Abstract

Selective photomodification of fractal aggregates of silver nanoparticles is studied experimentally by photon-scanning-tunneling microscopy. Near-field optical images of the aggregates before and after photomodification show changes in the distribution of local electromagnetic fields in the near zone at subwavelength scale. These changes are much stronger than those measured in the far field. Results from numerical modeling of photomodification are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  41. D. Keller and C. Bustmante, “Theory of the interaction of light with large inhomogeneous molecular aggregates. II. Psi-type circular dichroism,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2972–2980 (1986).
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  42. J. E. Sansonetti and J. K. Furdyna, “Depolarization effects in arrays of spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 2866–2874 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  43. F. Claro, “Absorption spectrum of neighbouring dielectric grains,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 7875–7876 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  44. Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.
  45. Y. E. Danilova, V. A. Markel, and V. P. Safonov, “Light absorption by random clusters of silver particles,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 821–826 (1993).
  46. V. A. Markel and V. M. Shalaev, “Computational approaches in optics of fractal clusters,” in Computational Studies of New Materials, D. A. Jelski and T. F. George, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 210–243.
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1999 (2)

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Shubin, and V. A. Markel, “Enhancement of nonlinear processes near rough nanometer-structured surfaces obtained by deposition of fractal colloidal sliver aggregates on a plain substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10739–10742 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (5)

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, and R. Botet, “Nonlinear optical phenomena on rough surfaces of metal thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14901–14913 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (5)

M. I. Stockman, “Inhomogeneous eigenmode localization, chaos, and correlations in large disordered clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6494–6507 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Chaos and spatial correlations for dipolar eigenproblems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4562–4565 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, and V. V. Slabko, “Observation of the two-photon photoelectric effect in low-intensity optical fields during photostimulated fractal aggregation of colloidal silver,” JETP Lett. 66, 106–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and T. F. George, “Numerical studies of second- and fourth-order correlation functions in cluster-cluster aggregates in application to optical scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7313–7333 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (11)

H. Zhu and R. S. Averback, “Sintering processes of two nanoparticles: a study by molecular dynamics,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 73, 27–33 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. 2. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic properties of small-particle composites,” Phys. Rep. 272, 61–137 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Lee, E. B. McDaniel, and J. W. P. Hsu, “An impedance based non-contact feedback control system for scanning probe microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1468–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, A. V. Zayats, and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Fractal surface characterization: implications for plasmon polariton scattering,” Surf. Sci. 356, 268–274 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localization phenomena in elastic surface-polariton scattering caused by surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8177–8185 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, “Enhanced Raman scattering from self-affine thin films,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1628–1630 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. W. Mackowski and M. Mischenko, “Calculation of the T matrix and the scattering matrix for ensembles of spheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2266–2278 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

B. Draine and P. Flatau, “Discrete-dipole approximation for scattering calculations,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1491–1499 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical-fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

Y. E. Danilova, V. A. Markel, and V. P. Safonov, “Light absorption by random clusters of silver particles,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 821–826 (1993).

1992 (1)

Y. E. Danilova, A. I. Plekhanov, and V. P. Safonov, “Experimental study of polarization-selective holes, burning in absorption spectra of metal fractal clusters,” Physica A 185, 61–65 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183–8195 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. I. Plekhanov, G. L. Plotnikov, and V. P. Safonov, “Production and spectroscopic study of silver fractal clusters by laser vaporation of target,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 451–454 (1991).

1990 (1)

L. S. Markel, V. A. Muratov, and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractals: theory and numerical simulation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 71, 455–464 (1990).

1988 (3)

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

A. V. Butenko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Giant impurity nonlinearities in optics of fractal clusters,” Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 60–69 (1988).

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractal clusters (susceptibility, surface enhanced Raman scattering by impurities),” Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 287–294 (1987).

1986 (1)

D. Keller and C. Bustmante, “Theory of the interaction of light with large inhomogeneous molecular aggregates. II. Psi-type circular dichroism,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2972–2980 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

P. Meakin, “Formation of fractal clusters and networks by irreversible diffusion-limited aggregation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1119–1122 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[Crossref]

F. Claro, “Absorption spectrum of neighbouring dielectric grains,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 7875–7876 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. E. Sansonetti and J. K. Furdyna, “Depolarization effects in arrays of spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 2866–2874 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, R. L.

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

Averback, R. S.

H. Zhu and R. S. Averback, “Sintering processes of two nanoparticles: a study by molecular dynamics,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 73, 27–33 (1996).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, S.

Botet, R.

E. Y. Poliakov, V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, and R. Botet, “Nonlinear optical phenomena on rough surfaces of metal thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14901–14913 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, “Enhanced Raman scattering from self-affine thin films,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1628–1630 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, A. V. Zayats, and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Fractal surface characterization: implications for plasmon polariton scattering,” Surf. Sci. 356, 268–274 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localization phenomena in elastic surface-polariton scattering caused by surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8177–8185 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bustmante, C.

D. Keller and C. Bustmante, “Theory of the interaction of light with large inhomogeneous molecular aggregates. II. Psi-type circular dichroism,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2972–2980 (1986).
[Crossref]

Butenko, A. V.

A. V. Butenko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Giant impurity nonlinearities in optics of fractal clusters,” Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 60–69 (1988).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Claro, F.

F. Claro, “Absorption spectrum of neighbouring dielectric grains,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 7875–7876 (1982).
[Crossref]

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

Danilova, Y. E.

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. E. Danilova, V. A. Markel, and V. P. Safonov, “Light absorption by random clusters of silver particles,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 821–826 (1993).

Y. E. Danilova, A. I. Plekhanov, and V. P. Safonov, “Experimental study of polarization-selective holes, burning in absorption spectra of metal fractal clusters,” Physica A 185, 61–65 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Deinum, G.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

Draine, B.

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flatau, P.

Furdyna, J. K.

J. E. Sansonetti and J. K. Furdyna, “Depolarization effects in arrays of spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 2866–2874 (1980).
[Crossref]

George, T. F.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and T. F. George, “Numerical studies of second- and fourth-order correlation functions in cluster-cluster aggregates in application to optical scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7313–7333 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical-fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183–8195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Haslett, T. L.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hsu, J. W. P.

M. Lee, E. B. McDaniel, and J. W. P. Hsu, “An impedance based non-contact feedback control system for scanning probe microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1468–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Huynh, W.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Karpov, A. V.

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Karpov, S. V.

S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, and V. V. Slabko, “Observation of the two-photon photoelectric effect in low-intensity optical fields during photostimulated fractal aggregation of colloidal silver,” JETP Lett. 66, 106–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Kartha, V. B.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keller, D.

D. Keller and C. Bustmante, “Theory of the interaction of light with large inhomogeneous molecular aggregates. II. Psi-type circular dichroism,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2972–2980 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kim, W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kovacs, J.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, E. B. McDaniel, and J. W. P. Hsu, “An impedance based non-contact feedback control system for scanning probe microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1468–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lepeshkin, N. N.

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lo, A.

S. E. Rorak, A. Lo, R. T. Skodje, and K. L. Rowlen, “Changes in thin-metal-film nanostructure at near-ambient temperatures,” in Nanostructured Materials: Clusters, Composites, and Thin Films, V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1998), pp. 152–168.

Mackowski, D. W.

Manoharan, R.

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, R. Manoharan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Extremely large enhancement factors in surface-enhanced Raman scattering for molecules on colloidal gold clusters,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52, 1493–1497 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

Markel, L. S.

L. S. Markel, V. A. Muratov, and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractals: theory and numerical simulation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 71, 455–464 (1990).

Markel, V.

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Markel, V. A.

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Shubin, and V. A. Markel, “Enhancement of nonlinear processes near rough nanometer-structured surfaces obtained by deposition of fractal colloidal sliver aggregates on a plain substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10739–10742 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, and R. Botet, “Nonlinear optical phenomena on rough surfaces of metal thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14901–14913 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and T. F. George, “Numerical studies of second- and fourth-order correlation functions in cluster-cluster aggregates in application to optical scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7313–7333 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. 2. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, “Enhanced Raman scattering from self-affine thin films,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1628–1630 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. E. Danilova, V. A. Markel, and V. P. Safonov, “Light absorption by random clusters of silver particles,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 821–826 (1993).

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183–8195 (1991).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel and V. M. Shalaev, “Computational approaches in optics of fractal clusters,” in Computational Studies of New Materials, D. A. Jelski and T. F. George, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 210–243.

McDaniel, E. B.

M. Lee, E. B. McDaniel, and J. W. P. Hsu, “An impedance based non-contact feedback control system for scanning probe microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1468–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Meakin, P.

P. Meakin, “Formation of fractal clusters and networks by irreversible diffusion-limited aggregation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1119–1122 (1983).
[Crossref]

Meisel, D.

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[Crossref]

Mischenko, M.

Moskovits, M.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muratov, L. S.

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical-fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183–8195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Muratov, V. A.

L. S. Markel, V. A. Muratov, and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractals: theory and numerical simulation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 71, 455–464 (1990).

Pandey, L. N.

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical-fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennypacker, C. R.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Plekhanov, A. I.

Y. E. Danilova, A. I. Plekhanov, and V. P. Safonov, “Experimental study of polarization-selective holes, burning in absorption spectra of metal fractal clusters,” Physica A 185, 61–65 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. I. Plekhanov, G. L. Plotnikov, and V. P. Safonov, “Production and spectroscopic study of silver fractal clusters by laser vaporation of target,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 451–454 (1991).

Plotnikov, G. L.

A. I. Plekhanov, G. L. Plotnikov, and V. P. Safonov, “Production and spectroscopic study of silver fractal clusters by laser vaporation of target,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 451–454 (1991).

Poliakov, E. Y.

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Shubin, and V. A. Markel, “Enhancement of nonlinear processes near rough nanometer-structured surfaces obtained by deposition of fractal colloidal sliver aggregates on a plain substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10739–10742 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, and R. Botet, “Nonlinear optical phenomena on rough surfaces of metal thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14901–14913 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and T. F. George, “Numerical studies of second- and fourth-order correlation functions in cluster-cluster aggregates in application to optical scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7313–7333 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. 2. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, “Enhanced Raman scattering from self-affine thin films,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1628–1630 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, A. K.

S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, and V. V. Slabko, “Observation of the two-photon photoelectric effect in low-intensity optical fields during photostimulated fractal aggregation of colloidal silver,” JETP Lett. 66, 106–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

Rautian, S. G.

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Ready, J. F.

J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971).

Rorak, S. E.

S. E. Rorak, A. Lo, R. T. Skodje, and K. L. Rowlen, “Changes in thin-metal-film nanostructure at near-ambient temperatures,” in Nanostructured Materials: Clusters, Composites, and Thin Films, V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1998), pp. 152–168.

Rowlen, K. L.

S. E. Rorak, A. Lo, R. T. Skodje, and K. L. Rowlen, “Changes in thin-metal-film nanostructure at near-ambient temperatures,” in Nanostructured Materials: Clusters, Composites, and Thin Films, V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1998), pp. 152–168.

Safonov, V. P.

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. E. Danilova, V. A. Markel, and V. P. Safonov, “Light absorption by random clusters of silver particles,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 821–826 (1993).

Y. E. Danilova, A. I. Plekhanov, and V. P. Safonov, “Experimental study of polarization-selective holes, burning in absorption spectra of metal fractal clusters,” Physica A 185, 61–65 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. I. Plekhanov, G. L. Plotnikov, and V. P. Safonov, “Production and spectroscopic study of silver fractal clusters by laser vaporation of target,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 451–454 (1991).

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Sansonetti, J. E.

J. E. Sansonetti and J. K. Furdyna, “Depolarization effects in arrays of spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 2866–2874 (1980).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Shubin, and V. A. Markel, “Enhancement of nonlinear processes near rough nanometer-structured surfaces obtained by deposition of fractal colloidal sliver aggregates on a plain substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10739–10742 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, and R. Botet, “Nonlinear optical phenomena on rough surfaces of metal thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14901–14913 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and T. F. George, “Numerical studies of second- and fourth-order correlation functions in cluster-cluster aggregates in application to optical scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7313–7333 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic properties of small-particle composites,” Phys. Rep. 272, 61–137 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. 2. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, “Enhanced Raman scattering from self-affine thin films,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1628–1630 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. V. Butenko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Giant impurity nonlinearities in optics of fractal clusters,” Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 60–69 (1988).

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractal clusters (susceptibility, surface enhanced Raman scattering by impurities),” Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 287–294 (1987).

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media: Fractal Composites and Metal Dielectric Films (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

V. A. Markel and V. M. Shalaev, “Computational approaches in optics of fractal clusters,” in Computational Studies of New Materials, D. A. Jelski and T. F. George, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 210–243.

Shtokman, M. I.

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Shubin, V.

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Shubin, and V. A. Markel, “Enhancement of nonlinear processes near rough nanometer-structured surfaces obtained by deposition of fractal colloidal sliver aggregates on a plain substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10739–10742 (1999).
[Crossref]

Skodje, R. T.

S. E. Rorak, A. Lo, R. T. Skodje, and K. L. Rowlen, “Changes in thin-metal-film nanostructure at near-ambient temperatures,” in Nanostructured Materials: Clusters, Composites, and Thin Films, V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1998), pp. 152–168.

Slabko, V. V.

S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, and V. V. Slabko, “Observation of the two-photon photoelectric effect in low-intensity optical fields during photostimulated fractal aggregation of colloidal silver,” JETP Lett. 66, 106–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, A. V. Zayats, and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Fractal surface characterization: implications for plasmon polariton scattering,” Surf. Sci. 356, 268–274 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stechel, E. B.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Inhomogeneous eigenmode localization, chaos, and correlations in large disordered clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6494–6507 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Chaos and spatial correlations for dipolar eigenproblems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4562–4565 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical-fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183–8195 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. S. Markel, V. A. Muratov, and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractals: theory and numerical simulation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 71, 455–464 (1990).

A. V. Butenko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Giant impurity nonlinearities in optics of fractal clusters,” Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 60–69 (1988).

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractal clusters (susceptibility, surface enhanced Raman scattering by impurities),” Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 287–294 (1987).

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

Suh, J. S.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tay, L.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vohnsen, B.

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, A. V. Zayats, and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Fractal surface characterization: implications for plasmon polariton scattering,” Surf. Sci. 356, 268–274 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu and R. S. Averback, “Sintering processes of two nanoparticles: a study by molecular dynamics,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 73, 27–33 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Astrophys. J. (2)

E. M. Purcell and C. R. Pennypacker, “Scattering and absorption of light by nonspherical dielectric grains,” Astrophys. J. 186, 705–714 (1973).
[Crossref]

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

Y. E. Danilova, V. A. Markel, and V. P. Safonov, “Light absorption by random clusters of silver particles,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 6, 821–826 (1993).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Keller and C. Bustmante, “Theory of the interaction of light with large inhomogeneous molecular aggregates. II. Psi-type circular dichroism,” J. Chem. Phys. 84, 2972–2980 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

P. Lee and D. Meisel, “Adsorption and surface-enhanced Raman of dyes on silver and gold sols,” J. Phys. Chem. 86, 3391 (1982).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (2)

S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, and V. V. Slabko, “Observation of the two-photon photoelectric effect in low-intensity optical fields during photostimulated fractal aggregation of colloidal silver,” JETP Lett. 66, 106–110 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Shtokman, “Observation of a wavelength- and polarization-selective photomodification of silver clusters,” JETP Lett. 48, 571–575 (1988).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

A. I. Plekhanov, G. L. Plotnikov, and V. P. Safonov, “Production and spectroscopic study of silver fractal clusters by laser vaporation of target,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 71, 451–454 (1991).

Philos. Mag. Lett. (1)

H. Zhu and R. S. Averback, “Sintering processes of two nanoparticles: a study by molecular dynamics,” Philos. Mag. Lett. 73, 27–33 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

V. M. Shalaev, “Electromagnetic properties of small-particle composites,” Phys. Rep. 272, 61–137 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (12)

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. B. Stechel, W. Kim, and R. L. Armstrong, “Small-particle composites. 1. Linear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2425–2436 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, “Theory and numerical simulation of optical properties of fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183–8195 (1991).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and V. A. Markel, “Small-particle composites. 2. Nonlinear optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2437–2449 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, and R. Botet, “Nonlinear optical phenomena on rough surfaces of metal thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 14901–14913 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, and T. F. George, “Inhomogeneous localization of polar eigenmodes in fractals,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 2183–2186 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, P. Zhang, W. Huynh, L. Tay, T. L. Haslett, and M. Moskovits, “Near-field optical spectroscopy of individual surface-plasmon modes in colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. B 59, 10903–10909 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Shubin, and V. A. Markel, “Enhancement of nonlinear processes near rough nanometer-structured surfaces obtained by deposition of fractal colloidal sliver aggregates on a plain substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10739–10742 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Localization phenomena in elastic surface-polariton scattering caused by surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8177–8185 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. A. Markel, V. Coello, W. Kim, and V. M. Shalaev, “Direct observation of localized dipolar excitations on rough nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 11441–11448 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. E. Sansonetti and J. K. Furdyna, “Depolarization effects in arrays of spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 22, 2866–2874 (1980).
[Crossref]

F. Claro, “Absorption spectrum of neighbouring dielectric grains,” Phys. Rev. B 25, 7875–7876 (1982).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

V. A. Markel, V. M. Shalaev, E. Y. Poliakov, and T. F. George, “Numerical studies of second- and fourth-order correlation functions in cluster-cluster aggregates in application to optical scattering,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7313–7333 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Inhomogeneous eigenmode localization, chaos, and correlations in large disordered clusters,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 6494–6507 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, H. Kneipp, V. B. Kartha, R. Manoharan, G. Deinum, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Detection and identification of a single DNA base molecule using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. E 57, R6281–6284 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

V. P. Safonov, V. M. Shalaev, V. Markel, Y. E. Danilova, N. N. Lepeshkin, W. Kim, S. G. Rautian, and R. L. Armstrong, “Spectral dependence of selective photomodification in fractal aggregates of colloidal particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1102–1107 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Meakin, “Formation of fractal clusters and networks by irreversible diffusion-limited aggregation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1119–1122 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, “Giant fluctuations of local optical-fields in fractal clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486–2489 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Chaos and spatial correlations for dipolar eigenproblems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4562–4565 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Single molecule detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. S. Suh, and R. Botet, “Photon scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of optical-excitation of fractal metal colloid clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149–4152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physica A (2)

Y. E. Danilova, A. I. Plekhanov, and V. P. Safonov, “Experimental study of polarization-selective holes, burning in absorption spectra of metal fractal clusters,” Physica A 185, 61–65 (1992).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, and M. Moskovits, “Fractals: localization of dipole excitations and giant optical polarizabilities,” Physica A 207, 197–207 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Lee, E. B. McDaniel, and J. W. P. Hsu, “An impedance based non-contact feedback control system for scanning probe microscopes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1468–1471 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (3)

A. V. Butenko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Giant impurity nonlinearities in optics of fractal clusters,” Sov. Phys. JETP 67, 60–69 (1988).

L. S. Markel, V. A. Muratov, and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractals: theory and numerical simulation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 71, 455–464 (1990).

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, “Optical properties of fractal clusters (susceptibility, surface enhanced Raman scattering by impurities),” Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 287–294 (1987).

Surf. Sci. (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, A. V. Zayats, and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Fractal surface characterization: implications for plasmon polariton scattering,” Surf. Sci. 356, 268–274 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

V. M. Shalaev, Nonlinear Optics of Random Media: Fractal Composites and Metal Dielectric Films (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000).

J. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971).

S. E. Rorak, A. Lo, R. T. Skodje, and K. L. Rowlen, “Changes in thin-metal-film nanostructure at near-ambient temperatures,” in Nanostructured Materials: Clusters, Composites, and Thin Films, V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1998), pp. 152–168.

Y. E. Danilova, S. V. Karpov, A. K. Popov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, V. V. Slabko, V. M. Shalaev, and M. I. Stockman, “Experimental investigation of optical nonlinearities of silver fractal clusters,” in Proceedings of the X International Vavilov Conference on Nonlinear Optics, S. G. Rautian, ed. (Nova Science, New York, 1992), pp. 295–302.

V. A. Markel and V. M. Shalaev, “Computational approaches in optics of fractal clusters,” in Computational Studies of New Materials, D. A. Jelski and T. F. George, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1999), pp. 210–243.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

PSTM images of a silver fractal film (a) before and (b) after photomodification of the sample with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. The images were recorded with a probe (imaging) beam wavelength at 543 nm. Optical intensity profiles along the marked curves are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PSTM images of a silver fractal film recorded at various probe-beam wavelengths from 765 to 820 nm. Each image is 10 µm×10 µm in size.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference in optical intensity of the two images of Fig. 1. The new hot spots are highlighted in black. The diminished hot spots are indicated by open contours.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 1, except that a different sample area is imaged with a probe-beam wavelength at 633 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TEM images of aggregated silver nanoparticles (a) before and (b) after irradiation of nanosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 1079 nm. The incident energy density was 11 mJ/cm2 per pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

TEM images of aggregated silver nanoparticles (a) before and (b) after irradiation of nanosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 450 nm. The incident energy density was 20 mJ/cm2 per pulse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated near-field optical images at 543 and 633 nm of a computer-generated fractal silver aggregate deposited on a surface before and after photomodification. The dimensions of each image are 0.9 µm×1.15 µm. The difference in optical intensity between two adjacent gray scales is 10%.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eev(r)=E0 expωc(-zn2 sin2 θ-1+ixn sin θ),
di=αEev(ri)+jiG(ri-ri)dj.
E(R)=i=1NGˆ(R-ri)di+Eev(R).

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