Abstract

The highly scattering nature of nontransparent human tissue limits the imaging depth of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to 1–2 mm. When the longer wavelength of the light source is used; the penetration depth is improved; however, the imaging contrast is decreased, largely because of reduced backscattering at the microscopic scale and reduced refractive heterogeneity of the macroscopic scale. For a more effective diagnosis using OCT, a concurrent improvement of penetration depth and imaging contrast is often needed. We report that the OCT imaging depth and contrast can be enhanced concurrently by the use of osmotic agents. Imaging depth enhancement by application of a chemical agent is not new; however, to our knowledge; imaging contrast enhancement has not been reported in the literature. Our hypothesis is that the latter is due to localized dehydration. We demonstrate experimentally, by examples, that topical applications of glycerol and propylene glycol, two common biocompatible and osmotically active solutions, onto the surface of rat tissue could significantly improve its OCT imaging contrast and depth capability.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (3)

R. K. Wang, “Modeling optical properties of soft tissue by fractal distribution of scatters,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 103–120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, J. B. Elder, and V. Smith, “High resolution optical tomographic imaging of human gastrointestinal tissue in vitro with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 4224, 294–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Colston, M. J. Everett, L. B. Da Silva, L. L. Otis, P. Stroeve, and H. Nathel, “Imaging of hard- and soft-tissue structure in the oral cavity by optical coherence tomography,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3582–3585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Bringruber, and R. Engelhardt, “In vivo tissue measurements with optical low coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 2981, 29–36 (1996).

1995 (5)

T. R. Porter and F. Xie, “Transient myocardial contrast after initial exposure to diagnostic ultrasound pressures with minute doses of intravenously injected microbubbles: demonstration and potential mechanisms,” Circulation 92, 2391–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology. 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakutkin, V. V.

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology. 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bringruber, R.

E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Bringruber, and R. Engelhardt, “In vivo tissue measurements with optical low coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 2981, 29–36 (1996).

Chan, E. K.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cilesiz, I. F.

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

Duker, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elder, J. B.

R. K. Wang, J. B. Elder, and V. Smith, “High resolution optical tomographic imaging of human gastrointestinal tissue in vitro with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 4224, 294–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Bringruber, and R. Engelhardt, “In vivo tissue measurements with optical low coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 2981, 29–36 (1996).

Everett, M. J.

Fader, D. J.

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillard, M.

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grady III, H. G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzat, J. A.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jesser, C.

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. M.

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knuttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kon, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Bringruber, and R. Engelhardt, “In vivo tissue measurements with optical low coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 2981, 29–36 (1996).

Lin, C. P.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majmudar, G.

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mavlutov, A. K.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishin, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nathel, H.

Nelson, B. R.

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Otis, L. L.

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Porter, T. R.

T. R. Porter and F. Xie, “Transient myocardial contrast after initial exposure to diagnostic ultrasound pressures with minute doses of intravenously injected microbubbles: demonstration and potential mechanisms,” Circulation 92, 2391–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reichel, E.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology. 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semyonova, T. N.

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Serov, A. N.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, V.

R. K. Wang, J. B. Elder, and V. Smith, “High resolution optical tomographic imaging of human gastrointestinal tissue in vitro with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 4224, 294–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stamper, D.

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroeve, P.

Swanson, E. A.

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vargas, G.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

R. K. Wang, “Modeling optical properties of soft tissue by fractal distribution of scatters,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 103–120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, J. B. Elder, and V. Smith, “High resolution optical tomographic imaging of human gastrointestinal tissue in vitro with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 4224, 294–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. F. Cilesiz and A. J. Welch, “Light dosimetry: effects of dehydration and thermal damage on the optical properties of the human aorta,” Appl. Opt. 32, 477–487 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Bringruber, and R. Engelhardt, “In vivo tissue measurements with optical low coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 2981, 29–36 (1996).

Willis, J.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, F.

T. R. Porter and F. Xie, “Transient myocardial contrast after initial exposure to diagnostic ultrasound pressures with minute doses of intravenously injected microbubbles: demonstration and potential mechanisms,” Circulation 92, 2391–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology. 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimnyakov, D. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, B. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and M. E. Brezinski, “New technology for high speed and high resolution optical coherence tomography,” Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 838, 95–107 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Circulation (1)

T. R. Porter and F. Xie, “Transient myocardial contrast after initial exposure to diagnostic ultrasound pressures with minute doses of intravenously injected microbubbles: demonstration and potential mechanisms,” Circulation 92, 2391–2395 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatology. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, M. Yadlowsky, and R. F. Bonner, “Subsurface imaging of living skin with optical coherence tomography,” Dermatology. 191, 93–98 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izzat, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, “High resolution cross sectional imaging of the gastrointestinal tract using optical coherence tomography: preliminary results,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 47, 515–523 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37, 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. (1)

B. R. Nelson, D. J. Fader, M. Gillard, G. Majmudar, and T. M. Johnson, “Pilot histologic and ultrastructural-study of the effects of medium-depth chemical facial peels on dermal collagen in patients with actinically damaged skin,” J. Am. Acad. of Dermatol. 32, 472–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. K. Mavlutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gastroenterol. (1)

C. Pitris, C. Jesser, S. A. Boppart, D. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Feasibility of optical coherence tomography for high resolution imaging of human gastrointestinal tract malignancies,” J. Gastroenterol. 35, 87–92 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. K. Wang, “Modeling optical properties of soft tissue by fractal distribution of scatters,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 103–120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

G. Vargas, E. K. Chan, J. K. Barton, H. G. Grady III, and A. J. Welch, “Use of an agent to reduce scattering in skin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 24, 133–141 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

C. A. Puliafito, M. R. Hee, C. P. Lin, E. Reichel, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, J. A. Izatt, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of macular disease with optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 102, 217–229 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, “Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705–1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (4)

E. Lankenau, J. Welzel, R. Bringruber, and R. Engelhardt, “In vivo tissue measurements with optical low coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 2981, 29–36 (1996).

V. V. Bakutkin, I. L. Maksimova, T. N. Semyonova, V. V. Tuchin, and I. L. Kon, “Controlling of optical properties of sclera,” Proc. SPIE 2393, 137–141 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, A. A. Mishin, I. L. Kon, A. N. Serov, “In-vivo human sclera structure analysis using tissue optical immersion effect,” Proc. SPIE 2673, 233–242 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Wang, J. B. Elder, and V. Smith, “High resolution optical tomographic imaging of human gastrointestinal tissue in vitro with optical coherence tomography,” Proc. SPIE 4224, 294–298 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1180 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. R. Gregory, “Physical properties of glycerine,” in Glycerine: A Key Cosmetic Ingredient, E. Jungermann and N. O. V. Sonntag, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991).

“Product description of propylene glycol,” retrieved August 2000, http://www.fluidscience.com.

“Fact sheets of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol,” Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, retrieved August 2000, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov.

G. F. Odland, “Structure of the skin,” in Physiology, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology of the Skin, L. A. Goldsmith, ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1991), pp. 3–62.

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics, Tutorial Texts in Optical Engineering, Vol. TT38 (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the OCT system, where CL is the collimating lens, FC the fiber coupler, PC the polarization controller, OL the objective lens, and D the detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OCT images of an adult rat through skin (a) without and (b) with topical application of glycerol solution. The insert in (b) is the enlargement of the marked area.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamic OCT images at (a) 0, (b) 3, (c) 10, (d) 15, (e) 20, and (f) 40 min after a topical application of glycerol solution onto the rat skin.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured OCT in-depth reflectance profiles at the same spatial point at (a) 0, (b) 5, (c) 15, and (d) 25 min after a topical application of glycerol solution onto the rat skin.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured OCT in-depth reflectance profiles at the same spatial point at (a) 0, (b) 5, (c) 15, and (d) 25 min without application of chemical agents onto the rat skin.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

OCT images of an adult rat through skin (a) without and (b) with topical application of propylene glycol solution.

Equations (1)

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n¯=vsns+(1-vs)n0,

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