Abstract

The polarization-dependent photon-number squeezing of 1.5 dB from a grating feedback locking quantum-well laser in a cryostat has been experimentally detected with a balanced homodyne detector including an imperfect nonpolarized-beam splitter. The great influence of the birefringence induced at low temperature on the determination of the shot-noise-limit and on the detection of photon-number squeezing is discussed in detail. Birefringence is compensated for by insertion of a half-wave plate of adjustable inclination into the output beam before the polarization components of the optical system.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, “Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2230–2234 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Furusawa, “Amplitude squeezing of a semiconductor laser with light injection,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2014–2016 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Amplitude-squeezed, frequency-modulated, tunable, diode-laser-based source for sub-shot-noise FM spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22, 478–480 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-Q. Li and M. Xiao, “Generation and applications of amplitude-squeezed states of light from semiconductor diode lasers,” Opt. Express 2, 110–117 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. C. Kilper, D. G. Steel, R. Craig, and D. R. Scifres, “Polarization-dependent noise in photon-number squeezed light generated by quantum-well lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1283–1285 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Amplitude-squeezed, frequency-modulated, tunable, diode-laser-based source for sub-shot-noise FM spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 22, 478–480 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, “Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2230–2234 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramati, A.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R.

Edward, P.

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, M. J.

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

Giacobino, E.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grangier, P.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grelu, P.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, “Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2230–2234 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jost, V.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasapi, S.

Kilper, D. C.

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lathi, S.

Levenson, M. D.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Li and M. Xiao, “Generation and applications of amplitude-squeezed states of light from semiconductor diode lasers,” Opt. Express 2, 110–117 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lynam, P.

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, “Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2230–2234 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marin, F.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohzu, H.

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, “Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2230–2234 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poizat, J.-Ph.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roch, J.-F.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, D. G.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

Y.-Q. Li and M. Xiao, “Generation and applications of amplitude-squeezed states of light from semiconductor diode lasers,” Opt. Express 2, 110–117 (1998), http://www.opticsexpress.org.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yurke, B.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.-C.

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Inoue, S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, and H. Ohzu, “Squeezing in an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 2230–2234 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. Wang, M. J. Freeman, and D. G. Steel, “Squeezing light from injection-locked quantum well lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3951–3954 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-Q. Li, P. Lynam, M. Xiao, and P. Edward, “Sub-shot-noise laser Doppler anemometry with amplitude-squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3105–3108 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, “Squeezed-light-enhanced polarization interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153–2156 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. (1)

T.-C. Zhang, J.-Ph. Poizat, P. Grelu, J.-F. Roch, P. Grangier, F. Marin, A. Bramati, V. Jost, M. D. Levenson, and E. Giacobino, “Quantum noise of free-running and externally-stabilized laser diode,” Quantum Semiclassic. Opt. 7, 601–613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for generation of amplitude-squeezed states of light from a diode laser: COL, collimater; PZT, piezoelectric transducer controlling the grating; INPBS, imperfect nonpolarizing beam splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; SA, spectrum analyzer; R, resistance; L, inductance; r, reflection coefficient.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Measured noise spectra with the nonideal nonpolarizing beam splitter for balanced homodyne detection. B, measured noise spectra with the polarizing beam splitter for balanced homodyne detection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured noise spectra with a linear polarizer. Trace a, the power spectrum of the laser output degraded owing to the effect of birefringence. Trace b, power spectrum retrieved by phase compensation. Trace c, power spectrum obtained from polarization-preserving balanced homodyne detection.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Balanced homodyne detection with the polarization-dependent beam splitter.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ahw=22(ain+ain),ahw=22(ain-ain).
c=22 T(ain+ain)+Rav,
c=22 T(ain-ain)+Rav,
d=22 R(ain+ain)-Tav,
d=22 R(ain-ain)-Tav.
I¯=i1=i2=1/2ζain+ain,
(δi+)2=2I¯(ΔXin)2,
(δi-)2=2I¯{(R-T)2(ΔXin)2+1/2[1-(R-T)2]×(ΔXav)2+1/2 [1-(R-T)2] (ΔXav)2 },
=2I¯[(R-T)2(ΔXin)2+4RT)],
(δi-)2=2I¯[1/2(ΔXav)2+1/2(ΔXav)2]=2I¯.
(δi-)2=2I¯(ΔXin)2.

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