinal mixing (M), period-four relaxation oscillations (P4), an undefined region of both chaos and relaxation oscillations (U), as well as unlocked regions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Left) Sinusoidal phase modulation of the master laser with modulation frequencies of (a) 1 GHz and (b) 3 GHz. (Right) Plot of the peak powers versus modulation frequency for the carrier and sidebands of the phase-modulated master. At each modulation frequency the rf power was adjusted to achieve roughly a 2:1 ratio of carrier to sideband power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Injection-locked peak powers versus modulation frequency for (a) lower-frequency first-order sideband, (b) carrier, (c) upper-frequency first-order sideband. The different power levels correspond to gains of 14, 18, 20, 22, and 23 dB.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Bits 1 through 15 of the delayed-self-heterodyne injection-locked outputs of BPSK data at (a) 2 Gbit/s, (b) 3 Gbit/s, (c) 6 Gbit/s. Expected output shown as dotted curves. To the right of each data sequence is the eye diagram for the total 256-bit test sequence.

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