Abstract

We report the results of optical in situ monitoring of the epitaxial growth of perovskite oxide thin films by an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference (OIRD) technique. Optical oscillation that corresponds to the growth cycle of an interrupted growth mode (monolayer oscillation) is observed. The monolayer oscillation shows different behaviors for layer-by-layer, Stranski–Krastanow, and three-dimensional growth modes. Optical interference oscillation is observed. The dependencies of the real and the imaginary parts of the bulk film’s refractive index on the OIRD signal are discussed and illustrated with a three-layer stack mode. Thin-film complex refractive-index and highly accurate thickness measurements can be obtained by fitting of the interference oscillation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Harris, B. A. Joyce, and P. J. Dobson, “Oscillations in the surface structure of Sn-doped GaAs during growth by MBE,” Surf. Sci. 103, L90–L96 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kanai, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Atomic layer and unit cell layer growth of (Ca, Sr)CuO2 thin film by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 771–773 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Dietz and K. J. Bachmann, “p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a highly sensitive real-time monitoring technique to study surface kinetics under steady state epitaxial deposition conditions,” Vacuum 47, 133–140 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. J. Bachmann, U. Rossow, and N. Dietz, “Real-time monitoring of heteroepitaxial growth processes on the silicon(001) surface by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 35, 472–378 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. D. Xiao, Y. L. Xie, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion probed by linear optical diffraction,” Surf. Sci. 271, 295–298 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111) studied by diffraction of optical second-harmonic generation off a monolayer grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883–2885 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski–Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Dietz, D. J. Stephens, and K. J. Bachmann, “In-situ multilayer film growth characterization by Brewster angle reflectance differential spectroscopy,” in Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials Processing, O. J. Glembocki, S. W. Pang, F. H. Pollak, G. M. Crean, and G. Larrabee, eds. MRS Symp. Proc. 324, 27–32 (1994).
  17. R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2000

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. Dietz and K. J. Bachmann, “p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a highly sensitive real-time monitoring technique to study surface kinetics under steady state epitaxial deposition conditions,” Vacuum 47, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. J. Bachmann, U. Rossow, and N. Dietz, “Real-time monitoring of heteroepitaxial growth processes on the silicon(001) surface by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 35, 472–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. Dietz, D. J. Stephens, and K. J. Bachmann, “In-situ multilayer film growth characterization by Brewster angle reflectance differential spectroscopy,” in Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials Processing, O. J. Glembocki, S. W. Pang, F. H. Pollak, G. M. Crean, and G. Larrabee, eds. MRS Symp. Proc. 324, 27–32 (1994).

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

X. D. Xiao, Y. L. Xie, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion probed by linear optical diffraction,” Surf. Sci. 271, 295–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. Kanai, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Atomic layer and unit cell layer growth of (Ca, Sr)CuO2 thin film by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 771–773 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski–Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111) studied by diffraction of optical second-harmonic generation off a monolayer grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883–2885 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. J. Harris, B. A. Joyce, and P. J. Dobson, “Oscillations in the surface structure of Sn-doped GaAs during growth by MBE,” Surf. Sci. 103, L90–L96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aspes, D. E.

D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, K. J.

N. Dietz and K. J. Bachmann, “p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a highly sensitive real-time monitoring technique to study surface kinetics under steady state epitaxial deposition conditions,” Vacuum 47, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Bachmann, U. Rossow, and N. Dietz, “Real-time monitoring of heteroepitaxial growth processes on the silicon(001) surface by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 35, 472–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Dietz, D. J. Stephens, and K. J. Bachmann, “In-situ multilayer film growth characterization by Brewster angle reflectance differential spectroscopy,” in Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials Processing, O. J. Glembocki, S. W. Pang, F. H. Pollak, G. M. Crean, and G. Larrabee, eds. MRS Symp. Proc. 324, 27–32 (1994).

Boatners, L. A.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerullo, M.

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski–Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.-H.

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D.-F.

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, N.

N. Dietz and K. J. Bachmann, “p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a highly sensitive real-time monitoring technique to study surface kinetics under steady state epitaxial deposition conditions,” Vacuum 47, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Bachmann, U. Rossow, and N. Dietz, “Real-time monitoring of heteroepitaxial growth processes on the silicon(001) surface by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 35, 472–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Dietz, D. J. Stephens, and K. J. Bachmann, “In-situ multilayer film growth characterization by Brewster angle reflectance differential spectroscopy,” in Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials Processing, O. J. Glembocki, S. W. Pang, F. H. Pollak, G. M. Crean, and G. Larrabee, eds. MRS Symp. Proc. 324, 27–32 (1994).

Dobson, P. J.

J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Harris, B. A. Joyce, and P. J. Dobson, “Oscillations in the surface structure of Sn-doped GaAs during growth by MBE,” Surf. Sci. 103, L90–L96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eaglesham, D. J.

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski–Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ghaisas, S. V.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.-Y.

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, J. P.

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harding, J. H.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. J.

J. J. Harris, B. A. Joyce, and P. J. Dobson, “Oscillations in the surface structure of Sn-doped GaAs during growth by MBE,” Surf. Sci. 103, L90–L96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jellison Jr., G. E.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, K.-J.

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Joyce, B. A.

J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Harris, B. A. Joyce, and P. J. Dobson, “Oscillations in the surface structure of Sn-doped GaAs during growth by MBE,” Surf. Sci. 103, L90–L96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kanai, M.

M. Kanai, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Atomic layer and unit cell layer growth of (Ca, Sr)CuO2 thin film by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 771–773 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, S.

M. Kanai, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Atomic layer and unit cell layer growth of (Ca, Sr)CuO2 thin film by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 771–773 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, T.

M. Kanai, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Atomic layer and unit cell layer growth of (Ca, Sr)CuO2 thin film by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 771–773 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M. L.

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. C.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.-B.

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Madhukar, A.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mckee, R. A.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyne, C.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neave, J. J.

J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. G.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Norton, N.

J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ploska, K.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pristovsek, M.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111) studied by diffraction of optical second-harmonic generation off a monolayer grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883–2885 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, W.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, U.

K. J. Bachmann, U. Rossow, and N. Dietz, “Real-time monitoring of heteroepitaxial growth processes on the silicon(001) surface by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 35, 472–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

X. D. Xiao, Y. L. Xie, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion probed by linear optical diffraction,” Surf. Sci. 271, 295–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111) studied by diffraction of optical second-harmonic generation off a monolayer grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883–2885 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Specht, E. D.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephens, D. J.

N. Dietz, D. J. Stephens, and K. J. Bachmann, “In-situ multilayer film growth characterization by Brewster angle reflectance differential spectroscopy,” in Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials Processing, O. J. Glembocki, S. W. Pang, F. H. Pollak, G. M. Crean, and G. Larrabee, eds. MRS Symp. Proc. 324, 27–32 (1994).

Studna, A. A.

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walker, F. J.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-S.

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wethkamp, T.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X. D.

X. D. Xiao, Y. L. Xie, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion probed by linear optical diffraction,” Surf. Sci. 271, 295–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y. L.

X. D. Xiao, Y. L. Xie, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion probed by linear optical diffraction,” Surf. Sci. 271, 295–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.-Z.

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.-Q.

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yen, M. Y.

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Zettler, J.-T.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.-Z.

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.-L.

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. D.

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111) studied by diffraction of optical second-harmonic generation off a monolayer grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883–2885 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zorn, M.

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

J. J. Neave, B. A. Joyce, P. J. Dobson, and N. Norton, “Dynamics of film growth of GaAs by MBE from RHEED observation,” Appl. Phys. A 31, 1–8 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Kanai, T. Kawai, and S. Kawai, “Atomic layer and unit cell layer growth of (Ca, Sr)CuO2 thin film by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 771–773 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Harbison, D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, L. T. Florez, and M. L. Kelly, “Oscillations in the optical response of (001)GaAs and AlGaAs surfaces during crystal growth by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2046–2048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Zettler, T. Wethkamp, M. Zorn, M. Pristovsek, C. Meyne, K. Ploska, and W. Richter, “Growth oscillations with monolayer periodicity monitored by ellipsometry during metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of GaAs(001),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3783–3785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Madhukar, T. C. Lee, M. Y. Yen, P. Chen, J. Y. Kim, S. V. Ghaisas, and P. G. Newman, “Role of surface kinetics and interrupted growth during molecular beam epitaxial growth of normal and inverted GaAs/AlGaAs(100) interfaces: a reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity dynamics study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1148–1150 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

G.-Z. Yang, H.-B. Lu, H.-S. Wang, D.-F. Cui, H.-Q. Yang, H. Wang, Y.-L. Zhou, and Z.-H., Chen, “Unit-cell by unit-cell epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 thin films by laser molecular beam epitaxy,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 14, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., B

K. J. Bachmann, U. Rossow, and N. Dietz, “Real-time monitoring of heteroepitaxial growth processes on the silicon(001) surface by p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 35, 472–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MRS Symp. Proc.

N. Dietz, D. J. Stephens, and K. J. Bachmann, “In-situ multilayer film growth characterization by Brewster angle reflectance differential spectroscopy,” in Diagnostic Techniques for Semiconductor Materials Processing, O. J. Glembocki, S. W. Pang, F. H. Pollak, G. M. Crean, and G. Larrabee, eds. MRS Symp. Proc. 324, 27–32 (1994).

Phys. Rev. B

X. D. Zhu, H.-B. Lu, G.-Z. Yang, Z.-Y. Li, B.-Y. Gu, and D.-Z. Zhang, “Epitaxial growth of SrTiO3 on SrTiO3(001) using an oblique-incidence reflectance-difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 2514–2519 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, H.-B. Lu, T. Zhao, K.-J. Jin, Z.-H. Chen, and G.-Z. Yang, “Real-time optical monitoring of the heteroepitaxy of oxides by an oblique-incidence reflectance difference technique,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10, 404–10, 410 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. A. Mckee, F. J. Walker, E. D. Specht, G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. A. Boatners, and J. H. Harding, “Interface stability and the growth of optical quality perovskites on MgO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2741–2744 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111) studied by diffraction of optical second-harmonic generation off a monolayer grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883–2885 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski–Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1943–1946 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Aspes, J. P. Harbison, A. A. Studna, and L. T. Florez, “Optical-reflectance and electron-diffraction studies of molecular-beam-epitaxy growth transient on GaAs(001),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1687–1690 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

J. J. Harris, B. A. Joyce, and P. J. Dobson, “Oscillations in the surface structure of Sn-doped GaAs during growth by MBE,” Surf. Sci. 103, L90–L96 (1981).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Xiao, Y. L. Xie, and Y. R. Shen, “Surface diffusion probed by linear optical diffraction,” Surf. Sci. 271, 295–298 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum

N. Dietz and K. J. Bachmann, “p-polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a highly sensitive real-time monitoring technique to study surface kinetics under steady state epitaxial deposition conditions,” Vacuum 47, 133–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 61–66.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical setup for the OIRD measurement: PEM, photoelastic modulator; QW, fused-quartz parallel plate; PD, biased silicon photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Consistent RHEED intensity oscillation and (b) OIRD relative intensity in a good 2D layer-by-layer growth mode of niobium-doped SrTiO3 upon a SrTiO3(100) substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(d) Interference oscillations and (a)–(c) monolayer oscillations obtained by OIRD during the heteroepitaxy of BaTiO3 upon a SrTiO3(100) substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OIRD interference oscillations of the heteroepitaxy niobium-doped SrTiO3 upon a SrTiO3(100) substrate under various ambient-oxygen pressures. The symbols graph the oxygen pressure (in pascals) as marked. Inset, the amplitude of the second oscillation as a function of growing oxygen pressure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic illustration of the surface structure described by a three-layer stack model for heteroepitaxy in the OIRD measurement and the multiple reflections of the probe light beam from this stack.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerical simulation results of the OIRD measurement calculated from the three-layer stack with Fresnel’s equations for multilayers: (a) reflectance of the s and p polarization and the relative OIRD signal as a function of thin-film thickness; (b) dependence of the OIRD signal on the real part of the complex refractive index of the thin-film layer; (c) dependence of the OIRD signal on the imaginary part of the complex refractive index of the thin-film layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Theoretical fit of the experimental data (niobium-doped SrTiO3 upon SrTiO3 at an oxygen pressure of 2×10-2 Pa). The fitted complex refractive index (nf and kf) and film thickness are shown.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(2Ω)=1/2J2(Φ)Iinc×[|rp(θRDS)tp(θtilt)|2-|rs(θRDS)ts(θtilt)|2],
IIp0=ΔRR0=rprp02-rsrs02,
rk,k+1p
=εk+1(εk-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2-εk(εk+1-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2εk+1(εk-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2+εk(εk+1-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2,
rk,k+1s
=(εk-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2-(εk+1-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2(εk-ε0 sin2 φ)+(εk+1-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2
(k0),
rp=r01p+r12p exp(2iϕ)1+r01pr12s exp(2iϕ),rs=r01s+r12s exp(2iϕ)1+r01sr12s exp(2iϕ),
rp0=ε2 cos φ-ε0(ε2-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2ε2 cos φ+ε0(ε2-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2,
rs0=ε0 cos φ-(ε2-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2ε0 cos φ+(ε2-ε0 sin2 φ)1/2,

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