Abstract

Extended-cavity, fiber-amplified diode lasers at 1083 nm have been frequency stabilized by locking of their frequency-doubled radiation onto hyperfine components of I2 at 541 nm by the frequency-modulation technique. The measured stability of 1.9×10-12 at 1 s, improving to 4.1×10-13 at 300 s, represents what are to the authors’ knowledge the best results achieved for diode lasers at 1.08 µm. Experimental comparison with the previously used frequency reference for precise spectroscopy of He demonstrates a stability improvement of ∼2 orders of magnitude. Preliminary results in He spectroscopy show significant reduction of frequency drifts and better precision as compared with previous measurements on He.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (8)

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Storry, M. C. George, and E. A. Hessels, “Precision microwave measurement of the 23P1–23P2 interval in atomic helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3274–3277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xu, R. Van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Pachucki, “Improved result for helium 23S1 ionization energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4561–4564 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

G. W. F. Drake and S. P. Goldman, “Bethe logarithms for Ps, H, and heliumlike atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 835–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu and R. W. Standridge, Jr., “Optical frequency standard for optical fiber communication based on the Rb 5s–5d two-photon transition,” Opt. Lett. 22, 730–732 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

1995 (3)

A. Arie, P. Cancio Pastor, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Diode laser subdoppler spectroscopy of 133Cs2 around the 1083 nm 4He transitions,” Opt. Commun. 117, 78–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachelerie, K. Nakagawa, Y. Awaji, and M. Ohtsu, “High-frequency-stability laser at 1.5 μm using Doppler-free molecular lines,” Opt. Lett. 20, 572–574 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

Allard, M.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M.

Arie, A.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahal, A. Arie, M. Arbore, and M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in a waveguide of a 1560 nm diode laser and locking to the rubidium D2 absorption lines,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1217–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arie, P. Cancio Pastor, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Diode laser subdoppler spectroscopy of 133Cs2 around the 1083 nm 4He transitions,” Opt. Commun. 117, 78–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Awaji, Y.

Baer, T.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5, 15–17 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloch, D.

Cancio, P.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 μm and precision spectroscopy of helium,” Opt. Commun. 125, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Castillega, J.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Labachelerie, M.

De Natale, P.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drake, G. W. F.

G. W. F. Drake and S. P. Goldman, “Bethe logarithms for Ps, H, and heliumlike atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 835–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ducloy, M.

Eger, D.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M. L.

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M.

George, M. C.

C. H. Storry, M. C. George, and E. A. Hessels, “Precision microwave measurement of the 23P1–23P2 interval in atomic helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3274–3277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giusfredi, G.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 μm and precision spectroscopy of helium,” Opt. Commun. 125, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, S. P.

G. W. F. Drake and S. P. Goldman, “Bethe logarithms for Ps, H, and heliumlike atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 835–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Sub-Doppler optical frequency reference at 1.064 μm by means of ultrasensitive cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy of a C2HD overtone transition,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1000–1002 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hessels, E. A.

C. H. Storry, M. C. George, and E. A. Hessels, “Precision microwave measurement of the 23P1–23P2 interval in atomic helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3274–3277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

S. Xu, R. Van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 μm and precision spectroscopy of helium,” Opt. Commun. 125, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, P. Cancio Pastor, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Diode laser subdoppler spectroscopy of 133Cs2 around the 1083 nm 4He transitions,” Opt. Commun. 117, 78–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, M.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Latrasse, C.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, D.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L. S.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

Madej, A. A.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahal, V.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Mahal, A. Arie, M. Arbore, and M. Fejer, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in a waveguide of a 1560 nm diode laser and locking to the rubidium D2 absorption lines,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1217–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marmet, L.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, F.

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

Ohtsu, M.

Oron, M.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pachucki, K.

K. Pachucki, “Improved result for helium 23S1 ionization energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4561–4564 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastor, P. Cancio

A. Arie, P. Cancio Pastor, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Diode laser subdoppler spectroscopy of 133Cs2 around the 1083 nm 4He transitions,” Opt. Commun. 117, 78–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 μm and precision spectroscopy of helium,” Opt. Commun. 125, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, P. Cancio Pastor, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Diode laser subdoppler spectroscopy of 133Cs2 around the 1083 nm 4He transitions,” Opt. Commun. 117, 78–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poulin, M.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 μm and precision spectroscopy of helium,” Opt. Commun. 125, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raj, R. K.

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, A.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiner, D.

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siemsen, K. J.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Skliar, A.

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J. J.

Standridge Jr., R. W.

Storry, C. H.

C. H. Storry, M. C. George, and E. A. Hessels, “Precision microwave measurement of the 23P1–23P2 interval in atomic helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3274–3277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Te?tu, M.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

S. Xu, R. Van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dierendonck, R.

S. Xu, R. Van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, R. Van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Sub-Doppler optical frequency reference at 1.064 μm by means of ultrasensitive cavity-enhanced frequency modulation spectroscopy of a C2HD overtone transition,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1000–1002 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeppini, P.

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, P. De Natale, S. Taccheo, and P. Laporta, “Noise characteristics of a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier at 1083 nm,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 763–768 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

G. W. F. Drake and S. P. Goldman, “Bethe logarithms for Ps, H, and heliumlike atoms,” Can. J. Phys. 77, 835–845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

J. L. Hall, L. S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

S. Xu, R. Van Dierendonck, W. Hogervorst, and W. Ubachs, “A dense grid of reference iodine lines for optical frequency calibration in the range 595–655 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 256–266 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (5)

P. Cancio, P. Zeppini, A. Arie, P. De Natale, G. Giusfredi, G. Rosenman, and M. Inguscio, “Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of molecular iodine around 541 nm with a novel solid state laser source,” Opt. Commun. 176, 453–458 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, L. Marmet, C. Latrasse, D. Touahri, M. Poulin, M. Allard, and M. Te⁁tu, “Absolute frequency measurement of a laser at 1556 nm locked to the 5S1/2–5D5/2 two-photon transition in 87Rb,” Opt. Commun. 173, 357–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, G. Rosenman, V. Mahal, A. Skliar, M. Oron, M. Katz, and D. Eger, “Green and ultraviolet quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation in bulk periodically-polled KTiOPO4,” Opt. Commun. 142, 265–268 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie, P. Cancio Pastor, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Diode laser subdoppler spectroscopy of 133Cs2 around the 1083 nm 4He transitions,” Opt. Commun. 117, 78–82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Frequency control of DBR diode lasers at 1.08 μm and precision spectroscopy of helium,” Opt. Commun. 125, 231–236 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

F. Minardi, G. Bianchini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, F. S. Pavone, and M. Inguscio, “Measurement of the helium 23P0–23P1 fine structure interval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1112–1115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Castillega, D. Livingston, A. Sanders, and D. Shiner, “Precise measurement of the J=1 to J=2 fine structure interval in the 23P state of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4321–4324 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Storry, M. C. George, and E. A. Hessels, “Precision microwave measurement of the 23P1–23P2 interval in atomic helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3274–3277 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical fre-quencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Pachucki, “Improved result for helium 23S1 ionization energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4561–4564 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

K. Pachucki and J. Sapirstein, “Contributions to helium fine structure at order mα7,” presented at the International Conference on Atomic Physics, Florence, Italy, June 4–9, 2000, 155.

K. Pachucki, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, 00–681 Warsaw, Poland (personal communication, 2000).

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas du Spectre d’Absorption de la Molecule d’Iode (Editions du CNRS, Paris, 1978).

B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, E. Tiemann, W. Ubachs, and R. Van Dierendonck, “An accurate secondary frequency standard from 515–815 nm: improved potentials for the B–X system in molecular iodine 127I2,” presented at the International Conference on Atomic Physics, Florence, Italy, June 4–9, 2000.

W. Ubachs, Division of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands (personal communication, 2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for FM saturation spectroscopy of I2 at 541 nm and frequency-stability measurements of the locked diode lasers at 1083 nm. For more details, see text. For the sake of clarity, the angle between the two laser beams before and after the KTP crystal has been exaggerated, and some optics have been omitted. AOM’s, acousto-optic modulators; AP’s, anamorphic prisms; BS’s, beam splitters; CO, collimator; FPD, fast photodiode; FPI, Fabry–Perot interferometer; EOM, electro-optic modulator; IP, input port; λ/2’s, half-wave plates; λ/4’s, quarter-wave plates; OI’s, optical isolators; PBS’s, polarizing beam splitters; PD’s, photodiodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hyperfine structure of the BX R(34) 27–0 line of I2 at 18 463.0317 cm-1. The lock-in amplifier integration time constant is 640 µs. In the present experiments the two diode lasers are locked against the isolated a1 and a15 lines, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time variation of the beat frequency at 1083 nm between two frequency-doubled I2-locked DBR diode lasers. Linear fitting of the experimental points showed no drift, within the parameter uncertainty. Δν=νIF-10 MHz and νIF=νRF-νLO (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan variance σ of the beat signal between two DBR diode lasers at 1083 nm as a function of the integration time τ: squares, unlocked lasers; diamonds, He-locked lasers; triangles, one He-locked laser and one I2–locked laser; circles, I2-locked lasers. The fit function for the I2-locked laser data is 1.74(6)×10-12τ-1/2+3.4(3)×10-13.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative frequency of the 23S123P1 (vs) transition of He at 1083 nm with respect to the master laser (νm), alternately locked on the 23S123P2 He transition in a rf discharge cell (filled circles) or on the a15 hyperfine component of the BX P(105) 29–0 I2 line (open circles). Δν=(νs-νm)-2291.359 87 MHz (filled circles) points and Δν=(νs-νm)-13319.698 72 MHz (open circles). Top, time distribution of single experimental points in run 2. The error bars are one standard deviation, as calculated from the fit (see text). Bottom, weighted mean values for three runs. Runs 1 and 2 correspond to data taken on day 1 (May 24, 2000), whereas data for run 3 were taken on day 2 (May 25, 2000). The error bars are one standard deviation of the weighted mean.

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