Abstract

The influence of fifth-order coherences on the spectrally resolved four-wave mixing response of predominantly homogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional excitons is studied. Fifth-order signatures are discussed as a function of spectral position and excitation polarization. An exciton–biexciton beating for positive delay times is the dominant effect, which is pronounced at the exciton–biexciton transition for collinearly polarized excitation and at the exciton transition for cross-linearly polarized excitation. For negative delay times and collinearly polarized excitation a pronounced exciton–biexciton beating at the exciton resonance is observed that is vanishing for long negative delays owing to the faster dephasing in the two-exciton continuum compared with the bound biexciton state. These results are in qualitative agreement with microscopic model calculations that include the coherent dynamics of one- and two-exciton resonances up to the fifth order in the optical field.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Rappen, U.-G. Peter, M. Wegener, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Exciton-exciton correlation in the non-linear optical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “The exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Victor, V. M. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierarchy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, V. M. A. A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Spectral signature of biexciton beats in four-wave-mixing experiments,” in Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Jerusalem, 1998 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999).
  22. B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Y. Bigot, A. Daunois, J. Oberlé, and J. C. Merle, “Femtosecond dephasing in CdSxSe1−x mixed crystals: the role of localized biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1820–1823 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. Langbein and J. M. Hvam, “Dephasing in the quasi two-dimensional exciton-biexciton system,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1692–1695 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures, Vol. 115 of Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences (Springer, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 2.
  28. M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. The additionally observed weak beating might be due to a nonperfect polarization configuration.
  31. K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Paul, J. Bolger, A. Smirl, and J. Pellegrino, “Time-resolved measurements of the polarization state of four-wave mixing signals from GaAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1016–1025 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  37. T. Meier and S. W. Koch, “Excitons versus unbound electron-hole pairs and their influence on exciton bleaching: a model study,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13202–13208 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (4)

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Langbein and J. M. Hvam, “Dephasing in the quasi two-dimensional exciton-biexciton system,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1692–1695 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

T. Meier and S. W. Koch, “Excitons versus unbound electron-hole pairs and their influence on exciton bleaching: a model study,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13202–13208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “The exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Paul, J. Bolger, A. Smirl, and J. Pellegrino, “Time-resolved measurements of the polarization state of four-wave mixing signals from GaAs multiple quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1016–1025 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Exciton-exciton correlation in the non-linear optical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Victor, V. M. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierarchy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (7)

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Rappen, U.-G. Peter, M. Wegener, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Bigot, A. Daunois, J. Oberlé, and J. C. Merle, “Femtosecond dephasing in CdSxSe1−x mixed crystals: the role of localized biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1820–1823 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrecht, T. F.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “The exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Victor, V. M. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierarchy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Ad, S.

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, G.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bennhardt, D.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. D.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigot, J. Y.

J. Y. Bigot, A. Daunois, J. Oberlé, and J. C. Merle, “Femtosecond dephasing in CdSxSe1−x mixed crystals: the role of localized biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1820–1823 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigot, J.-Y.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolger, J.

Bott, K.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brick, P.

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D.

M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S.

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Daunois, A.

J. Y. Bigot, A. Daunois, J. Oberlé, and J. C. Merle, “Femtosecond dephasing in CdSxSe1−x mixed crystals: the role of localized biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1820–1823 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eccleston, R.

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ell, C.

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Euteneuer, A.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Faschinger, W.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrio, K.

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H.

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, E. O.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grote, B.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, J.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haas, S.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haase, B.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heller, O.

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heukenroth, V.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heukeroth, V.

Hey, K.

Hey, R.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. Z.

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübner, M.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, P. B. M.

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

W. Langbein and J. M. Hvam, “Dephasing in the quasi two-dimensional exciton-biexciton system,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1692–1695 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jahnke, F.

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khitrova, G.

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kira, M.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitrova, G.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kner, P.

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knorr, A.

A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S.

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Meier and S. W. Koch, “Excitons versus unbound electron-hole pairs and their influence on exciton bleaching: a model study,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13202–13208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhler, K.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuckenberg, S.

A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, T.

V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “The exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

W. Langbein and J. M. Hvam, “Dephasing in the quasi two-dimensional exciton-biexciton system,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 1692–1695 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leisching, P.

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “χ(3) formalism in optically excited semiconductors and its applications in four-wave-mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18060–18072 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindmark, E. K.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lövenich, R.

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyngnes, O.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquezini, M. V.

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, E.

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, E. J.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meier, T.

T. Meier, S. Koch, P. Brick, C. Ell, G. Khitrova, and H. Gibbs, “Signatures of correlations in intensity-dependent excitonic absorption changes,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4218–4221 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Meier and S. W. Koch, “Excitons versus unbound electron-hole pairs and their influence on exciton bleaching: a model study,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 13202–13208 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Merle, J. C.

J. Y. Bigot, A. Daunois, J. Oberlé, and J. C. Merle, “Femtosecond dephasing in CdSxSe1−x mixed crystals: the role of localized biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1820–1823 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möbius, J.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mycek, M.-A.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, T. R.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neukirch, U.

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nürnberger, J.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oberlé, J.

J. Y. Bigot, A. Daunois, J. Oberlé, and J. C. Merle, “Femtosecond dephasing in CdSxSe1−x mixed crystals: the role of localized biexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1820–1823 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Östreich, T.

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Exciton-exciton correlation in the non-linear optical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

Pellegrino, J.

Peter, U.-G.

T. Rappen, U.-G. Peter, M. Wegener, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prineas, J.

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rappen, T.

T. Rappen, U.-G. Peter, M. Wegener, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rühle, W. W.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, W.

P. Kner, W. Schäfer, R. Lövenich, and D. S. Chemla, “Coherence of four-particle correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5386–5389 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Kner, S. Bar-Ad, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and W. Schäfer, “Magnetically enhanced exciton-exciton correlations in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1319–1322 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Rappen, U.-G. Peter, M. Wegener, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schönhammer, K.

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Exciton-exciton correlation in the non-linear optical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, A.

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

W. Schäfer, D. Kim, J. Shah, T. Damen, J. Cunningham, K. Goossen, L. Pfeiffer, and K. Köhler, “Femtosecond coherent fields induced by many-particle correlations in transient four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 16429–16443 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L.

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. Sham, “Exciton-exciton correlation in the non-linear optical regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4698–4701 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sham, L. J.

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shulze, A.

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sieh, C.

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, F. Jahnke, A. Knorr, S. W. Koch, P. B. M. Hübner, C. Ell, J. Prineas, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, “Coulomb memory signatures in the excitonic optical stark effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3112–3115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A.

Smith, G.

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. O.

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, A.

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Manifestation of exciton-amplitude fluctuations in the transient polarization state of four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R7805–7808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, A. Stahl, V. M. Axt, B. Haase, U. Neukirch, and J. Gutowski, “Identification of higher-order electronic coherences in semiconductors by their signature in four-wave-mixing signals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5880–5883 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Coherent dynamics of excitons and biexcitons: polarization and intensity dependence,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 363–368 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Victor, V. M. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierarchy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “A dynamics-controlled truncation scheme for the hierarchy of density matrices in semiconductor optics,” Z. Phys. B 93, 195–204 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, W.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stroucken, T.

S. Haas, T. Stroucken, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, B. Grote, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, S. W. Koch, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Intensity dependence of superradiant emission from radiatively coupled excitons in multiple-quantum-well Bragg structures,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14860–14868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tai, K.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Albrecht, K. Bott, T. Meier, A. Shulze, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, W. Stolz, P. Thomas, S. W. Koch, and E. O. Göbel, “Disorder mediated biexcitonic beats in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 4436–4439 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukeroth, M. Hübner, J. Kuhl, A. Schulze, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, K. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Dephasing of interacting heavy-hole and light-hole excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1026–1030 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heukenroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, D. Bennhardt, S. W. Koch, and P. Thomas, “Evidence of biexcitonic contributions to four-wave mixing in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14730–14733 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thränhardt, A.

A. Thränhardt, S. Kuckenberg, A. Knorr, T. Meier, and S. W. Koch, “Quantum theory of phonon-assisted exciton formation and luminescence in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 2706–2720 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Victor, K.

V. M. Axt, K. Victor, and T. Kuhn, “The exciton-exciton continuum and its contribution to four-wave mixing signals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 189–196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Victor, V. M. Axt, and A. Stahl, “Hierarchy of density matrices in coherent semiconductor optics,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14164–14175 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bartels, V. M. Axt, K. Victor, A. Stahl, P. Leisching, and K. Köhler, “χ(5) signature in the four-wave-mixing signal from a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11217–11220 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. Ferrio, D. G. Steel, Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Transient nonlinear optical response from excitation induced dephasing in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1261–1264 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

T. Rappen, U.-G. Peter, M. Wegener, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiser, S.

S. Weiser, T. Meier, J. Möbius, A. Euteneuer, E. J. Mayer, W. Stolz, M. Hofmann, W. W. Rühle, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Disorder-induced dephasing in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 13088–13098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

D. S. Chemla, J.-Y. Bigot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, and W. Schäfer, “Ultrafast phase dynamics of coherent emission from excitons in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 8439–8453 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wick, D. V.

F. Jahnke, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, G. Kitrova, E. K. Lindmark, T. R. Nelson, D. V. Wick, J. D. Berger, O. Lyngnes, H. M. Gibbs, and K. Tai, “Excitonic Nonlinearities of Semiconductor Microcavities in the Non-perturbative Regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5257–5260 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

C. Sieh, T. Meier, A. Knorr, F. Jahnke, P. Thomas, and S. Koch, “Influence of carrier correlations on the excitonic optical response including disorder and microcavity effects,” Eur. Phys. J. B 11, 407–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Wegener, D. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg, R. Binder, and S. W. Koch, “Theory of the semiconductor photon echo,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1865–1875 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (18)

K. Bott, O. Heller, D. Bennhardt, S. Cundiff, P. Thomas, E. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, J. Kuhl, and K. Ploog, “Influence of exciton-exciton interactions on the coherent optical response in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17418–17426 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Hu, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, H. Wang, and D. G. Steel, “Excitation and polarization effects in semiconductor four-wave mixing spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14382–14386 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich, K. Schönhammer, and L. J. Sham, “Theory of exciton-exciton correlation in nonlinear optical response,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 12920–12936 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

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Z. Phys. B (2)

V. M. Axt and A. Stahl, “The role of the biexciton in a dynamic density matrix theory of the semiconductor band edge,” Z. Phys. B 93, 205–211 (1994).
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Other (3)

B. Haase, U. Neukirch, J. Gutowski, G. Bartels, V. M. A. A. Stahl, J. Nürnberger, and W. Faschinger, “Spectral signature of biexciton beats in four-wave-mixing experiments,” in Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Jerusalem, 1998 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999).

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures, Vol. 115 of Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences (Springer, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 2.

The additionally observed weak beating might be due to a nonperfect polarization configuration.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical properties of the investigated 25-nm GaAs single quantum well. Upper part, optical density deduced from the photoluminescence at 20 K. Lower part, four-wave mixing spectra at τ12=1 ps and different polarization configurations, as indicated. The (↑→) data are multiplied by 20. The excitation intensity was 30 nJ/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FWM intensity versus delay time, detected spectrally at the exciton transition (X, ω=1.5223 eV) or the exciton–biexciton transition (XXX, ω=1.5212 eV). Top, various excitation polarizations, as indicated. Bottom, signals for negative delays. Left, (↑→) excitation, detected at (X) (circles) and at (XXX) (triangles), and (σ+σ+) excitation detected at (X) (squares); lines are exponential fits. Right, (↑↑) excitation, detected at (X). Curve, fitted by use of the decay times taken from the fits on the left and a beat period of 3.65 ps. The excitation intensity was 30 nJ/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrally resolved FWM as function of the delay time. Logarithmic gray scale spanning 4 decades. Top, high intensity, I=300 nJ/cm2; bottom, low intensity, I=50 nJ/cm2; left, cross-linearly polarized excitation (↑→); right, collinearly polarized excitation (↑↑).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FWM traces for various excitation intensities, as labeled (I0=300 nJ/cm2). All traces are scaled by the same factor. Top, collinearly polarized excitation (↑↑); bottom, cross-linearly polarized excitation (↑→); left, detection energy at the exciton resonance (X); right, detection energy at the exciton–biexciton resonance (X–XX).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated FWM spectra for low intensity at τ12=1.2 ps and different polarization configurations, as indicated. The ↑→ spectrum is multiplied by 20.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated FWM traces for various excitation intensities, as labeled. Top, collinearly polarized excitation (↑↑); bottom, cross-linearly polarized excitation (↑→); left, detection energy at the exciton resonance (X); right, detection energy at the exciton–biexciton resonance (X–XX). The symbols indicate the calculated time delays; the lines are guides for the eye.

Equations (16)

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tp=i[ωx p+μx·E
-bμX·E(p*p+p*p*pp+B*pp+Bp*p*+B*B)
+V(p*B+p*p*pB+B*pB)],
tB=i[ωXXB+μX,XX·E(p+p*B)].
P=ΣμX*p,
Vij=U0 d|i-j|d+a0,
PFWM(t, τ12)=PFWM(3)(t, τ12)+α II0PFWM(5)(t, τ12),
E(t)=E1(t)+E2(t)=Eˆ1δ(t)exp(ik1·r)+Eˆ2δ(t-τ12)exp(ik2·r),
p(1|0)(t)=iΘ(t)(μX·Eˆ1)exp[(iωX-γX)t],
p(0|1)(t)=iΘ(t-τ12)(μX·Eˆ2)×exp[(iωX-γX)(t-τ12)].
B(0|2)(t)=-12Θ(t-τ12)(μX·Eˆ2)(μX,XX·Eˆ2)×exp[(iωXX-γXX)(t-τ12)].
p(-1|2)(t)=i[(ωX+iγX)p(-1|2)+V(p(1|0))*B(0|2)].
p(-1|2)(t, τ12)
=12Θ(t)(μX·Eˆ1)*(μX·Eˆ2)(μX,XX·Eˆ2)×exp[(-iωXX+γXX)τ12]×exp[(i(ωXX-ωX)-γXX-γX)t]-exp[(iωX-γX)t]i(ωXX-2ωX)-γXX.
PFWM(3)(t, τ12)=μX*p(-1|2)(t, τ12).
PFWM(3)(ω, τ12)=12μX*(μX·Eˆ1)*(μX·Eˆ2)(μX,XX·Eˆ2)×exp[(-iωXX+γXX)τ12]i(ωXX-2ωX)-γXX×1i(ωX-ω)-γX-1i(ωXX-ωX-ω)-γXX-γX.

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