Abstract

The absolute absorption spectra of low-loss optical waveguides, together with their intrinsic and extrinsic scatterings, were measured in the near infrared. Photothermal deflection spectroscopy was used to measure the full absorption spectra of a series of fluorinated cross-linked polymers. Assignment of CH3, CH2, and —OH overtones as well as of combinations of overtones were made by use of the theory of anharmonic vibrations based on a Morse potential for local modes. Details of the molecular potential are given. The total attenuation in slab waveguides made with these polymers was measured by a prism-coupling technique and compared with the absolute absorption. Losses that are due to the material itself and those that are due to the processing are quantified.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. J. Heeger, “Light emission from semiconducting polymers: light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, lasers and white light for the future,” Solid State Commun. 107, 673–679 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, in Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers, P. N. Prasad and N. Paras, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chaps. 7–10, pp. 132–252.
  4. T. Kaino and S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. S. Nalwa, T. Watanabe, and S. Miyata, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Chap. 4, pp. 89–350.
  7. F. Kremer, “Ferroelectric liquid crystalline polymers,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 3, 195 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Koeppen, S. Yamada, G. Jiang, A. F. Garito, and L. R. Dalton, “Rare-earth organic complexes for amplification in polymer optical fibers and waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 155–162 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Kaino, “Plastic optical fibers for near-infrared transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 757–758 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Taino and Y. Koike, “What is the most transparent polymer?” Polym. J. (Tokyo) 32, 43–50 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. L. Booth, in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 231–266.
  13. D. H. Hartman, in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), pp. 267–286.
  14. C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the ‘mirage effect, ’ ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. M. Amer and W. B. Jackson, “Optical properties of defect states in a-Si:H,” Semicond. Semimet. B 21, 83–112 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Skumanich, “Highly sensitive absorption measurements in organic thin films and optical media,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE 1559, 267–277 (1991).
  21. C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Einsiedel and S. Mittler-Neher, “Photothermal beam deflection techniques: useful tools for integrated optics,” Opt. Appl. 26, 347–357 (1996).
  25. R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).
  26. A. Skumanich and J. C. Scott, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for organic thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 183, 365–370 (1990).
  27. P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, H. A. Willis, and R. G. J. Miller, in Molecular Spectroscopy, Methods and Applications in Chemistry, Macmillan, ed. (Heywood, London, 1961), pp. 170–173, and references therein.
  29. W. Groh, “Overtone absorption in macromolecules for polymer optical fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Towland, A. M. North, and R. A. Pethrick, “Infrared and Raman studies of partially fluorinated polystyrene,” Spectrochim. Acta 33A, 723–724 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

2000

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Taino and Y. Koike, “What is the most transparent polymer?” Polym. J. (Tokyo) 32, 43–50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).

1999

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. J. Heeger, “Light emission from semiconducting polymers: light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, lasers and white light for the future,” Solid State Commun. 107, 673–679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

H. Einsiedel and S. Mittler-Neher, “Photothermal beam deflection techniques: useful tools for integrated optics,” Opt. Appl. 26, 347–357 (1996).

1995

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Kaino and S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Kremer, “Ferroelectric liquid crystalline polymers,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 3, 195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. Skumanich, “Highly sensitive absorption measurements in organic thin films and optical media,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE 1559, 267–277 (1991).

1990

A. Skumanich and J. C. Scott, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for organic thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 183, 365–370 (1990).

1988

W. Groh, “Overtone absorption in macromolecules for polymer optical fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1986

T. Kaino, “Plastic optical fibers for near-infrared transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 757–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

N. M. Amer and W. B. Jackson, “Optical properties of defect states in a-Si:H,” Semicond. Semimet. B 21, 83–112 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the ‘mirage effect, ’ ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. Towland, A. M. North, and R. A. Pethrick, “Infrared and Raman studies of partially fluorinated polystyrene,” Spectrochim. Acta 33A, 723–724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1969

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adronov, A.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amer, N. M.

N. M. Amer and W. B. Jackson, “Optical properties of defect states in a-Si:H,” Semicond. Semimet. B 21, 83–112 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badoz, J.

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the ‘mirage effect, ’ ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G. L.

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barto, R.

R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).

Bedworth, P. V.

R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).

Beuhler, A. J.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blomquist, R.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the ‘mirage effect, ’ ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, P. A.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Einsiedel, H.

H. Einsiedel and S. Mittler-Neher, “Photothermal beam deflection techniques: useful tools for integrated optics,” Opt. Appl. 26, 347–357 (1996).

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Enbutsu, K.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, S.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, G. R.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the ‘mirage effect, ’ ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Frank, C. W.

R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).

Fréchet, J. M. J.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

Gilat, S. L.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Groh, W.

W. Groh, “Overtone absorption in macromolecules for polymer optical fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

A. J. Heeger, “Light emission from semiconducting polymers: light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, lasers and white light for the future,” Solid State Commun. 107, 673–679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hult, A.

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, W. B.

N. M. Amer and W. B. Jackson, “Optical properties of defect states in a-Si:H,” Semicond. Semimet. B 21, 83–112 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Jackson, N. M. Amer, A. C. Boccara, and D. Fournier, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy and detection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1333–1344 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

Jurich, M.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino and S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, “Plastic optical fibers for near-infrared transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 757–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Koeppen, C.

Koike, Y.

N. Taino and Y. Koike, “What is the most transparent polymer?” Polym. J. (Tokyo) 32, 43–50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kosc, T. Z.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, F.

F. Kremer, “Ferroelectric liquid crystalline polymers,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 3, 195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D.

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, M. J.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meinhardt, M. B.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mittler-Neher, S.

H. Einsiedel and S. Mittler-Neher, “Photothermal beam deflection techniques: useful tools for integrated optics,” Opt. Appl. 26, 347–357 (1996).

Neuwahl, F. V. R.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

North, A. M.

M. Towland, A. M. North, and R. A. Pethrick, “Infrared and Raman studies of partially fluorinated polystyrene,” Spectrochim. Acta 33A, 723–724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ooba, N.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pei, Q.

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pethrick, R. A.

M. Towland, A. M. North, and R. A. Pethrick, “Infrared and Raman studies of partially fluorinated polystyrene,” Spectrochim. Acta 33A, 723–724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pitois, C.

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ren, A. S.

R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).

Robertsson, M.

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

A. Skumanich and J. C. Scott, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for organic thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 183, 365–370 (1990).

Seager, C. H.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M.

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skumanich, A.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Skumanich, “Highly sensitive absorption measurements in organic thin films and optical media,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE 1559, 267–277 (1991).

A. Skumanich and J. C. Scott, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for organic thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 183, 365–370 (1990).

Swalen, J. D.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taino, N.

N. Taino and Y. Koike, “What is the most transparent polymer?” Polym. J. (Tokyo) 32, 43–50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino and S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Towland, M.

M. Towland, A. M. North, and R. A. Pethrick, “Infrared and Raman studies of partially fluorinated polystyrene,” Spectrochim. Acta 33A, 723–724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Usui, M.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vukmirovic, S.

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wargowski, D. A.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, D.

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

Yang, Y.

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, T.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

T. Kaino and S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear optical polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, R. Ulrich, and R. J. Martin, “Modes of propagating light waves in thin deposited semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 291–294 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, “Plastic optical fibers for near-infrared transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 757–758 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Boccara, D. Fournier, and J. Badoz, “Thermo-optical spectroscopy: detection by the ‘mirage effect, ’ ” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 130–132 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Hikita, S. Tomaru, K. Enbutsu, N. Ooba, R. Yoshimura, M. Usui, T. Yoshida, and S. Imamura, “Polymeric optical waveguide films for short-distance optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1237–1242 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

A. Adronov, S. L. Gilat, J. M. J. Fréchet, K. Ohta, F. V. R. Neuwahl, and G. R. Fleming, “Light harvesting and energy transfer in laser-dye labeled poly(aryl ether) dendrimers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1175–1185 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Crosslinked polyimide electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Macromolecules

C. Pitois, S. Vukmirovic, D. Wiesmann, M. Robertsson, and A. Hult, “Low-loss passive optical waveguides based on photosensitive poly(pentafluorostyrene-co-glycidyl methacrylate),” Macromolecules 32, 2903–2909 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Makromol. Chem.

W. Groh, “Overtone absorption in macromolecules for polymer optical fibers,” Makromol. Chem. 189, 2861–2874 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

A. Skumanich and J. C. Scott, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy: a sensitive absorption technique for organic thin films,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 183, 365–370 (1990).

Opt. Appl.

H. Einsiedel and S. Mittler-Neher, “Photothermal beam deflection techniques: useful tools for integrated optics,” Opt. Appl. 26, 347–357 (1996).

Opt. Eng.

L. Eldada, R. Blomquist, L. W. Shacklette, and M. J. McFarland, “High-performance polymeric componentry for telecom and datacom applications,” Opt. Eng. 39, 596–609 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Adv. Technol.

F. Kremer, “Ferroelectric liquid crystalline polymers,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 3, 195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Polym. J. (Tokyo)

N. Taino and Y. Koike, “What is the most transparent polymer?” Polym. J. (Tokyo) 32, 43–50 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem.

R. Barto, C. W. Frank, P. V. Bedworth, and A. S. Ren, “Weak optical absorption measurements in attached-dye electro-optical polymers by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 41, 844–845 (2000).

Proc. SPIE

A. Skumanich, “Highly sensitive absorption measurements in organic thin films and optical media,” in Photopolymer Device Physics, Chemistry, and Applications II, R. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE 1559, 267–277 (1991).

Science

Q. Pei, G. Yu, C. Zhang, Y. Yang, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells,” Science 269, 1086–1088 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Semimet. B

N. M. Amer and W. B. Jackson, “Optical properties of defect states in a-Si:H,” Semicond. Semimet. B 21, 83–112 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

A. J. Heeger, “Light emission from semiconducting polymers: light-emitting diodes, light-emitting electrochemical cells, lasers and white light for the future,” Solid State Commun. 107, 673–679 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta

M. Towland, A. M. North, and R. A. Pethrick, “Infrared and Raman studies of partially fluorinated polystyrene,” Spectrochim. Acta 33A, 723–724 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, in Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers, P. N. Prasad and N. Paras, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chaps. 7–10, pp. 132–252.

H. S. Nalwa, T. Watanabe, and S. Miyata, in Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Chap. 4, pp. 89–350.

B. L. Booth, in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 231–266.

D. H. Hartman, in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1982), pp. 267–286.

G. H. Beaven, E. A. Johnson, H. A. Willis, and R. G. J. Miller, in Molecular Spectroscopy, Methods and Applications in Chemistry, Macmillan, ed. (Heywood, London, 1961), pp. 170–173, and references therein.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photocrosslinking reaction in p(PFS-co-GMA) by acidic ring opening polymerization of the epoxy groups. Hydroxy (—OH) appears on the initial and final reacting epoxy groups.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

dPhDR1 dye used to calibrate the PDS spectra to the UV spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calibration of the PDS spectrum from the UV absorption spectrum measured by a spectrometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PDS absorption spectrum of a series of crosslinked p(PFS-co-GMA) and of poly(pentafluorostyrene).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

v0,1/n versus the upper quantum number (n) showing data (circles) and fits to expression (3) (dotted lines).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Attenuation of crosslinked p(PFS-co-GMA) versus C—H (bond %), showing absorption and scattering at 1550 nm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Parameters, Derived from Fig. 5, of CH3 in GMA Units and of CH2 in both PFS and GMA units.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Loss (dB/cm) of Absorption and Scattering Measured in Cross-Linked p(PFS-co-GMA) at 1550 nm and Derived from Fig. 6.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Enhc=n+12vh-n+122χvh,
v0,n=nvh-n(n+1)χvh,
v0,nn=vh(1-χ)-vhχnf(n)=a-bh.

Metrics