Abstract

By studying the detailed dynamics of ultrashort pulses at semiconductor–vacuum interfaces, we have shown that the interaction of these pulses with nonstationary semiconductor plasmas can, under appropriate conditions, lead to a variety of interesting phenomena: controlled upshifting of the laser frequency, possible cascading of upshifting, a trapped pulse bouncing back and forth in the sample, and a so-called machine gun of increasingly blueshifted pulses.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. I. Semenova, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from an ionization front,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 10, 599–604 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche ionization and the limiting diameter of filaments induced by light pulses in transparent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 907–910 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8, 285–288 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of picosecond 10-μm pulses in multiatmosphere CO2 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 216–232 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, and W. B. Mori, “Frequency up-conversion of electromagnetic radiation with use of an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 337–340 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. P. Kuo, “Frequency up-conversion of microwave pulse in rapidly growing plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1000–1003 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. M. Wood, G. Focht, and M. C. Downer, “Tight focusing and blue shifting of millijoule femtosecond pulses from a conical axicon amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 13, 984–986 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. C. Downer, W. M. Wood, and J. I. Trisnadi, “Comment on: Energy conservation in the picosecond and subpicosecond photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2832–2832 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. P. Le Blanc, R. Saurebrey, S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Spectral blue shifting of a femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a high-pressure gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801–1809 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Sauerbrey, “Acceleration in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 4712–4716 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. H. Auston and C V. Shank, “Picosecond ellipsometry of transient electron–hole plasmas in germanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120–1123 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of 130-fsec midinfrared pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1625–1629 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and R. Miklaszewski, “Freqeuncy up-conversion and trapping of ultrashort laser pulses in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 859–864 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and I. G. Murusidze, “Photon accelerator: large blueshifting of femtosecond pulses in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5147–5151 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. I. Gersten and N. Tzoar, “Parametric excitation of plasma instabilities in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1650–1654 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. I. Berezhiani and S. M. Mahajan, “Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1837–1840 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. V. Nathan, A. H. Guenther, and S. S. Mitra, “Review of multiphoton absorption in crystalline solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 294–316 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. S. Wherrett, “Scaling rules for multiphoton interband absorption in semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 67–72 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. E. W. Stryland, M. A. Woodall, H. Vanherzeele, and M. J. Soileau, “Energy band-gap dependence of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 10, 490–492 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and R. Miklaszewski, “Freqeuncy up-conversion and trapping of ultrashort laser pulses in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 859–864 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and I. G. Murusidze, “Photon accelerator: large blueshifting of femtosecond pulses in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5147–5151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Sauerbrey, “Acceleration in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 4712–4716 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

V. I. Berezhiani and S. M. Mahajan, “Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1837–1840 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Saurebrey, S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Spectral blue shifting of a femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a high-pressure gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801–1809 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. C. Downer, W. M. Wood, and J. I. Trisnadi, “Comment on: Energy conservation in the picosecond and subpicosecond photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2832–2832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Kuo, “Frequency up-conversion of microwave pulse in rapidly growing plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1000–1003 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, and W. B. Mori, “Frequency up-conversion of electromagnetic radiation with use of an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 337–340 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Wood, G. Focht, and M. C. Downer, “Tight focusing and blue shifting of millijoule femtosecond pulses from a conical axicon amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 13, 984–986 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (3)

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. H. Auston and C V. Shank, “Picosecond ellipsometry of transient electron–hole plasmas in germanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120–1123 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8, 285–288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche ionization and the limiting diameter of filaments induced by light pulses in transparent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. I. Gersten and N. Tzoar, “Parametric excitation of plasma instabilities in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1650–1654 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

V. I. Semenova, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from an ionization front,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 10, 599–604 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston and C V. Shank, “Picosecond ellipsometry of transient electron–hole plasmas in germanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120–1123 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Berezhiani, V. I.

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and R. Miklaszewski, “Freqeuncy up-conversion and trapping of ultrashort laser pulses in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 859–864 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and I. G. Murusidze, “Photon accelerator: large blueshifting of femtosecond pulses in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5147–5151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Berezhiani and S. M. Mahajan, “Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1837–1840 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8, 285–288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche ionization and the limiting diameter of filaments induced by light pulses in transparent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Rolland and P. B. Corkum, “Generation of 130-fsec midinfrared pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1625–1629 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of picosecond 10-μm pulses in multiatmosphere CO2 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 216–232 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, J. M.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, and W. B. Mori, “Frequency up-conversion of electromagnetic radiation with use of an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 337–340 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dempsey, J.

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Downer, W. M. Wood, and J. I. Trisnadi, “Comment on: Energy conservation in the picosecond and subpicosecond photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2832–2832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wood, G. Focht, and M. C. Downer, “Tight focusing and blue shifting of millijoule femtosecond pulses from a conical axicon amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 13, 984–986 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Focht, G.

Fure, J.

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gallan, J. P.

L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gersten, J. I.

J. I. Gersten and N. Tzoar, “Parametric excitation of plasma instabilities in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1650–1654 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gildenburg, V. B.

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, A. H.

Holah, G. D.

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, A.

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A. V.

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krupnov, V. A.

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. P.

S. P. Kuo, “Frequency up-conversion of microwave pulse in rapidly growing plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1000–1003 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Blanc, S. P.

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Le Blanc, R. Saurebrey, S. C. Rae, and K. Burnett, “Spectral blue shifting of a femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a high-pressure gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1801–1809 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, S. M.

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and R. Miklaszewski, “Freqeuncy up-conversion and trapping of ultrashort laser pulses in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 859–864 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and I. G. Murusidze, “Photon accelerator: large blueshifting of femtosecond pulses in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5147–5151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Berezhiani and S. M. Mahajan, “Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1837–1840 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miklaszewski, R.

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and R. Miklaszewski, “Freqeuncy up-conversion and trapping of ultrashort laser pulses in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 859–864 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S. S.

Mori, W. B.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, and W. B. Mori, “Frequency up-conversion of electromagnetic radiation with use of an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 337–340 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murusidze, I. G.

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and I. G. Murusidze, “Photon accelerator: large blueshifting of femtosecond pulses in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5147–5151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, V.

Pidgeon, C. R.

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rae, S. C.

Rolland, C.

Sauerbrey, R.

R. Sauerbrey, “Acceleration in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 4712–4716 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saurebrey, R.

Schafer, F. P.

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, V. E.

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, V. I.

V. I. Semenova, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from an ionization front,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 10, 599–604 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A. M.

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C V.

D. H. Auston and C V. Shank, “Picosecond ellipsometry of transient electron–hole plasmas in germanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120–1123 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Siders, C. W.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J.

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Stryland, E. W.

Teubner, U.

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trisnadi, J. I.

M. C. Downer, W. M. Wood, and J. I. Trisnadi, “Comment on: Energy conservation in the picosecond and subpicosecond photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2832–2832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tzoar, N.

J. I. Gersten and N. Tzoar, “Parametric excitation of plasma instabilities in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1650–1654 (1971).
[CrossRef]

van Wonterghem, B.

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

Wherrett, B. S.

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, and W. B. Mori, “Frequency up-conversion of electromagnetic radiation with use of an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 337–340 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, W. M.

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Downer, W. M. Wood, and J. I. Trisnadi, “Comment on: Energy conservation in the picosecond and subpicosecond photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2832–2832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wood, G. Focht, and M. C. Downer, “Tight focusing and blue shifting of millijoule femtosecond pulses from a conical axicon amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 13, 984–986 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodall, M. A.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche ionization and the limiting diameter of filaments induced by light pulses in transparent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Zharova, N. A.

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Amplification of picosecond 10-μm pulses in multiatmosphere CO2 lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 216–232 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

V. B. Gildenburg, A. V. Kim, V. A. Krupnov, V. E. Semenov, A. M. Sergeev, and N. A. Zharova, “Adiabatic frequency up-conversion of a powerful electromagnetic pulse producing gas ionization,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 34–44 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. C (1)

A. Miller, A. Johnston, J. Dempsey, J. Smith, C. R. Pidgeon, and G. D. Holah, “Two-photon absorption in InSb and Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phys. C 12, 4839–4849 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Bloembergen, “The influence of electron plasma formation on superbroadening in light filaments,” Opt. Commun. 8, 285–288 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (2)

R. Sauerbrey, J. Fure, S. P. Le Blanc, B. van Wonterghem, U. Teubner, and F. P. Schafer, “Reflectivity of laser-produced plasmas generated by a high intensity ultrashort pulse,” Phys. Plasmas 1, 1635–1642 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Sauerbrey, “Acceleration in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 4712–4716 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and R. Miklaszewski, “Freqeuncy up-conversion and trapping of ultrashort laser pulses in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 859–864 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Berezhiani, S. M. Mahajan, and I. G. Murusidze, “Photon accelerator: large blueshifting of femtosecond pulses in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 5147–5151 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

J. I. Gersten and N. Tzoar, “Parametric excitation of plasma instabilities in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1650–1654 (1971).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Berezhiani and S. M. Mahajan, “Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1837–1840 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Downer, W. M. Wood, and J. I. Trisnadi, “Comment on: Energy conservation in the picosecond and subpicosecond photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2832–2832 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, “Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmospheric density gases by spectral blueshifting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3523–3526 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Auston and C V. Shank, “Picosecond ellipsometry of transient electron–hole plasmas in germanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 1120–1123 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. Huang, J. P. Gallan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Wilks, J. M. Dawson, and W. B. Mori, “Frequency up-conversion of electromagnetic radiation with use of an overdense plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 337–340 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Kuo, “Frequency up-conversion of microwave pulse in rapidly growing plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1000–1003 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch and N. Bloembergen, “Avalanche ionization and the limiting diameter of filaments induced by light pulses in transparent media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 907–910 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Radiophys. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. I. Semenova, “Reflection of electromagnetic waves from an ionization front,” Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 10, 599–604 (1967).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric field intensity E (normalized to its initial value) versus z for several times. One can see the splitting into a reflected and a transmitted pulse that results from the self-created plasma layer of above-critical density at the vacuum–semiconductor boundary. The density profile is also displayed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral content of the reflected and the transmitted pulses that are displayed in Fig. 1. The incident pulse, peaking at ω=1, is shown for reference. The frequency is normalized to the initial frequency of the pump.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized electric field of the probe pulse and plasma density versus z and t. A part of the pulse is trapped between the plasma mirrors at the boundaries. We can also see the beginning of the machine gun of the transmitted pulses. V, vacuum; S, semiconductor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral contents of the once- (1p) and twice- (2p) upshifted probe pulse. The incident probe pulse peaks at ω=0.9. The frequency is still normalized to the initial frequency of the pump pulse.

Equations (10)

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2Et2-c20 2Ez2+4πe2m*0NγE+4π0 JIt=0,
Nt=k=1 αkIkω0k,
JI=c01/24πE k=1 αkIk-1,
dIdz=-k=1 αkIk,
2Et2-2Ez2+B1Et+B2|E|2Et+NγE=0,
Nt=D1|E|2+D2|E|4.
ωA2t+kA2z+B1ωA2+B2ωA4=0,
ω2t+vgω2z=D1A2+D2A4,
ω3=ω03+32 D1B1ω0A02[1-exp(-B1z)],
Δωmω0=3.7mem*01/2λ03Im10-5,

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