Abstract

Nd:GdVO4 crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the crystal were measured at room temperature. The thermal expansion and the specific heat of the crystal were also measured. Laser outputs at 1.06 and 1.34 µm were achieved when a Nd:GdVO4 crystal sample with a high Nd doping concentration was pumped by a low-power laser diode (LD) at 808.5 nm, and visible green and red laser outputs of intracavity frequency doubling at 0.53 and 0.67 µm were also achieved when nonlinear KTiOPO4 and LiB3O5 crystal, respectively, were used. The highly Nd-doped Nd:GdVO4 crystal was pumped by a high-power LD, and a greater than 5-W laser output power at 1.06 µm was obtained. A low-Nd-doping concentration Nd:GdVO4 crystal sample was pumped by a high-power LD, yielding laser output powers at 1.06 and 0.53 µm; 0.53-µm green laser output was obtained when a KTiOPO4 crystal was used, and the output beam’s values were M2=1.76 at an output power of 14.3 W at 1.06 µm and M2=1.55 at an output power of 3.3 W at 0.53 µm. Acousto-optical Q-switched laser outputs at 1.06 and 0.53 µm were also achieved. A thermal lens made from a Nd:GdVO4 crystal was measured; it was weaker than that of a Nd:YVO4 crystal. Some important material parameters, such as temperature-induced changes in refractive index, material constant, thermal-stress resistance figure of merit, and power per unit length at the stress fracture limit, have been estimated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2001

2000

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Zeller and P. Peuser, “Efficient, multiwatt, continuous-wave laser operation on the 4F3/24I9/2 transitions of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG,” Opt. Lett. 25, 34–36 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high power: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Agnesi, S. Dell’Acqua, C. Pennacchio, G. Reali, and P. G. Gobbi, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 1.444 μm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3984–3986 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Lindsay and M. Ebrahimzdeh, “Efficient coutinous-wave and Q-switched operation of a 946-nm Nd:YAG laser pumped by an injection-locked broad-area diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3961–3970 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. H. Zarrabi, P. Gavrilovic, and S. Singh, “Intracavity, frequency-doubled, miniaturized Nd:YAlO3 blue laser at 465 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2439–2441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fielfs, M. Birnbaun, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1984

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. W. Tucher, M. Birebaun, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and L. G. Deshazer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. R. O’Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Agnesi, A.

Asundi, A.

Birebaun, M.

A. W. Tucher, M. Birebaun, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, M.

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and L. G. Deshazer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaun, M.

R. A. Fielfs, M. Birnbaun, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high power: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chow, Y. T.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Acqua, S.

Deshazer, L. G.

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and L. G. Deshazer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzdeh, M.

Eggleston, J. M.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Erler, J. W.

A. W. Tucher, M. Birebaun, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fielfs, R. A.

R. A. Fielfs, M. Birnbaun, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fielfs, M. Birnbaun, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucher, M. Birebaun, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and L. G. Deshazer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Friel, G. J.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilovic, P.

J. H. Zarrabi, P. Gavrilovic, and S. Singh, “Intracavity, frequency-doubled, miniaturized Nd:YAlO3 blue laser at 465 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2439–2441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, P. G.

Huber, G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, A. J.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kochurikhin, V. V.

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

Kuhn, K.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ley, J. M.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, I. D.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. K.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luthy, W.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mac Donald, M.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marion, J. E.

Meng, X.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J.-P.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, J. R.

J. R. O’Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ostromov, V. G.

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

Pennacchio, C.

Peuser, P.

Popov, P. A.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reali, G.

Risk, W. P.

Roos, M. B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scherbakov, I. A.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Z.

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbarkov, I. A.

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, K.

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, M. D.

Sinclair, B. D.

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, S.

J. H. Zarrabi, P. Gavrilovic, and S. Singh, “Intracavity, frequency-doubled, miniaturized Nd:YAlO3 blue laser at 465 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2439–2441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stokowski, S. E.

Studenikin, P. A.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Studenokin, P. A.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tucher, A. W.

A. W. Tucher, M. Birebaun, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and L. G. Deshazer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Uda, S.

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Unternahere, J.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, V. L.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Q.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyss, Chr. P.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Z.

Yang, Z. H.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. T.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zagmennyi, A. I.

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zarrabi, J. H.

J. H. Zarrabi, P. Gavrilovic, and S. Singh, “Intracavity, frequency-doubled, miniaturized Nd:YAlO3 blue laser at 465 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2439–2441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zavartsev, Yu. D.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zavrtsev, Yu. D.

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeller, P.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. Z.

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, L.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

G. J. Friel, R. S. Conroy, A. J. Kemp, B. D. Sinclair, and J. M. Ley, “Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using a quadrupole electro-optic deflector,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 267–270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chr. P. Wyss, W. Luthy, H. P. Weber, V. L. Vlasov, Yu. D. Zavrtsev, P. A. Studenokin, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Performance of a diode-pumped 5 W Nd3+:GdVO4 microchip laser at 1.06 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 659–661 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J.-P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Scherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. R. O’Connor, “Unusual crystal-field energy levels and efficient laser properties of YVO4:Nd,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 407–409 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Fielfs, M. Birnbaun, and C. L. Fincher, “Highly efficient Nd:YVO4 diode-laser end-pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1885–1886 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Zarrabi, P. Gavrilovic, and S. Singh, “Intracavity, frequency-doubled, miniaturized Nd:YAlO3 blue laser at 465 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2439–2441 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831–1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

J. Liu, J. Lu, J. Lu, Z. Shao, and M. Jiang, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers by a simple direct approach,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 16, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Res. Technol.

H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, X. L. Meng, Z. H. Yang, C. Q. Wang, W. T. Yu, Y. T. Chow, and M. K. Lu, “Thermal and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34, 1011–1016 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Zhang, X. L. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Z. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Dawes, C. Q. Wang, Y. T. Chow, “Investigation on the growth and laser properties of Nd:GdVO4 single crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 33, 801–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. M. Eggleston, T. J. Kane, K. Kuhn, J. Unternahere, and R. L. Byer, “The slab geometry laser. I. Theory.” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 289–301 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, “Modeling and cw operation of a quasi-three-level 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 605–612 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y.-F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high power: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. Mac Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, “Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rpds,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046–1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. W. Tucher, M. Birnbaum, C. L. Fincher, and L. G. Deshazer, “Continuous-wave operation of Nd:YVO4 at 1.06 and 1.34 μm,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 232–234 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Tucher, M. Birebaun, C. L. Fincher, and J. W. Erler, “Stimulated-emission cross section at 1064 and 1342 nm in Nd:YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4907–4911 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

X. Meng, L. Zhu, H. Zhang, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, morphology and laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 199–203 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Shimamura, S. Uda, V. V. Kochurikhin, T. Taniuchi, and T. Fukuda, “Growth and characterization of gadolinium vanadate GdVO4 single crystal for laser applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1832–1835 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

H. Zhang, X. Meng, L. Zhu, C. Wang, Y. T. Chow, and M. Lu, “Growth, spectra and influence of annealing effect on laser properties of Nd:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 14, 25–30 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

P. A. Studenikin, A. I. Zagumennyi, Yu. D. Zavartsev, P. A. Popov, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “GdVO4 as a new medium for solid-state lasers: some optical and thermal properties of crystals doped with Nd3+, Tm3+, and Er3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 25, 1162–1165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

A. I. Zagmennyi, V. G. Ostromov, I. A. Shcherbarkov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “The Nd:GdVO4 crystal: a new material for diode pumped lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1071–1072 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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B. H. T. Chai, G. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, M. Bass, I. A. Shcherbakov, and A. I. Zagumennyi, “Comparison of laser performance of Nd-doped YVO4, GdVO4, Ca5(PO4)3F, Sr5(PO4)3F and Ca5(VO4)3F,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, T. Y. Fan and B. H. T. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 41–52.

T. Izawa, R. Uchimura, S. Matsui, T. Arichi, and T. Yakouh, “Efficient diode bar-pumped intracavity-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser using stacked-glass plate beam shaper,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper CThA1.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal expansion of Nd:GdVO4 crystal as a function of temperature. Scan rate, 5 °C/min.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the specific heat of a Nd:GdVO4 crystal on temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectrum of a Nd:GdVO4 crystal from 400 to 850 nm at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence spectrum of a Nd:GdVO4 crystal from 850 to 1400 nm at room temperature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of a LD-pumped highly Nd-doped Nd:GdVO4 fundamental and intracavity frequency-doubled laser at low pump power: 1, LD, 2, FiberPort adapter; 3, Special Optics collomater; 4, laser crystal; 5, nonlinear crystal; 6, output mirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output powers of a highly Nd-doped Nd:GdVO4 crystal at 1.06 and 1.34 µm as a function of input power at low pump power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output powers of an intracavity frequency-doubled highly Nd-doped Nd:GdVO4 crystal at 532 and 670 nm as a function of the input power at low pump power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of a LD-pumped highly Nd-doped Nd:GdVO4 crystal for fundamental laser output at high pump power. M1, M2, mirrors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output power of highly Nd-doped Nd:GdVO4 crystal at 1.06 µm as a function of the input power at high pump power.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Output power of a low-Nd-doping concentration Nd:GdVO4 crystal at 1063 nm as a function of the input power at high pump power.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic of a LD-pumped low-Nd-doping concentration Nd:GdVO4 intracavity frequency-doubled laser at high pump power. M1M3, mirrors.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Output powers of an intracavity frequency-doubled low-Nd-doping concentration Nd:GdVO4 crystal at 532 nm as a function of input power at high pump power.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Schematic an end-pumped Q-switched 1.06-µm Nd:GdVO4 laser. M1, M2, mirrors; A-O, acousto-optical.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Average output power at 1.06 µm and a pulse repetition frequency of 60 kHz as a function of incident pump power.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Schematic of an end-pumped Q-switched intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:GdVO4/KTP green laser. M1M3, mirrors; A-O, acousto-optical.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Average output power at 532 nm at a pulse repetition frequency of 50 kHz as a function of incident pump power.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Schematic of the setup for measuring thermal focal length. M1, M2, mirrors.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Thermal focal power versus total absorbed pump power for Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 crystals with the same concentration of Nd dopant.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Effective Segregation Coefficients (Keff) of Nd, Gd, and V Ions in Nd:GdVO4 Crystal

Equations (6)

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Pal=12Rs wt,
Ms=(1-ν)(k/αE),
Rs=Msσmax=(1-υ)kαE αEξPabsαabs4π(1-υ)k=ξPabsαabs4π,
Pabs,lim=1αabs 4πRsξ.
f=πkωp2Pth(dn/dT) 11-exp(-αabsl),
dndT=πkωp2Pthf.

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