Abstract

A real-space study of a cylindrical integrated optical microcavity by means of a photon scanning-tunneling microscope with a resolution of 50 nm reveals optical intensity distributions in great detail. Moreover, novel phenomena such as polarization conversion and conversion from copropagation to counterpropagation are observed. We present detailed maps of the optical field distribution of the whispering-gallery modes inside the microcavity as a function of both wavelength and position. We have made a quantitative comparison between measured and calculated field distributions. As a result, the buildup of the various whispering-gallery modes is better understood.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. I. Hosain, J. P. Meunier, E. Bourillot, F. De Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Review of the basic methods for characterization of integrated-optic waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 14, 89–107 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Rafizadeh, J. P. Zhang, R. C. Tiberio, and S. T. Ho, “Propagation loss measurements in semiconductor microcavity ring and disk resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1308–1314 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842–1844 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Splitting of high-Q modes induced by light backscattering in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1835–1837 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1051–1057 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401–402 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Quasi-interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Lett. 25, 637–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1051–1057 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401–402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Rafizadeh, J. P. Zhang, R. C. Tiberio, and S. T. Ho, “Propagation loss measurements in semiconductor microcavity ring and disk resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1308–1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mannoni, F. Quercioli, B. Tiribilli, C. Ascoli, P. Baschieri, and C. Frediani, “Measuring topography and refractive index of channel waveguides with a hybrid AFM-SNOM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 388–394 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. MacDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, and R. J. Tonucci, “Local characterization of transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878–10882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Mapping whispering gallery modes in microspheres with a near-field probe,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1515–1517 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Weiss, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Splitting of high-Q modes induced by light backscattering in silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1835–1837 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Hosain, J. P. Meunier, E. Bourillot, F. De Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Review of the basic methods for characterization of integrated-optic waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 14, 89–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Bourillot, F. De Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, D. Persegol, A. Kevorkian, and D. Delacourt, “Analysis of photon-scanning tunneling microscope images of inhomogeneous samples: determination of the local refractive index of channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 95–106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Toda and M. Ohtsu, “High spatial resolution diagnostics of optical waveguides using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 84–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Absil, B. B.

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Albers, H.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allovon, M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appelbaum, I.

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ascoli, C.

Balistreri, M. L. M.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Quasi-interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Lett. 25, 637–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barthe, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baschieri, P.

Berends, J. H.

G. J. Veldhuis, J. H. Berends, and P. Y. Lambeck, “Design and characterization of mode-splitting Ψ-junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1746–1752 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blom, F. C.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bourillot, E.

Bourzeix, S.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, A.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401–402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

De Fornel, F.

de Ridder, R. M.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delacourt, D.

Douglas Stone, A. D.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Quasi-interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Lett. 25, 637–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dubreuil, N.

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frediani, C.

Glass, J. L.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, L. S.

E. B. MacDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, and R. J. Tonucci, “Local characterization of transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878–10882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Goudonnet, J. P.

Grober, R. D.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Ho, P. T.

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. W. J. M.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hosain, S. I.

S. I. Hosain, J. P. Meunier, E. Bourillot, F. De Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Review of the basic methods for characterization of integrated-optic waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 14, 89–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. W. P.

E. B. MacDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, and R. J. Tonucci, “Local characterization of transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878–10882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jackson, H. E.

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Joannoppoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karrai, K.

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kelderman, H.

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kevorkian, A.

Klunder, D. J. W.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Korterik, J. P.

Kuipers, L.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Quasi-interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Lett. 25, 637–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J. P.

Lambeck, P. V.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. Y.

G. J. Veldhuis, J. H. Berends, and P. Y. Lambeck, “Design and characterization of mode-splitting Ψ-junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1746–1752 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

Levi, A. F. J.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Licoppe, C.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401–402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. P. Laine, and S. T. Chu, “Surface-roughness induced contradirectional coupling in ring and disk resonators,” Opt. Lett. 22, 4–6 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logan, R. A.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacDaniel, E. B.

E. B. MacDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, and R. J. Tonucci, “Local characterization of transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878–10882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mannoni, A.

McCall, S. L.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mersali, B.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

S. I. Hosain, J. P. Meunier, E. Bourillot, F. De Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Review of the basic methods for characterization of integrated-optic waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 14, 89–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mignard, F.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moison, J. M.

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nöckel, J. U.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

Y. Toda and M. Ohtsu, “High spatial resolution diagnostics of optical waveguides using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 84–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Persegol, D.

Phillips, P. L.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popma, T. J. A.

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pryamikov, A. D.

Quercioli, F.

Rafizadeh, D.

Raimond, J.-M.

Reddick, R. C.

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

Sarayeddine, K.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, S. H.

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tiberio, R. C.

Tiribilli, B.

Toda, Y.

Y. Toda and M. Ohtsu, “High spatial resolution diagnostics of optical waveguides using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 84–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tonucci, R. J.

E. B. MacDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, and R. J. Tonucci, “Local characterization of transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878–10882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, D. P.

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, D. R.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, A. Driessen, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Quasi-interference of perpendicularly polarized guided modes observed with a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Opt. Lett. 25, 637–639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, D. J. W. Klunder, J. P. Korterik, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Visualizing the whispering gallery modes in a cylindrical optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1829–1831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vander Rhodes, G. H.

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, G. J.

G. J. Veldhuis, J. H. Berends, and P. Y. Lambeck, “Design and characterization of mode-splitting Ψ-junction,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1746–1752 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, D. S.

Wilson, R. A.

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wörhoff, K.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. C. Blom, D. R. van Dijk, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. J. A. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: toward an all-optical switching device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. L. McCall, J. L. Glass, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Directional light coupling from microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 561–563 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Tsai, H. E. Jackson, R. C. Reddick, S. H. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, “Photon scanning tunneling microscope study of optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1515–1517 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Bourzeix, J. M. Moison, F. Mignard, F. Barthe, A. C. Boccara, C. Licoppe, B. Mersali, M. Allovon, and A. Bruno, “Near-field optical imaging of light propagation in semicon-ductor waveguide structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1035–1037 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Fan, I. Appelbaum, and J. D. Joannoppoulos, “Near-field scanning optical microscopy as a simultaneous probe of fields and band structure of photonic crystals: a computational study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3461–3463 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Karrai and R. D. Grober, “Piezoelectric tip-sample distance control for near-field optical microscopes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1842–1844 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

S. I. Hosain, J. P. Meunier, E. Bourillot, F. De Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Review of the basic methods for characterization of integrated-optic waveguides,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 14, 89–107 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. M. de Ridder, K. Wörhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, “Silicon oxynitride planar waveguiding structures for application in optical communication,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930–937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Vander Rhodes, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Ünlü, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “Internal spatial modes in glass microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 46–53 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. J. W. Klunder, M. L. M. Balistreri, F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. W. J. M. Hoekstra, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “High resolution PSTM measurements of the whispering gallery modes and spectral mode-beat in a cylindrical micro-resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1531–1533 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little and S. T. Chu, “Theory of polarization rotation and conversion in vertically coupled microresonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 401–402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. V. Hryniewicz, B. B. Absil, B. E. Little, R. A. Wilson, and P. T. Ho, “Higher order filter response in coupled microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 320–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Toda and M. Ohtsu, “High spatial resolution diagnostics of optical waveguides using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 84–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. L. Phillips, J. C. Knight, B. J. Mangan, P. St. J. Russell, M. D. B. Charlton, and G. J. Parker, “Near-field optical microscopy of thin photonic crystal films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6337–6342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

F. C. Blom, H. Kelderman, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, T. J. A. Popma, S. T. Chu, and B. E. Little, “A single channel dropping filter based on a cylindrical microresonator,” Opt. Commun. 167, 77–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

E. B. MacDaniel, J. W. P. Hsu, L. S. Goldner, and R. J. Tonucci, “Local characterization of transmission properties of a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 10878–10882 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Local observations of phase singularities in optical fields in waveguide structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 294–297 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Douglas Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280, 1557–1564 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, M. K. Smit, G. N. van den Hoven, and A. Polman, “Optical imaging of multimode interference patterns with a resolution below the diffraction limit,” presented at the Seventh European Conference on Integrated Optics, Delft, The Netherlands, April 3–6, 1995.

E. C. M. Pennings, “Bends in optical ridge waveguides (modeling and experiments),” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Delft, Delft, The Netherlands, 1990).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the measurement of the optical field distribution of the WGM’s in a cylindrical microcavity with a PSTM. The adjacent channel waveguide is used to couple the TE-polarized light into the microcavity. The radial and the circular mode profiles of a WGM with radial mode orders l=0 and l=1 are schematically illustrated in the microcavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison between the PSTM measurements and theoretical calculations, both for PSTM measurement of the WGM’s in a microcavity over the range 140 µm×140 µm at a wavelength of 674 nm. The pixel size is 137×137 nm. Dotted lines, places where the corresponding line profiles have been measured. Parts of Fig. A and B have been zoomed in Fig. 3 (large white boxes) and Fig. 4 (small white boxes). A, Measured topographical map of the microcavity. The line plot shows the height of the microcavity. B, Simultaneously measured optical field distribution (the arrow indicates the propagation direction of the light in the channel waveguide). The line plot shows that the optical intensity of the WGM’s is confined to a region near the boundary of the microcavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Zoomed-in image of the large white box of Fig. 2. PSTM measurement of the WGM’s in a microcavity over the range 47 µm×92 µm at a wavelength of 674 nm. The pixel size is 137×137 nm. A, Measured topography. B, Simultaneously measured optical intensity distribution. Spatial mode-beat patterns with periods of 7.4±0.5, 9.1±0.5, and 26.8±0.5 µm are indicated by arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Zoomed-in image of the small white box of Fig. 2. PSTM measurement of the WGM’s in a microcavity over a range of 5 µm×5 µm at a wavelength of 671 nm. The pixel size is 50 nm×50 nm. A, measured topography. B, Simultaneously measured optical intensity distribution. The line profile (along the dotted line) is shown here with periodicities of ∼200 nm. C, Fourier transform of the line profile, showing bands at 177±2, 197±2, 201±2, and 232±3 nm, corresponding to the counterpropagation of the WGM’s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A, Spatial–spectral scan at an angle ϕ of 90° at the rim of the microcavity. The fiber probe has been scanned horizontally in one direction over a distance of 10 µm in the radial direction of the microcavity, and in time the wavelength has become vertical. Two strong and two weak bands are observed. B, Line profile of the intensity along the left vertically dotted line through the observed band that is next inward from the outermost band. C, Line profile of the optical intensity along the right vertically dotted line through the outermost observed band. The FSR of the microcavity is indicated with arrows. D, Line profile of the height of the microcavity along the top horizontally dotted line. E, Line profile of the optical intensity along the top horizontally dotted line at a resonance peak of the outermost band. F, Line profile of the optical intensity along the bottom horizontally dotted line between two resonance peaks of the outermost band.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A, Spatial–spectral scan at angles ϕ of 90° and 270° measured simultaneously by a wavelength scan over a length of 140 µm parallel with the waveguide, through the center of the microcavity. B, Part of the wavelength scan (space coordinate, horizontal; wavelength, vertical) around the rims of the cavity at an angle of 270° over a length of 20 µm. C, Part of the wavelength scan (see above) around the rims of the cavity at an angle 90° over a length of 20 µm. D, Line profile of the intensity through the inner band at an angle of 270°. E, Line profile of the intensity through the outer band at an angle of 90°. F, Fourier spectrum of the intensity measured at the fixed radial position of the inner band at an angle of 270°, shown in C as a function of the wavelength. The Fourier spectrum shows experimentally determined bands at 0.51±0.01, 0.54±0.01, and 0.59±0.01 nm that arise because of the excitation of the WGM’s. The band at 1.07±0.04 nm arises because of the counterpropagation of the WGM’s. The other observed peaks, near 0.5 and 1.0 nm (not marked), are attributed to higher-order spectral mode beats. G, Fourier spectrum of the intensity measured at the fixed radial position of the outer band at an angle of 90°, shown in Fig. D as function of the wavelength. The Fourier spectrum shows experimentally determined bands at 0.51±0.01 and 0.54±0.01 nm that arise because of the excitation of the WGM’s. The bands at 0.99±0.04 and 1.07±0.04 nm arise because of the counterpropagation of the WGM’s. The other observed peaks, near 0.5 and 1.0 nm (not marked), are attributed to higher-order spectral mode beats.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Measured Spatial Mode-Beat Lengths of the Inner and Outer Rings of Fig. 3B by Fourier Analysis

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Table 2 Comparison between PSTM Measurements and Theoretical Calculations for Both Spatial and Spectral Measurements

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