Abstract

Gated recording based on two-step excitation with metastable shallow traps is analyzed theoretically. A two-center model, including the tail of the conduction band into the bandgap, is suggested. The tail provides a way to model efficiently excitation from deep to shallow traps and long recombination times back into deep traps. The results are compared with experimental results performed with La3Ga5SiO14, and good agreement is found. Further, the limiting material parameters determining the material sensitivity are identified.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  2. F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).
  3. D. von der Linde, A. Glass, and K. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976).
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  6. H. Vormann and E. Krätzig, “Two step excitation in LiTaO3:Fe for optical data storage,” Solid State Commun. 49, 843–847 (1984).
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  16. Y. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile holographic storage with two-step recording in lithium niobate using cw lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944–2947 (1997).
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1999

O. V. Kobozev, S. M. Shandarov, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, “Light-induced absorption in a Bi12TiO20 crystal,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 442–447 (1999).

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

J. Imbrock, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Nonvolatile holographic storage in iron-doped lithium tantalate with continuous-wave laser light,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1302–1304 (1999).

1998

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neugaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998).

A. Liu, M. Lee, and L. Hesselink, “Light-induced absorption of cerium-doped lead barium niobate crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1618–1620 (1998).

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).

1997

1996

1995

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

1994

1993

1991

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3. I. Experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185–200 (1991).

1987

Y. Ming, E. Krätzig, and R. Orlowski, “Photorefractive effects in LiNbO3:Cr induced by two-step excitation,” Phys. Status Solidi 92, 221–229 (1987).

1984

H. Vormann and E. Krätzig, “Two step excitation in LiTaO3:Fe for optical data storage,” Solid State Commun. 49, 843–847 (1984).

1976

D. von der Linde, A. Glass, and K. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976).

1972

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

1971

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).

1969

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Adibi, A.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).

Akella, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neugaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998).

D. Lande, S. Orlov, A. Akella, L. Hesselink, and R. Neugaonkar, “Digital holographic storage systems incorporating optical fixing,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1722–1724 (1997).

Amodei, J. J.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile holographic storage with two-step recording in lithium niobate using cw lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944–2947 (1997).

Y. Bai, R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, “Resonant two-photon photorefractive grating in praseodymium-doped strontium barium niobate with cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 567–569 (1996).

Bashaw, M.

Bismuth, G.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

Buse, K.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).

Glass, A.

D. von der Linde, A. Glass, and K. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976).

Hesselink, L.

Imbrock, J.

Jermann, F.

Johansen, P. M.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

Kachru, R.

Y. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile holographic storage with two-step recording in lithium niobate using cw lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944–2947 (1997).

Y. Bai, R. Neurgaonkar, and R. Kachru, “Resonant two-photon photorefractive grating in praseodymium-doped strontium barium niobate with cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 21, 567–569 (1996).

Kamshilin, A. A.

O. V. Kobozev, S. M. Shandarov, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, “Light-induced absorption in a Bi12TiO20 crystal,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 442–447 (1999).

Kip, D.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

J. Imbrock, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Nonvolatile holographic storage in iron-doped lithium tantalate with continuous-wave laser light,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1302–1304 (1999).

Kobozev, O. V.

O. V. Kobozev, S. M. Shandarov, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, “Light-induced absorption in a Bi12TiO20 crystal,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 442–447 (1999).

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

Krätzig, E.

J. Imbrock, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Nonvolatile holographic storage in iron-doped lithium tantalate with continuous-wave laser light,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1302–1304 (1999).

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

Y. Ming, E. Krätzig, and R. Orlowski, “Photorefractive effects in LiNbO3:Cr induced by two-step excitation,” Phys. Status Solidi 92, 221–229 (1987).

H. Vormann and E. Krätzig, “Two step excitation in LiTaO3:Fe for optical data storage,” Solid State Commun. 49, 843–847 (1984).

Lande, D.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neugaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998).

D. Lande, S. Orlov, A. Akella, L. Hesselink, and R. Neugaonkar, “Digital holographic storage systems incorporating optical fixing,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1722–1724 (1997).

Lee, M.

Li, J.

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Li, X. H.

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Liu, A.

Micheron, F.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

Ming, Y.

Y. Ming, E. Krätzig, and R. Orlowski, “Photorefractive effects in LiNbO3:Cr induced by two-step excitation,” Phys. Status Solidi 92, 221–229 (1987).

Neugaonkar, R.

Neugaonkar, R. R.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neugaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998).

Neurgaonkar, R.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

Orlov, S.

Orlov, S. S.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neugaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998).

Orlowski, R.

Y. Ming, E. Krätzig, and R. Orlowski, “Photorefractive effects in LiNbO3:Cr induced by two-step excitation,” Phys. Status Solidi 92, 221–229 (1987).

Otten, J.

Paraschis, L.

Prokofiev, V. V.

O. V. Kobozev, S. M. Shandarov, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, “Light-induced absorption in a Bi12TiO20 crystal,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 442–447 (1999).

Psaltis, D.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).

Rodgers, K.

D. von der Linde, A. Glass, and K. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976).

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3. I. Experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185–200 (1991).

Segev, M.

Shandarov, S. M.

O. V. Kobozev, S. M. Shandarov, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, “Light-induced absorption in a Bi12TiO20 crystal,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 442–447 (1999).

Staebler, D. L.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).

Thiemann, O.

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3. I. Experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185–200 (1991).

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, A. Glass, and K. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976).

Vormann, H.

H. Vormann and E. Krätzig, “Two step excitation in LiTaO3:Fe for optical data storage,” Solid State Commun. 49, 843–847 (1984).

Wang, H. F.

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Wohlecke, M.

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3. I. Experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185–200 (1991).

Wu, F. X.

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Wu, X.

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Yariv, A.

Yue, X.

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

Zhu, Y.

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Appl. Phys. A

J. Li, X. H. Li, F. X. Wu, Y. Zhu, X. Wu, and H. F. Wang, “Photorefractive parameters and light-induced absorption in BaTiO3,” Appl. Phys. A 61, 553–557 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. J. Amodei and D. L. Staebler, “Holographic pattern fixing in electro-optic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 540–542 (1971).

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

T. Nikolajsen, P. M. Johansen, X. Yue, D. Kip, and E. Krätzig, “Two-step two-color recording in a photorefractive praseodymium doped La3Ga5SiO14 crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 4037–4039 (1999).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. von der Linde, A. Glass, and K. Rodgers, “Optical storage using refractive index changes induced by two-step excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 217–220 (1976).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

O. V. Kobozev, S. M. Shandarov, A. A. Kamshilin, and V. V. Prokofiev, “Light-induced absorption in a Bi12TiO20 crystal,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 442–447 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

O. F. Schirmer, O. Thiemann, and M. Wohlecke, “Defects in LiNbO3. I. Experimental aspects,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 52, 185–200 (1991).

Nature

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, “Non-volatile holographic storage in doubly doped lithium niobate crystals,” Nature 393, 665–668 (1998).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Bai and R. Kachru, “Nonvolatile holographic storage with two-step recording in lithium niobate using cw lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944–2947 (1997).

Phys. Status Solidi

Y. Ming, E. Krätzig, and R. Orlowski, “Photorefractive effects in LiNbO3:Cr induced by two-step excitation,” Phys. Status Solidi 92, 221–229 (1987).

Science

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neugaonkar, “Photorefractive materials for nonvolatile volume holographic data storage,” Science 282, 1089–1094 (1998).

Solid State Commun.

H. Vormann and E. Krätzig, “Two step excitation in LiTaO3:Fe for optical data storage,” Solid State Commun. 49, 843–847 (1984).

Other

B. I. Shklovskii and A. L. Efros, Electronic Properties of Doped Semiconductors (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

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