Abstract

We demonstrate the generation of a highly polarized soft-x-ray beam with a compact high-repetition-rate tabletop soft-x-ray laser. The radiation emitted by a high-average-power discharge-pumped tabletop Ne-like Ar soft-x-ray laser operating at 46.9 nm was polarized with a pair of Si/Sc multilayer mirrors designed for 45° operation. A degree of polarization greater than 0.96 was obtained. The polarized beam was used to characterize the efficiency of a diffraction grating. Intense polarized soft-x-ray radiation generated by compact tabletop sources has the potential to affect numerous other applications.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Rocca, “Tabletop soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. For example, see articles in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 3776, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds. (1999).
  5. T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Sureau and P. B. Holden, “From amplification of spontaneous emission to saturation in x-ray lasers: a Maxwell–Bloch treatment,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3110–3125 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft x-ray laser pulses at 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Yu. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershing, E. N. Zubalev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. R. Benware, A. Ozols, J. J. Rocca, I. A. Artiukov, V. V. Kondratenko, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Focusing on a tabletop soft x-ray laser beam and laser ablation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1714–1716 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).
  18. D. Clarke and J. F. Granger, Polared Light in Optical Measurements (Pergamon, Elmsford, New York, 1971).

1999 (7)

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, “Tabletop soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, A. Ozols, J. J. Rocca, I. A. Artiukov, V. V. Kondratenko, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Focusing on a tabletop soft x-ray laser beam and laser ablation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1714–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sureau and P. B. Holden, “From amplification of spontaneous emission to saturation in x-ray lasers: a Maxwell–Bloch treatment,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3110–3125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Artioukov, I. A.

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Artiukov, I. A.

Attwood, D. T.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beguiristain, R.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benredjem, D.

D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benware, B. R.

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, A. Ozols, J. J. Rocca, I. A. Artiukov, V. V. Kondratenko, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Focusing on a tabletop soft x-ray laser beam and laser ablation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1714–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft x-ray laser pulses at 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, G. F.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorenko, A. I.

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

Yu. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershing, E. N. Zubalev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. Yu.

Forsythe, M.

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, T.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, Y.

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldgerg, K. A.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holden, P. B.

A. Sureau and P. B. Holden, “From amplification of spontaneous emission to saturation in x-ray lasers: a Maxwell–Bloch treatment,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3110–3125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jaegle, P.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanizay, K.

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, R.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodma, R.

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koibe, M.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kondratenko, V. V.

Levashov, V. E.

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

Yu. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershing, E. N. Zubalev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macchietto, C. D.

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft x-ray laser pulses at 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A.

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A. G.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marconi, M. C.

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mayama, K.

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Medecki, H.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, A.

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moller, C.

D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, C. H.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mrowka, S.

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

Murai, K.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niibe, M.

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ninomiya, S.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, H.

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozols, A.

Pershin, Yu. P.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

Pershing, Yu. P.

Ramsden, S. A.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24, 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, “Tabletop soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, A. Ozols, J. J. Rocca, I. A. Artiukov, V. V. Kondratenko, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Focusing on a tabletop soft x-ray laser beam and laser ablation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1714–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft x-ray laser pulses at 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rus, B.

D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaeffer, F.

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

Smith, C. G.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sureau, A.

D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sureau and P. B. Holden, “From amplification of spontaneous emission to saturation in x-ray lasers: a Maxwell–Bloch treatment,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3110–3125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tejnil, E.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, M.

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uspenskii, Yu. A.

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershing, E. N. Zubalev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vinogradov, A. V.

B. R. Benware, A. Ozols, J. J. Rocca, I. A. Artiukov, V. V. Kondratenko, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Focusing on a tabletop soft x-ray laser beam and laser ablation,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1714–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Uspenskii, V. E. Levashov, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershing, E. N. Zubalev, and V. Yu. Fedotov, “High-reflectivity multilayer mirrors for a vacuum ultraviolet interval of 35–50 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 771–773 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G.

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zubalev, E. N.

Zubarev, E. N.

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. T. Attwood, P. Naulleau, K. A. Goldgerg, E. Tejnil, C. Chang, R. Beguiristain, P. Batson, J. Bokor, E. Gullikson, M. Koibe, H. Medecki, and J. H. Underwood, “Tunable coherent radiation in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectral region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 709–720 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. A. Artioukov, B. R. Benware, J. J. Rocca, M. Forsythe, Yu. A. Uspenskii, and A. V. Vinogradov, “Determination of XUV optical constants by reflectometry using a high repetition rate 46.9 nm laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1495–1501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N (1)

V. E. Levashov, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, Yu. P. Pershin, E. N. Zubarev, S. Mrowka, and F. Schaeffer, “Sc–Si normal incidence mirrors for a VUV interval of 35–50 nm,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. N 159, 593 (1999).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Murai, G. Yuan, R. Kodma, H. Daido, Y. Kato, M. Niibe, A. Miyake, M. Tsukamoto, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, and A. MacPhee, “Double-pass amplification in Ge soft x-ray laser with a polarized half-cavity,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, L600–L603 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of amplification of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neon-like germanium plasma” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Benredjem, A. Sureau, B. Rus, and C. Moller, “Polarization state of the output of soft x-ray lasers through the paraxial Maxwell–Bloch approach,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5152–5161 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Sureau and P. B. Holden, “From amplification of spontaneous emission to saturation in x-ray lasers: a Maxwell–Bloch treatment,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 3110–3125 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, K. Kanizay, J. J. Rocca, Yu. A. Uspenskii, A. V. Vinogradov, and Yu. P. Pershin, “Soft x-ray laser interferometry of a pinch discharge using a tabletop laser,” Phys. Rev. E 60, 911–917 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. R. Benware, C. D. Macchietto, C. H. Moreno, and J. J. Rocca, “Demonstration of a high average power tabletop soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5804–5807 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, K. Murai, G. Yuan, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, H. Daido, Y. Kato, and T. Fujimoto, “Observation of polarization of the soft x-ray laser line in neonlike germanium ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3826–3929 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Yamamoto, K. Mayama, H. Nomura, H. Kimura, M. Yanagihara, and T. Namioka, “Soft X-ray polarization measurements with a laboratory reflectometer,” Proc. SPIE 1720, 390–394 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. J. Rocca, “Tabletop soft x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799–3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

For example, see articles in Soft X-ray Lasers and Applications III, Proc. SPIE 3776, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds. (1999).

D. Clarke and J. F. Granger, Polared Light in Optical Measurements (Pergamon, Elmsford, New York, 1971).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured reflectivity of the Si/Sc multilayer mirrors at 46.9 nm as a function of angle of incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the setup utilized to polarize the laser beam. Labels A and B identify the fixed and the rotating vacuum photodiodes, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of the beam after passing through the pair of polarizers as a function of the angle θ between them.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the experimental setup used to characterize the diffraction efficiency of a grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Diffraction efficiency of the different orders for p-polarized radiation at three different angles of incidence. (b) Diffraction efficiency for unpolarized radiation.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I*M*C*S*=Si/Scmirror(analyzer)Rotationaboutpropagationaxis×Si/Scmirror(polarizer)IMCS,
Si/Scmirror=12(Rs+Rp)(Rs-Rp)00(Rs-Rp)(Rs+Rp)00002RsRp cos Δ-2RsRp sin Δ002RsRp sin Δ2RsRp cos Δ,
Rotation=10000cos 2θsin 2θ00-sin 2θcos 2θ00001.
I*M*C*S*=12(Rs2+Rp2)cos2 θ+2RsRp sin2 θ(Rs2-Rp2)cos2 θ-RsRp(Rs-Rp)sin 2θ cos Δ-RsRp(Rs-Rp)sin 2θ sin Δ.
p=IpI*=[(Rs2-Rp2)cos2 θ]2+[-RsRp(Rs-Rp)sin 2θ]2(Rs2+Rp2)cos2 θ+2RsRp sin2 θ.
ζ=(1/2)tan-1C*M*,
η=I*|S*|+I*|S*|2-1.

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