Abstract

We have constructed two compact iodine-stabilized 543-nm He–Ne lasers and studied the corresponding  127I2 hyperfine transitions. The frequency stability of our lasers reaches 6.2×10-14 during a 30-s sampling time; and the resettability is less than 2 kHz. The frequency intervals of the hyperfine peaks were measured and the corresponding hyperfine constants were determined. The line width of each main line was measured. The properties of the b10 line, which is suggested to serve as the wavelength standard at 543 nm, were investigated in detail for what is to our knowledge the first time.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1999

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J.-M. Chartier and A. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). I. General,” Metrologia 34, 297–300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Simonsen, U. Brand, and F. Riehle, “Intercomparison of two iodine-stabilized He–Ne lasers at λ=543 nm,” Metrologia 31, 341–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “New optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. J. Quinn, “International reports mise en pratique of definition of the Meter (1992),” Metrologia 30, 523–541 (1993/1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Brand, “Frequency stabilization of a HeNe laser at 543.5 nm wavelength using frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 100, 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Sasada and O. Kubota, “Frequency of Lamb-dip-stabilized 1.52 μm He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. Fredin-Picard and A. Razet, “On the hyperfine structure of 127I2 lines at the 543 nm wavelength of the HeNe laser,” Opt. Commun. 78, 149–152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Simonsen and O. Poulsen, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror HeNe laser at 543.5 nm to I2-saturated absorptions,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 7–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma and J. L. Hall, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy enhanced by an external optical cavity: toward improved working standards,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the meter?” Opt. Commun. 74, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

M. Nakazawa, “Phase-sensitive detection on Lorentian line shape and its application to frequency stabilization of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297–2305 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

A. Brillet, P. Cerez, and C. N. Man-Pichot, Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II, B. N. Taylor and W. D. Phillips, eds., NBS Spec. Publ. 617, 73–88 (1984).

BIPM, “Documents concerning the new definition of the meter,” Metrologia 19, 163–177 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796–3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975

L. A. Hackel, K. H. Casleton, S. G. Kukolich, and S. Ezekiel, “Observation of magnetic octupole and scalar spin–spin interaction in I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 568–571 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

P. R. Bunker and G. R. Hanes, “Nuclear spin–spin coupling in the spectrum of I2 at 6328 angstroms,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 377–379 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968

J. L. Hall, “The laser absolute wavelength standard problem,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 638–641 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ahola, T.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Banrti, E.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blabla, J.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brand, U.

H. R. Simonsen, U. Brand, and F. Riehle, “Intercomparison of two iodine-stabilized He–Ne lasers at λ=543 nm,” Metrologia 31, 341–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Brand, “Frequency stabilization of a HeNe laser at 543.5 nm wavelength using frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 100, 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

A. Brillet, P. Cerez, and C. N. Man-Pichot, Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II, B. N. Taylor and W. D. Phillips, eds., NBS Spec. Publ. 617, 73–88 (1984).

Bunker, P. R.

P. R. Bunker and G. R. Hanes, “Nuclear spin–spin coupling in the spectrum of I2 at 6328 angstroms,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 377–379 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Casleton, K. H.

L. A. Hackel, K. H. Casleton, S. G. Kukolich, and S. Ezekiel, “Observation of magnetic octupole and scalar spin–spin interaction in I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 568–571 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cerez, P.

A. Brillet, P. Cerez, and C. N. Man-Pichot, Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II, B. N. Taylor and W. D. Phillips, eds., NBS Spec. Publ. 617, 73–88 (1984).

Chartier, A.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier and A. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). I. General,” Metrologia 34, 297–300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J.-M.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier and A. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). I. General,” Metrologia 34, 297–300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the meter?” Opt. Commun. 74, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.-Y.

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Darnedde, H.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, M. L.

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “New optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erin, M.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Ezekiel, S.

L. A. Hackel, K. H. Casleton, S. G. Kukolich, and S. Ezekiel, “Observation of magnetic octupole and scalar spin–spin interaction in I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 568–571 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fodrekova, A.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fredin-Picard, S.

S. Fredin-Picard and A. Razet, “On the hyperfine structure of 127I2 lines at the 543 nm wavelength of the HeNe laser,” Opt. Commun. 78, 149–152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the meter?” Opt. Commun. 74, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gata, R.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gliwa-Gliwinski, J.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, L. A.

L. A. Hackel, K. H. Casleton, S. G. Kukolich, and S. Ezekiel, “Observation of magnetic octupole and scalar spin–spin interaction in I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 568–571 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haldin, J.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “New optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma and J. L. Hall, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy enhanced by an external optical cavity: toward improved working standards,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, “The laser absolute wavelength standard problem,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 638–641 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, G. R.

P. R. Bunker and G. R. Hanes, “Nuclear spin–spin coupling in the spectrum of I2 at 6328 angstroms,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 377–379 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, B.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jih, B.-R.

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Karaboce, B.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Karn, U.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ko, K.-L.

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, O.

H. Sasada and O. Kubota, “Frequency of Lamb-dip-stabilized 1.52 μm He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kukolich, S. G.

L. A. Hackel, K. H. Casleton, S. G. Kukolich, and S. Ezekiel, “Observation of magnetic octupole and scalar spin–spin interaction in I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 568–571 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lazar, J.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-W.

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.-S.

L.-S. Ma and J. L. Hall, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy enhanced by an external optical cavity: toward improved working standards,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, I.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Man-Pichot, C. N.

A. Brillet, P. Cerez, and C. N. Man-Pichot, Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II, B. N. Taylor and W. D. Phillips, eds., NBS Spec. Publ. 617, 73–88 (1984).

Muenter, J. S.

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796–3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, “Phase-sensitive detection on Lorentian line shape and its application to frequency stabilization of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297–2305 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Navratil, V.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pendrill, L.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petru, F.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Picard, S.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

H. Simonsen and O. Poulsen, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror HeNe laser at 543.5 nm to I2-saturated absorptions,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 7–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, “International reports mise en pratique of definition of the Meter (1992),” Metrologia 30, 523–541 (1993/1994).
[CrossRef]

Razet, A.

S. Fredin-Picard and A. Razet, “On the hyperfine structure of 127I2 lines at the 543 nm wavelength of the HeNe laser,” Opt. Commun. 78, 149–152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Riehle, F.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Simonsen, U. Brand, and F. Riehle, “Intercomparison of two iodine-stabilized He–Ne lasers at λ=543 nm,” Metrologia 31, 341–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riski, K.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robertsson, L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the meter?” Opt. Commun. 74, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sasada, H.

H. Sasada and O. Kubota, “Frequency of Lamb-dip-stabilized 1.52 μm He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J.-T.

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Simonsen and O. Poulsen, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror HeNe laser at 543.5 nm to I2-saturated absorptions,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 7–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

H. R. Simonsen, U. Brand, and F. Riehle, “Intercomparison of two iodine-stabilized He–Ne lasers at λ=543 nm,” Metrologia 31, 341–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stahlberg, B.

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Titov, A.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Tomanyiczka, K.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ugur, H.

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

Vesela, Z.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walczuk, J.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yokozeki, A.

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796–3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zeleny, V.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, M.

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Simonsen and O. Poulsen, “Frequency stabilization of an internal mirror HeNe laser at 543.5 nm to I2-saturated absorptions,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 7–12 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Sasada and O. Kubota, “Frequency of Lamb-dip-stabilized 1.52 μm He–Ne lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

P. R. Bunker and G. R. Hanes, “Nuclear spin–spin coupling in the spectrum of I2 at 6328 angstroms,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 28, 377–379 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. L. Hall, “The laser absolute wavelength standard problem,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 638–641 (1968).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Ma and J. L. Hall, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy enhanced by an external optical cavity: toward improved working standards,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2006–2012 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “New optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-44, 155–158 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Nakazawa, “Phase-sensitive detection on Lorentian line shape and its application to frequency stabilization of lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2297–2305 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. Yokozeki and J. S. Muenter, “Laser fluorescence state selected and detected molecular beam magnetic resonance in I2,” J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3796–3804 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

H. R. Simonsen, U. Brand, and F. Riehle, “Intercomparison of two iodine-stabilized He–Ne lasers at λ=543 nm,” Metrologia 31, 341–347 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, “International reports mise en pratique of definition of the Meter (1992),” Metrologia 30, 523–541 (1993/1994).
[CrossRef]

BIPM, “Documents concerning the new definition of the meter,” Metrologia 19, 163–177 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Erin, B. Karaboce, I. Malinovsky, A. Titov, H. Ugur, H. Darnedde, and F. Riehle, “Progress in stabilization of the He–Ne/127I2 wavelength standard at 633 nm and results of an international comparison between the PTB and the UME,” Metrologia 32, 301–310 (1995/96).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier and A. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). I. General,” Metrologia 34, 297–300 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Stahlberg, B. Ikonen, J. Haldin, J. Hu, T. Ahola, K. Riski, L. Pendrill, U. Karn, J. Henningsen, H. Simonsen, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparisons of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). II. Second comparison of Northern European lasers,” Metrologia 34, 301–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Navratil, A. Fodrekova, R. Gata, J. Blabla, P. Balling, M. Ziegler, V. Zeleny, F. Petru, J. Lazar, Z. Vesela, J. Gliwa-Gliwinski, J. Walczuk, E. Banrti, K. Tomanyiczka, A. Chartier, and J.-M. Chartier, “International comparison of He–Ne lasers stabilized with 127I2 at λ ~ 633 nm (July 1993 to September 1995). III. Second comparison of Eastern European lasers,” Metrologia 35, 799–806 (1998).
[CrossRef]

NBS Spec. Publ.

A. Brillet, P. Cerez, and C. N. Man-Pichot, Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants II, B. N. Taylor and W. D. Phillips, eds., NBS Spec. Publ. 617, 73–88 (1984).

Opt. Commun.

S. Fredin-Picard and A. Razet, “On the hyperfine structure of 127I2 lines at the 543 nm wavelength of the HeNe laser,” Opt. Commun. 78, 149–152 (1990).
[CrossRef]

U. Brand, “Frequency stabilization of a HeNe laser at 543.5 nm wavelength using frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 100, 361–373 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Lin, Y.-W. Liu, W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, B.-R. Jih, and K.-L. Ko, “Iodine-stabilized 543 nm He–Ne lasers,” Opt. Commun. 107, 389–394 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Chartier, S. Fredin-Picard, and L. Robertsson, “Frequency-stabilized 543 nm HeNe laser systems: a new candidate for the realization of the meter?” Opt. Commun. 74, 87–92 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L. A. Hackel, K. H. Casleton, S. G. Kukolich, and S. Ezekiel, “Observation of magnetic octupole and scalar spin–spin interaction in I2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 568–571 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. H. Townes and A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (Dover, New York, 1975), Chaps. 6–9.

N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams (Oxford U. Press, London, 1956).

W.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, and T. Lin, “A compact iodine-stabilized HeNe laser and crossover resonances at 543 nm,” Opt. Commun. 156, 170–177 (1998); W.-Y. Cheng, Y.-S. Chen, C.-Y. Cheng, J.-T. Shy, and T. Lin, “Frequency stabilization and measurements of 543 nm HeNe lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 32, 299–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

BIPM, Proc. Verb. Com. Int. Poids et Measures 60, Recommendation 2, CI-1992 (BIPM, Paris, France, 1992).

J.-M. Chartier, J. L. Hall, and M. Glaser, “Identification of the I2 saturation absorption lines excited at 543 nm with the external beam of the green He–Ne laser,” presented at the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Gaithersburg, Md., June 1986.

U. Brand and J. Helmcke, “Frequency stabilization of a 543.5 nm He–Ne laser to an iodine absorption line,” in Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Frequency Standard and Metrology, A. De Marchi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 467–468.

S. Fredin-Picard, “On the hyperfine structure of iodine” report BIPM-90/5 (BIPM, Paris, France, 1990).

M. Broyer, J. Vique, and J. C. Lehmann, “Natural hyperfine and magnetic predissociation of the I2 B state. I. Theory,” J. Phys. 42, 937–978 (1981); “Hyperfine predissociation of molecular iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4793–4794 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), Chap. 3.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure Spectra of Diatomic Molecules, 2nd ed., Vol. 1 of (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1957), p. 433.

P. Meystre and M. Sargent III, Elements of Quantum Optics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), Chap. 5.

D. A. McQuarrie, Statistical Thermodynamics (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1973), Chap. 6.

M. D. Rayman, M. P. Winters, and J. L. Hall, “Measurement of the hyperfine splittings of the R(12)26–0 and R(106)28–0 transitions in 127I2 at 543” (personal communication, JILA, Campus Box 440, University of Colorado, Colo. 80309–0440).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of our experimental setup. Each laser is enclosed in a thin aluminum box. PZT’s, piezoelectric transducers; HWP’s half-wave plates; QWP’s, quarter-wave plates; DFI, double Faraday isolator; FI, Faraday isolator; PBS’s, polarizing beam splitter’s L1, L2, convex lenses of focal lengths 50 and 30 cm, respectively; M1, M2, 90% partial reflection mirrors; M3, total reflection mirror, BS, beam splitter; AOM, 80-MHz acousto-optic modulator; PD, photodiode; APD, avalanche photodiode; PA, preamplifier; SA, spectrum analyzer; SG, signal generator; LF, 10-MHz low-pass filter; FC, frequency counter; SL’s servo loops; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for measuring the absorption coefficient of the b10 line. The abbreviations are same as in Fig. 1, except as follows: L1, concave lens (f=-15 cm); L2, convex lens (f=7 cm); CF’s, cold fingers; CP, chopper; M, partial reflection mirror (R=90%); PB, probe beam; PM, powermeter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two sample Allan standard deviations σ(2, τ) of the beat frequency between the b15 and b2 lines; τ, sampling time. Both horizontal and vertical axes are on a log scale. The solid line is proportional to 1/τ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pressure shift of the b10 line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

HWHM linewidth versus vapor pressure for the b10 line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Saturation intensity versus vapor pressure of  127I2. Solid curve, 175(1+0.1P)2µW/mm2; P, vapor pressure. The dashed curve is a cubic polynomial.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and Fitted Frequency Intervals (in MHz) with Respect to b10a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted Hyperfine Coupling Constants for the  127I2 R(12) 26-0 and R(106) 28-0 Transitionsa

Tables Icon

Table 3 HWHM Linewidth of the Hyperfine Transitions at 4.12-Pa Vapor Pressurea

Tables Icon

Table 4 Properties of the b10 Linea

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Hhyperfine=Hneq+Hsr+Htss+Hsss
=-eqQf(I, J, F)-CIJ-d×[(Iˆ1Iˆ2-3(Iˆ1rˆ12)(Iˆ2rˆ12)/r12]+δI1I2,
Io/Ii=T exp(-αPL),
α=α0πγ2/γg exp-(Δω/γg)2,
α=α0πγ2/γg i=b2i=b15 exp-(Δωi/γg)2=α0πγ2/γg×8.3173.

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