Abstract

We detail the propagation characteristics of a solitonlike single nonlinear pulse in an average normal group-velocity dispersion (GVD) region under two-step dispersion management. We compare the pulse characteristics with numerical results obtained by the variational method. Even when the dispersion swing is large, a steady-state solitonlike solution can be obtained only when the average effective dispersion becomes anomalous. We describe a pulse–pulse interaction based on a pair of nonlinear pulses and show that there is a large pulse interaction in the average normal GVD region. We show with a Q-mapping technique that such a nonlinear pulse train is unsuitable for high-speed, long-distance optical communication because of this strong pulse interaction.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Partial soliton communication systems,” Opt. Commun. 87, 15–18 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Optical soliton communication in a positively and negatively dispersion-allocated optical fibre transmission line,” Electron. Lett. 31, 216–217 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Construction of a dispersion-allocated soliton transmission line using conventional dispersion-shifted nonsoliton fibers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L681–L683 (1995): see also Ref. 4.
  4. M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Analyses of dispersion-allocated bright and dark solitons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L889–L891 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Gordon and H. A. Haus, “Random walk of coherently amplified solitons in optical fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 11, 665–667 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Q-factor contour mapping for evaluation of optical transmission systems: soliton against NRZ against RZ pulses at zero group velocity dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 32, 915–916 (1996); see also Ref. 12.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Optimum fiber dispersion for two-step dispersion-allocated optical soliton, RZ at zero GVD and NRZ systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1179–1181 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pillipetskii, “Timing-jitter reduction for a dispersion-managed soliton system: experimental evidence,” Opt. Lett. 22, 513–515 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Kodama, S. Kumar, and A. Maruta, “Chirped nonlinear pulse propagation in a dispersion-compensated system,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1689–1691 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 136, 317–329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. A. Malomed, “Pulse propagation in a nonlinear optical fiber with periodically modulated dispersion: variational approach,” Opt. Commun. 136, 313–319 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. George, “Extended path-average soliton regime in highly dispersive fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 679–681 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Matsumoto, “Theory of stretched-pulse transmission in dispersion-managed fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1238–1240 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Matsumoto and H. A. Haus, “Stretched-pulse optical fiber communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 785–787 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interaction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793–795 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 197–213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched-pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 158–160 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. S. Grigoryan and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed solitons at normal average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 609–611 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. K. Turitsyn and E. G. Shapiro, “Dispersion-managed solitons in optical amplifier transmission systems with zero average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 682–684 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. N. Kutz and S. G. Evangelides, Jr., “Dispersion-managed breathers with average normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 685–687 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900–902 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. Chen and H. A. Haus, “Dispersion-managed solitons with net positive dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1013–1015 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  33. T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, “Hermite–Gaussian expansion for pulse propagation in strongly dispersion managed fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 6728–6741 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Hasegawa, ed. New Trends in Optical Transmission Systems (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1998).
  35. S. K. Turitsyn, T. Schafer, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Self-similar core and oscillatory tails of a path-average chirped dispersion-managed optical pulse,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1351–1353 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  36. H. A. Haus and Y. Chen, “Dispersion-managed solitons as nonlinear Bloch waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 889–894 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. D. Anderson, “Variational approach to nonlinear pulse propagation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 3135–3137 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  38. N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. M. Jacob and G. M. Carter, “Error-free transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 10 Gbit/s over 24,500 km without frequency sliding,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1128–1129 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. M. Carter and J. M. Jacob, “Dynamics of solitons in filtered dispersion-managed systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 546–548 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  42. G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  43. F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “10-Gbit/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1955–1962 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1999

H. A. Haus and Y. Chen, “Dispersion-managed solitons as nonlinear Bloch waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 889–894 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. M. Carter and J. M. Jacob, “Dynamics of solitons in filtered dispersion-managed systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 546–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Grigoryan and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed solitons at normal average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 609–611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn and E. G. Shapiro, “Dispersion-managed solitons in optical amplifier transmission systems with zero average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 682–684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kutz and S. G. Evangelides, Jr., “Dispersion-managed breathers with average normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 685–687 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and H. A. Haus, “Dispersion-managed solitons with net positive dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1013–1015 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, “Hermite–Gaussian expansion for pulse propagation in strongly dispersion managed fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 6728–6741 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Turitsyn, T. Schafer, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Self-similar core and oscillatory tails of a path-average chirped dispersion-managed optical pulse,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1351–1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Optimum fiber dispersion for two-step dispersion-allocated optical soliton, RZ at zero GVD and NRZ systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pillipetskii, “Timing-jitter reduction for a dispersion-managed soliton system: experimental evidence,” Opt. Lett. 22, 513–515 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kodama, S. Kumar, and A. Maruta, “Chirped nonlinear pulse propagation in a dispersion-compensated system,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1689–1691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 136, 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Pulse propagation in a nonlinear optical fiber with periodically modulated dispersion: variational approach,” Opt. Commun. 136, 313–319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. George, “Extended path-average soliton regime in highly dispersive fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 679–681 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, “Theory of stretched-pulse transmission in dispersion-managed fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsumoto and H. A. Haus, “Stretched-pulse optical fiber communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 785–787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interaction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jacob and G. M. Carter, “Error-free transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 10 Gbit/s over 24,500 km without frequency sliding,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1128–1129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Q-factor contour mapping for evaluation of optical transmission systems: soliton against NRZ against RZ pulses at zero group velocity dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 32, 915–916 (1996); see also Ref. 12.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Optical soliton communication in a positively and negatively dispersion-allocated optical fibre transmission line,” Electron. Lett. 31, 216–217 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Analyses of dispersion-allocated bright and dark solitons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L889–L891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched-pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “10-Gbit/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Partial soliton communication systems,” Opt. Commun. 87, 15–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

1983

D. Anderson, “Variational approach to nonlinear pulse propagation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 3135–3137 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, S.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D.

D. Anderson, “Variational approach to nonlinear pulse propagation in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 6, 3135–3137 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berntson, A.

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carruthers, T. F.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter and J. M. Jacob, “Dynamics of solitons in filtered dispersion-managed systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 546–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jacob and G. M. Carter, “Error-free transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 10 Gbit/s over 24,500 km without frequency sliding,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1128–1129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pillipetskii, “Timing-jitter reduction for a dispersion-managed soliton system: experimental evidence,” Opt. Lett. 22, 513–515 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Davidson, C. R.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “10-Gbit/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duling III, I. N.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edagawa, N.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides Jr., S. G.

Forysiak, W.

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “10-Gbit/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gabitov, I.

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 136, 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

Golovchenko, E. A.

Gordon, J. P.

Grigoryan, V.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V. S.

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus and Y. Chen, “Dispersion-managed solitons as nonlinear Bloch waves,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 889–894 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and H. A. Haus, “Dispersion-managed solitons with net positive dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1013–1015 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto and H. A. Haus, “Stretched-pulse optical fiber communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 785–787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched-pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Gordon and H. A. Haus, “Random walk of coherently amplified solitons in optical fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 11, 665–667 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, T.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched-pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, J. M.

G. M. Carter and J. M. Jacob, “Dynamics of solitons in filtered dispersion-managed systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 546–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jacob and G. M. Carter, “Error-free transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 10 Gbit/s over 24,500 km without frequency sliding,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1128–1129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pillipetskii, “Timing-jitter reduction for a dispersion-managed soliton system: experimental evidence,” Opt. Lett. 22, 513–515 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaup, D. J.

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, “Hermite–Gaussian expansion for pulse propagation in strongly dispersion managed fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 6728–6741 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kerfoot, F. W.

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knox, F. M.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “10-Gbit/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, Y.

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kodama, S. Kumar, and A. Maruta, “Chirped nonlinear pulse propagation in a dispersion-compensated system,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1689–1691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Optimum fiber dispersion for two-step dispersion-allocated optical soliton, RZ at zero GVD and NRZ systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Q-factor contour mapping for evaluation of optical transmission systems: soliton against NRZ against RZ pulses at zero group velocity dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 32, 915–916 (1996); see also Ref. 12.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Analyses of dispersion-allocated bright and dark solitons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L889–L891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Optical soliton communication in a positively and negatively dispersion-allocated optical fibre transmission line,” Electron. Lett. 31, 216–217 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Partial soliton communication systems,” Opt. Commun. 87, 15–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Kutz, J. N.

Lakoba, T. I.

T. I. Lakoba and D. J. Kaup, “Hermite–Gaussian expansion for pulse propagation in strongly dispersion managed fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 6728–6741 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Pulse propagation in a nonlinear optical fiber with periodically modulated dispersion: variational approach,” Opt. Commun. 136, 313–319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maruta, A.

Y. Kodama, S. Kumar, and A. Maruta, “Chirped nonlinear pulse propagation in a dispersion-compensated system,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1689–1691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, “Theory of stretched-pulse transmission in dispersion-managed fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1238–1240 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Matsumoto and H. A. Haus, “Stretched-pulse optical fiber communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 785–787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Grigoryan and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed solitons at normal average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 609–611 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interaction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mezentsev, V. K.

Morita, I.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.-M.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Optimum fiber dispersion for two-step dispersion-allocated optical soliton, RZ at zero GVD and NRZ systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Q-factor contour mapping for evaluation of optical transmission systems: soliton against NRZ against RZ pulses at zero group velocity dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 32, 915–916 (1996); see also Ref. 12.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Analyses of dispersion-allocated bright and dark solitons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L889–L891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Optical soliton communication in a positively and negatively dispersion-allocated optical fibre transmission line,” Electron. Lett. 31, 216–217 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Partial soliton communication systems,” Opt. Commun. 87, 15–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nijhof, J. H. B.

A. Berntson, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and J. H. B. Nijhof, “Power dependence of dispersion-managed solitons for anomalous, zero, and normal path-average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 900–902 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Pillipetskii, A. N.

Sahara, A.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Optimum fiber dispersion for two-step dispersion-allocated optical soliton, RZ at zero GVD and NRZ systems,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1179–1181 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Q-factor contour mapping for evaluation of optical transmission systems: soliton against NRZ against RZ pulses at zero group velocity dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 32, 915–916 (1996); see also Ref. 12.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, T.

Shapiro, E. G.

S. K. Turitsyn and E. G. Shapiro, “Dispersion-managed solitons in optical amplifier transmission systems with zero average dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 23, 682–684 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 136, 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, P.

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugawa, T.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Taga, H.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched-pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

Umezawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, E.

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, O.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Yung, J.

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Pulse dynamics in stretched-pulse fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 158–160 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, “Stable soliton-like propagation in dispersion managed systems with net anomalous, zero, and normal dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1726–1727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Optical soliton communication in a positively and negatively dispersion-allocated optical fibre transmission line,” Electron. Lett. 31, 216–217 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Sugawa, E. Yoshida, T. Yamamoto, T. Imai, A. Sahara, O. Yamauchi, and M. Umezawa, “Soliton transmission at 20 Gb/s over 2000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical network,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1478–1479 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, T. Komukai, E. Yamada, T. Imai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, “Single channel 40 Gbit/s soliton transmission field experiment over 1000 km in Tokyo metropolitan optical loop network using dispersion compensation,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2154–2155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, N. Edagawa, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, and S. Akiba, “Reduction of Gordon–Haus timing jitter by periodic dispersion compensation in soliton transmission,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2027–2028 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, “Enhanced power solitons in optical fibres with periodic dispersion management,” Electron. Lett. 32, 54–55 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Sahara, H. Kubota, and M. Nakazawa, “Q-factor contour mapping for evaluation of optical transmission systems: soliton against NRZ against RZ pulses at zero group velocity dispersion,” Electron. Lett. 32, 915–916 (1996); see also Ref. 12.
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, and A. Sahara, “Numerical and experimental comparison of soliton, RZ pulse and NRZ pulses under two step dispersion allocation,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1480–1482 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, “10 Gbit/s, 10600 km dispersion-allocated soliton transmission using conventional 1.3 μm single-mode fibers,” Electron. Lett. 33, 602–603 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jacob and G. M. Carter, “Error-free transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 10 Gbit/s over 24,500 km without frequency sliding,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1128–1129 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, R.-M. Mu, V. Grigoryan, C. R. Menyuk, P. Sinha, T. F. Carruthers, M. L. Dennis, and I. N. Duling III, “Transmission of dispersion-managed solitons at 20 Gbit/s over 20,000 km,” Electron. Lett. 35, 233–234 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. A. Haus, K. Tamura, L. E. Nelson, and E. P. Ippen, “Stretched-pulse additive pulse mode-locking in fiber ring lasers: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 591–598 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

M. Matsumoto and H. A. Haus, “Stretched-pulse optical fiber communications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 785–787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, H. Kubota, A. Sahara, and K. Tamura, “Marked increase in the power margin through the use of a dispersion-allocated soliton,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 1088–1090 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter and J. M. Jacob, “Dynamics of solitons in filtered dispersion-managed systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 546–548 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Bergano, F. W. Kerfoot, and C. R. Davidson, “Margin measurements in optical amplifier systems,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 304–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

F. M. Knox, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, “10-Gbit/s soliton communication systems over standard fiber at 1.55 μm and the use of dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1955–1962 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Nakazawa and H. Kubota, “Analyses of dispersion-allocated bright and dark solitons,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L889–L891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Kubota and M. Nakazawa, “Partial soliton communication systems,” Opt. Commun. 87, 15–18 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Gabitov, E. G. Shapiro, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Optical pulse dynamics in fiber links with dispersion compensation,” Opt. Commun. 136, 317–329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Malomed, “Pulse propagation in a nonlinear optical fiber with periodically modulated dispersion: variational approach,” Opt. Commun. 136, 313–319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Lakoba, J. Yung, D. J. Kaup, and B. A. Malomed, “Conditions for stationary pulse propagation in the strong dispersion management regime,” Opt. Commun. 149, 366–375 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst.

A. Hasegawa, Y. Kodama, and A. Maruta, “Recent progress in dispersion-managed soliton transmission technology,” Opt. Fiber Technol.: Mater., Devices Syst. 3, 197–213 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

S. K. Turitsyn, T. Schafer, and V. K. Mezentsev, “Self-similar core and oscillatory tails of a path-average chirped dispersion-managed optical pulse,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1351–1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, “Dispersion-managed soliton interaction in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 793–795 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kodama, S. Kumar, and A. Maruta, “Chirped nonlinear pulse propagation in a dispersion-compensated system,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1689–1691 (1997).
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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change in the RMS pulse width as a function of propagation distance. Dave=-0.2 (ps/km)/nm, Ppeak=+24 dBm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Steady-state pulse behavior of Fig. 1. The fiber loss is 0.25 dB/km. (a) Steady-state pulse change in four spans from 23,760 to 24,000 km. A neatly repetitive steady-state waveform is obtained. (b) Pulse waveform changes in one span.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse energy ε versus normalized effective GVD Deff.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Waveforms at several positions in one span: (a) at the input, (b) pulse minimum position in the anomalous GVD fiber, (c) broadest pulse position at the fiber connecting position, (d) minimum pulse width position in the normal GVD fiber. Positions (a)–(d) are shown in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contour map of the change in RMS pulse width.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Change in the RMS pulse width in a steady-state condition. The parameters are the same as those in Fig. 2, except that here the fiber loss is zero. The dotted curve was obtained with Eqs. (9).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in transmitted pulse waveform when a dispersion map starts from a fiber with a normal GVD and moves to a fiber with anomalous GVD. The first span of the normal GVD fiber is 50 km long and has a GVD of -16 (ps/km)/nm. The fiber loss is zero. (a) Waveform change as a function of transmission distance. (b) Comparison of a contour map of the change in RMS pulse width with the change as obtained by the variational method. Dotted curves, the variational method [Eqs. (9)].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change in the RMS pulse width in the steady-state condition, where the parameters are the same as those in Fig. 7. The variational method is given by [Eq. (9)].

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Changes in the transmitted pulse waveform when a dispersion map starts from a fiber with a normal GVD and moves to a fiber with anomalous GVD. The fiber loss is 0.25 dB/km. (a) Change in waveform as a function of transmission distance. (b) Contour map of the change in RMS pulse width.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical pulse-pair interactions for three cases. In each case, one span consists of a 50-km-long fiber with an anomalous GVD of 16 (ps/km)/nm and a 10-km-long DCF with a normal GVD. The fiber loss is 0.25 dB/km. In (a), (b), and (c), the average GVD is set at 0.1, 0.0, and -0.2 (ps/km)/nm, respectively. The corresponding coupled powers are 2, 0, and 14 dBm (the corresponding peak powers are 12, 10, and 24 dBm), respectively.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical pulse-pair interactions for three cases when the input pulse is the steady-state solution. (a), (b), and (c) correspond to (a), (b), and (c), respectively, in Fig. 7.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission distance contour map for evaluating the transmission distance by keeping the Q value at 7. Lowest dotted curve, the change in the N=1 soliton power of a 20-ps sech pulse for a different average GVD [Eq. (3)]. Two upper dotted curves, results obtained by the variational method [Eq. (9)] as described in Fig. 5.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of the performance of three optical transmission systems (pure DM soliton, RZ transmission at zero GVD, and RZ nonlinear transmission in the average normal GVD region). Bit rate, 20 Gbits/s; EDFA’s, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers.

Equations (12)

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(-i) uz=12D(z) 2ut2+|u|2u+iΓu,
Ld=(τ0/1.76)22πc/λ2Dave=(τ0/1.76)2/β2.
P=λAeff/(2πn2Ld),
τRMS2=- t2|u(t)|2dt-|u(t)|2dt.
(-i) Vz=12 Dτ2 2VT2+A0|V|2-12K0T2V.
V(z)=f(T)exp(iλ0z).
12 Dτ2 d2fdT2+A0f3-12K0T2f=λ0f.
Deff=D(z)τ2(z)=1L1 0L1 D1τ(z)2 dz+1L2 L1L1+L2 D2τ(z)2 dz.
u(z, t)=ADM(z)exp-t2τ(z)2+iC(z)t2+iϕ(z),
dτdz=2DCτ
dCdz=2D1τ4-C2-E0τ3,
PASE=μ(G-1)hνB,

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