Abstract

The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ3) of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and two other modified polymers based on carbazole derivatives has been measured by degenerate four-wave mixing at 532 nm in a tetrahydrofuran solution. The polymer exhibits large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ3) values. The calculated χ3 value for the copolymer 3-(2-metacryletoxy)carbonyl 7 diethylamin-coumarine (PC1MK), which was obtained by linking 2-(9-carbazolyl)ethyl methacrylate polymer with 3-(2-metacryletoxy)carbonyl 7 diethylamin-coumarine monomer, is approximately 3 times larger than those of poly(3-methoxy-N-vinyl)carbazole and (PVK).

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, H. Moon, S. Y. Park, and S. I. Hong, “Synthesis of photoconducting nonlinear optical side-chain polymers containing carbazole derivatives,” React. Funct. Polym. 42, 73–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

1998

1997

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of pyridine- and ferrocene-containing polyazines,” Mater. Lett. 33, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. G. Mallioras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Balink, and G. Hadzilaonnou, “Photorefractive polymer composite with net gain and subsecond response at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 262–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

Y. Wang, “Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers,” Nature 356, 585–587 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1972

I. Chen and J. Mort, “Xerographic discharge characteristics of photoreceptors,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1164–1170 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Armatys, P.

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

Balink, H. J.

G. G. Mallioras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Balink, and G. Hadzilaonnou, “Photorefractive polymer composite with net gain and subsecond response at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 262–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bara, P.

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernède, J. C.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chavalier, R.

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I.

I. Chen and J. Mort, “Xerographic discharge characteristics of photoreceptors,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1164–1170 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chrzaszcz, R.

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorgues, A.

Hadzilaonnou, G.

G. G. Mallioras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Balink, and G. Hadzilaonnou, “Photorefractive polymer composite with net gain and subsecond response at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 262–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. I.

D. W. Kim, H. Moon, S. Y. Park, and S. I. Hong, “Synthesis of photoconducting nonlinear optical side-chain polymers containing carbazole derivatives,” React. Funct. Polym. 42, 73–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hongawa, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jamali, M.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, H. Moon, S. Y. Park, and S. I. Hong, “Synthesis of photoconducting nonlinear optical side-chain polymers containing carbazole derivatives,” React. Funct. Polym. 42, 73–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

Krasnikov, V. V.

G. G. Mallioras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Balink, and G. Hadzilaonnou, “Photorefractive polymer composite with net gain and subsecond response at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 262–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mallioras, G. G.

G. G. Mallioras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Balink, and G. Hadzilaonnou, “Photorefractive polymer composite with net gain and subsecond response at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 262–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mefleh, A.

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

Molinie, P.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H.

D. W. Kim, H. Moon, S. Y. Park, and S. I. Hong, “Synthesis of photoconducting nonlinear optical side-chain polymers containing carbazole derivatives,” React. Funct. Polym. 42, 73–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mort, J.

I. Chen and J. Mort, “Xerographic discharge characteristics of photoreceptors,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1164–1170 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

H. S. Nalwa, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of pyridine- and ferrocene-containing polyazines,” Mater. Lett. 33, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Napo, K.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niziol, J.

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

Niziol, S.

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

D. W. Kim, H. Moon, S. Y. Park, and S. I. Hong, “Synthesis of photoconducting nonlinear optical side-chain polymers containing carbazole derivatives,” React. Funct. Polym. 42, 73–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phu, X. N.

Pielichowski, J.

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qin, L.

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rabiller, C.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, G.

B. Sahraoui, G. Rivoire, N. Terkia-Derdra, M. Salle, and J. Zaremba, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of new bisdithiafulvenyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 923–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Safoula, G.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, M. Sallé, and A. Gorgues, “Electronic and nuclear contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of new p-N, N-dimethylaniline tetrathiafulvalene derivatives,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1811–1813 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, G. Rivoire, N. Terkia-Derdra, M. Salle, and J. Zaremba, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of new bisdithiafulvenyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 923–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salle, M.

B. Sahraoui, G. Rivoire, N. Terkia-Derdra, M. Salle, and J. Zaremba, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of new bisdithiafulvenyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 923–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sallé, M.

Sanetra, J.

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

Sasabe, Hiroyuki

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Terkia-Derdra, N.

Tian, W.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Touihri, S.

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wada, Tatsuo

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-M.

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, “Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers,” Nature 356, 585–587 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J. X.

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaremba, J.

B. Sahraoui, G. Rivoire, N. Terkia-Derdra, M. Salle, and J. Zaremba, “Third order nonlinear optical properties of new bisdithiafulvenyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 923–928 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-D.

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. G. Mallioras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Balink, and G. Hadzilaonnou, “Photorefractive polymer composite with net gain and subsecond response at 633 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 262–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

I. Chen and J. Mort, “Xerographic discharge characteristics of photoreceptors,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1164–1170 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluorine Chem.

Y.-D. Zhang, L.-M. Wang, Tatsuo Wada, Hiroyuki Sasabe, and J. X. Wen, “Nonlinear optical properties of poly(fluorophenyl-diacetylene) evaporated films,” J. Fluorine Chem. 77, 97–99 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Mater. Lett.

H. S. Nalwa, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of pyridine- and ferrocene-containing polyazines,” Mater. Lett. 33, 23–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Wang, “Photoconductivity of fullerene-doped polymers,” Nature 356, 585–587 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

J. Sanetra, J. Niziol, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, S. Niziol, I. V. Kityk, and A. Mefleh, “Electrooptical properties of polyvinylhalogencarbazoles,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 535–542 (1999).

Opt. Commun.

B. Sahraoui, R. Chavalier, G. Rivoire, J. Zaremba, and M. Salle, “Nonlinear optical properties of new hyper-tetrathiafulvalene derivatives: saturable absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing,” Opt. Commun. 135, 109–115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, X. Yang, Y. Huang, L. Ding, L. Qin, and Z. Wang, “π-electron density dependence of third-order optical nonlinearities in poly(1, 4-phenylene vinylene) derivatives,” Opt. Commun. 160, 289–291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Polymer

G. Safoula, S. Touihri, J. C. Bernède, M. Jamali, C. Rabiller, P. Molinie, and K. Napo, “Properties of the complex salt obtained by doping the poly(N-vinylcarbazole) with bromine,” Polymer 40, 531–539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

React. Funct. Polym.

D. W. Kim, H. Moon, S. Y. Park, and S. I. Hong, “Synthesis of photoconducting nonlinear optical side-chain polymers containing carbazole derivatives,” React. Funct. Polym. 42, 73–86 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

Y. Yang, H. Jiang, S. Liu, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Tian, Y. Ma, and J. Shen, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties of dye-doped polymer system,” Synth. Met. 91, 335–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Sanetra, P. Armatys, R. Chrzaszcz, J. Pielichowski, P. Bara, S. Niziol, and B. Sahraoui, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of Br-substituted poly(N-vinylcarbazoles),” Synth. Met. 101, 82–83 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1992).

M. G. Kuzyk and G. W. Dirk, eds., Characterization Technique and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optics Materials (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998).

F. Kajzar and J. D. Swalen, eds., Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1996), Chap. 13, pp. 759–820.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the DFWM experiment: BS1–BS5, beam splitters; Gs, glan prisms; Vs, photodiodes; R1–R3, delay lines; PM, photomultiplier tube; Fτ, neutral filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Molecular structures of (a) P3MVK and (b) PC1MK.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized absorption spectra of PVK, P3MVK, and PC1MK.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DFWM reflectivity R as a function of incident light intensity (I1) for P3MVK and PC1MK. Experimental data are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example of the time dependence of phase-conjugate reflectivity on pump delays for PC1MK.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Linear Absorption Coefficient α and Absolute Value of Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Susceptibility (χ3) for PVK, P3MVK, and PC1MK

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ3=χ3+iχ3.
Ei(r, t)=Ai(r)exp[i(kir-ωit)]+c.c.,
i=1, 2, 3, 4.
AiIz=-α2Ai1+iHχijkl3(Ak1A11*+2Ak2A12*)Aj1,
Ai2z=α2Ai2-iHχijkl3(2Ak1A11*+Ak2A12*)Aj2,
Ai3z=-α2Ai3+2iHχijkl3(Aj1Ak2A14*+Aj3Ak1A11*+Aj3Ak2A12*),
Ai4z=α2Ai4-2iHχijkl3(Aj1Ak2A13*+Aj4Ak1A11*+Aj4Ak2A12*),
dA1dz=-α2A1+iHχ3(A1A1*+2A2A2*)A1,
dA2dz=α2A2-iHχ3(2A1A1*+A2A2*)A2,
dA3dz=-ΦA3+2iHχ3A1A2A4*,
dA4dz=ΦA4-2iHχ3A1A2A3*,
A3=u exp(-Φz),A4=v exp(Φz).
u+Ψu+K2u=0,
R=I4(0)I3(0)=K2[p-tan(pl)-Ψ/2]2Ψ2-4K2 0K2[q-tanh(ql)-Ψ/2]2Ψ2-4K2 >0,
R=p2+α2/4{p[cot(pl)]+α/2}2p20p2+α2/4{p[coth(ql)]+α/2}2p2<0,
p2=48π3n2cλχ32I1(0)2 exp(-αl)-α24,q=ip.
p=48π3n2cλχ3I1(0).

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