Abstract

The thermal diffusion of Nd3+ and Gd3+ ions in YVO4 is characterized, yielding diffusion rates of 7×10-19 and 44×10-19 m2 s-1, respectively, at 1400 °C and activation energies of 5.3×10-19 and 2.9×10-19 J, respectively, for diffusion along the c axis. The fluorescence properties of the Nd3+-diffused YVO4 agree well with those of bulk doped materials. The formation of a planar optical waveguide was also observed for one of the Nd3+-diffused samples. This characterization is a significant first step toward fabrication of waveguide lasers and amplifiers in this important laser material.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahon, W. J. Bennet, and D. P. Shepherd, “Cw and passively Q-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 881–883 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.
  4. J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.
  5. S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1433–1435 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, “Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 828–835 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Apostolopolous, L. M. B. Hickey, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics, Proceedings (Bonifatius GmbH Druck–Buch–Verlag, Paderborn, 2001), paper WeB3.4.
  12. D. J. Cherniak, “Rare earth element and gallium diffusion in yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26, 156–163 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. G. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).
  14. D. Pelenc, “Elaboration par epitaxie en phase liquide et caracterisation de couches monocristallines de YAG dope, realisation de lasers guides d’onde neodyme et ytterbium a faibles seuils,” PhD Thesis (Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, 1993).

2001 (2)

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahon, W. J. Bennet, and D. P. Shepherd, “Cw and passively Q-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1998 (2)

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. J. Cherniak, “Rare earth element and gallium diffusion in yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26, 156–163 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, “Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 828–835 (1977).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
[Crossref]

Apostolopolous, V.

V. Apostolopolous, L. M. B. Hickey, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics, Proceedings (Bonifatius GmbH Druck–Buch–Verlag, Paderborn, 2001), paper WeB3.4.

Baker, H. J.

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

Bardo, M. E.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Beach, R. J.

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahon, W. J. Bennet, and D. P. Shepherd, “Cw and passively Q-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bennet, W. J.

Brignon, A.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brinkmann, R.

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

Burns, W. K.

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, “Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 828–835 (1977).
[Crossref]

Cherniak, D. J.

D. J. Cherniak, “Rare earth element and gallium diffusion in yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26, 156–163 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chesworth, A. A.

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

Crigler, S. G.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Davis, M. K.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Dejneka, M. J.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Feugnet, G.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
[Crossref]

Friel, G. J.

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

Hall, D. R.

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

Harris, R. D.

Hettrick, S. J.

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1433–1435 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hickey, L. M. B.

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Apostolopolous, L. M. B. Hickey, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics, Proceedings (Bonifatius GmbH Druck–Buch–Verlag, Paderborn, 2001), paper WeB3.4.

Huignard, J.-P.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kaminow, I. P.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

Kuksenkov, D. V.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Lee, J. R.

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

Li, C.

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mackenzie, J. I.

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1433–1435 (2000).
[Crossref]

McMahon, J. M.

Meissner, H. E.

R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahon, W. J. Bennet, and D. P. Shepherd, “Cw and passively Q-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meissner, O. R.

Milas, D. P.

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

Miller, W. J.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Milton, A. F.

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, “Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 828–835 (1977).
[Crossref]

Minelly, J. D.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Mitchell, S. C.

R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, H. E. Meissner, O. R. Meissner, W. F. Krupke, J. M. McMahon, W. J. Bennet, and D. P. Shepherd, “Cw and passively Q-switched cladding-pumped planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Lett. 26, 881–883 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pelenc, D.

D. Pelenc, “Elaboration par epitaxie en phase liquide et caracterisation de couches monocristallines de YAG dope, realisation de lasers guides d’onde neodyme et ytterbium a faibles seuils,” PhD Thesis (Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, 1993).

Pochelle, J.-P.

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

Shewmon, P. G.

P. G. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

Sohler, W.

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

Suche, H.

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

Wilkinson, J. S.

S. J. Hettrick, J. I. Mackenzie, R. D. Harris, J. S. Wilkinson, D. P. Shepherd, and A. C. Tropper, “Ion-exchanged tapered-waveguide laser in neodymium-doped BK7 glass,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1433–1435 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Apostolopolous, L. M. B. Hickey, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics, Proceedings (Bonifatius GmbH Druck–Buch–Verlag, Paderborn, 2001), paper WeB3.4.

Zenteno, L. A.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. V. Schmidt and I. P. Kaminow, “Metal-diffused optical waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458–460 (1974).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Brinkmann, W. Sohler, and H. Suche, “Continuous-wave erbium-diffused LiNbO3 waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 415–417 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. M. B. Hickey and J. S. Wilkinson, “Titanium diffused waveguides in sapphire,” Electron. Lett. 32, 2238–2239 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Brignon, G. Feugnet, J.-P. Huignard, and J.-P. Pochelle, “Compact Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 amplifiers end-pumped by a high-brightness stacked array,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 577–585 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. F. Milton and W. K. Burns, “Mode coupling in optical waveguide horns,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 828–835 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

D. P. Shepherd, S. J. Hettrick, C. Li, J. I. Mackenzie, R. J. Beach, S. C. Mitchell, and H. E. Meissner, “High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers,” J. Phys. D 34, 2420–2432 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Chem. Miner. (1)

D. J. Cherniak, “Rare earth element and gallium diffusion in yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26, 156–163 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

P. G. Shewmon, Diffusion in Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

D. Pelenc, “Elaboration par epitaxie en phase liquide et caracterisation de couches monocristallines de YAG dope, realisation de lasers guides d’onde neodyme et ytterbium a faibles seuils,” PhD Thesis (Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, 1993).

G. J. Friel, J. R. Lee, A. A. Chesworth, D. P. Milas, H. J. Baker, and D. R. Hall, “High average power cw face pumping of a Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser with diode bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Conference Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2000), paper CWA4.

J. D. Minelly, L. A. Zenteno, M. J. Dejneka, W. J. Miller, D. V. Kuksenkov, M. K. Davis, S. G. Crigler, and M. E. Bardo, “High power diode pumped single-transverse-mode Yb fiber laser operating at 978 nm,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Post Conference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), paper PD2-1.

V. Apostolopolous, L. M. B. Hickey, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire,” in European Conference on Integrated Optics, Proceedings (Bonifatius GmbH Druck–Buch–Verlag, Paderborn, 2001), paper WeB3.4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nd3+ doping level versus depth into the YVO4 sample, derived from SIMS experimental data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unpolarized fluorescence spectra for bulk and diffused Nd:YVO4 samples. The spectrum for the diffused sample is vertically offset for ease of comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical fluorescence decay for the neodymium-diffused YVO4 samples with an exponential fit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffusion Parameters and Measured Diffusion Coefficients

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C(z, t)=C(0)erfcz2(Dt)1/2,
C(z, t)=C(0, t)exp-z2(Dt)1/22.
D(T)=D0 exp(-Ea/kT),
DNd=6×10-9 exp-5.3×10-19kT,
DGd=1×10-12 exp-2.9×10-19kT.

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