Abstract

We demonstrate fast-frequency-hopping modulation that exploits the unique features of acousto-optic-modulator based laser pulse shaping and the spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique (STRUT) pulse-characterization method. These pulses have been specifically designed so that they can be characterized by the STRUT, without any processing of the STRUT data set. We present examples of complex fast-frequency-hopping laser pulses that have been generated and characterized by our pulse-shaping system and STRUT. We discuss the theoretical limitations on the data rate that can be obtained with such a technique.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinear fiber-optic receiver for ultrashort pulse code division multiple access communications,” Electron. Lett. 33, 610–611 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Haner and W. Warren, “Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A. C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time dispersion analyzer of femtosecond laser pulses with use of a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1780–1785 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39–41 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retreival of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, “Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944–949 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Passive optical fast frequency-hop cDMA communications system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 397 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Coherent Lasers, http://www.cohr.com , Santa Clara, Calif.
  11. Clark-MXR, Inc., http://www.clark-mxr.com , Dexter, Mich.
  12. Brimrose Corporation of America, http://www.brimrose.com , Baltimore, Md.
  13. LeCroy Corporation, http://www.lecroy.com , Chestnut Ridge, N.Y.
  14. W. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid ultrafine-tunable optical delay line at the 1.55-µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1843–1845 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. D. Rector and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echoes: a new approach to condensed-matter vibrational spectroscopy,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 17, 261 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Fathallah, L. A. Rusch, and S. LaRochelle, “Passive optical fast frequency-hop cDMA communications system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retreival of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

W. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid ultrafine-tunable optical delay line at the 1.55-µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1843–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Rector and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echoes: a new approach to condensed-matter vibrational spectroscopy,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 17, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinear fiber-optic receiver for ultrashort pulse code division multiple access communications,” Electron. Lett. 33, 610–611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Wong and I. A. Walmsley, “Ultrashort-pulse characterization from dynamic spectrograms by iterative phase retrieval,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 944–949 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A. C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time dispersion analyzer of femtosecond laser pulses with use of a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1780–1785 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39–41 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Haner and W. Warren, “Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chilla, J. L. A.

Cina, J. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeLong, K. W.

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Du, M.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fathallah, H.

Fayer, M. D.

K. D. Rector and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echoes: a new approach to condensed-matter vibrational spectroscopy,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 17, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, M. R.

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goswami, D.

W. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid ultrafine-tunable optical delay line at the 1.55-µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1843–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haner, M.

M. Haner and W. Warren, “Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Keusters, D.

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid ultrafine-tunable optical delay line at the 1.55-µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1843–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

LaRochelle, S.

Martinez, O. E.

Matro, A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Rector, K. D.

K. D. Rector and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echoes: a new approach to condensed-matter vibrational spectroscopy,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 17, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retreival of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, J.-K.

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-K. Rhee, T. S. Sosnowski, A. C. Tien, and T. B. Norris, “Real-time dispersion analyzer of femtosecond laser pulses with use of a spectrally and temporally resolved upconversion technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1780–1785 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rice, S. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Romerorochin, V.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ruggiero, A. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, L. A.

Sardesai, H. P.

H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinear fiber-optic receiver for ultrashort pulse code division multiple access communications,” Electron. Lett. 33, 610–611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N. F.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. S.

Tien, A. C.

Trebino, R.

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Warren, W.

M. Haner and W. Warren, “Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid ultrafine-tunable optical delay line at the 1.55-µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1843–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinear fiber-optic receiver for ultrashort pulse code division multiple access communications,” Electron. Lett. 33, 610–611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, V.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, D. Keusters, D. Goswami, and W. S. Warren, “Rapid ultrafine-tunable optical delay line at the 1.55-µm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1843–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Haner and W. Warren, “Synthesis of crafted optical pulses by time domain modulation in a fiber grating compressor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1458 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. P. Sardesai and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinear fiber-optic receiver for ultrashort pulse code division multiple access communications,” Electron. Lett. 33, 610–611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, “Algorithm for complete and rapid retreival of ultrashort pulse amplitude and phase from a sonogram,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. D. Rector and M. D. Fayer, “Vibrational echoes: a new approach to condensed-matter vibrational spectroscopy,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 17, 261 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romerorochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry time-resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulses,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

M. R. Fetterman, D. Goswami, D. Keusters, W. Yang, J.-K. Rhee, and W. S. Warren, “Ultrafast pulse shaping: characterization and amplification,” Opt. Express 310, 366 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

Coherent Lasers, http://www.cohr.com , Santa Clara, Calif.

Clark-MXR, Inc., http://www.clark-mxr.com , Dexter, Mich.

Brimrose Corporation of America, http://www.brimrose.com , Baltimore, Md.

LeCroy Corporation, http://www.lecroy.com , Chestnut Ridge, N.Y.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the Wigner pulse. The numbers refer to matrix elements indexed by the temporal and the wavelength domains. As described in the text, because of the details of the detection system, the gray boxes cannot contain data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System layout.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical results for pulse P1: (upper left) RF waveform used to generate the pulse; (upper right) spectrum of P1; (lower left) temporal profile of P1; (lower right) STRUT for P1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental STRUT result for the pulse P1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical STRUT calculated for pulse P2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental STRUT result for the pulse P2.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ck(t)=dk,jpj(t-jTc).
Er=G(ω)A(ω)exp[iϕ(ω)],
Et=A(ω)exp[iϕ(ω)].
Eup(τ, ω)dωEr(ω)exp(iωτ)Et(ω-ω).
E(ω)=A exp(iαω), ω1<ω<ω2.
P1 : W=1, 10, X, 23, 32,
P2 : W=1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12, 14, 15, X, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 28, 30, 31.
Ep(ω)1ωp0-α2ωωp0+α20restoftheuniverse,
Er(ω)1ωr0-β2ωωr0+β20restoftheuniverse.
I(Ω, τ)=- dωrEr(ωr)Ep(ωp=Ω-ωr)×exp[i(Ω-ωr)τ]2,
I(Ω, τ)sin2Ω-12(α+β) τ2τ212(α+β)Ω>12(α-β)sin2βτ2τ212(α-β)Ω-12(α-β)sin2Ω+12(α+β) τ2τ2-12(α-β)>Ω-12(α+β).
I(Ω, τ)sin2(α-|Ω|) τ2τ2.

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