Abstract

Conical emission, redshifted from the atomic resonance, is observed when a ∼2-ps laser beam, blueshifted from resonance, propagates through potassium vapor. In contrast, no cone is visible when a 150-fs pulse is used. The 2-ps-pulse-induced cone has a unique, small, angular spread of Δθ/θ0.1, compared with Δθ/θ0.3 from other pulsed experiments, which used 25-ps–5-ns-excitation pulses. In addition, the fraction of the 2-ps-pulse power emitted in the cone reached 7.5%, far exceeding this fraction from the longer-pulse experiments. An additional, unexpected result is that the spectral width of the laser pulse is narrower, without significant intensity loss, after propagation through the vapor. The vapor densities and laser detunings that yield cones in the present experiment are similar to those from the longer-pulse experiments. Although the 2-ps-pulse spectrum partially overlaps the resonance, the cone spectrum and cone angles versus density and laser detuning are similar to those previously reported for nanosecond pulses. The fourth (blue-detuned) wave required for satisfying four-wave mixing is absent, again equivalent to what is observed in the nanosecond experiments. The physical origin of cone emission by pulsed excitation of atomic vapors is still largely unknown, and this high efficiency and narrow angular spread of a spectrally broad cone further contradicts existing models, perhaps ultimately providing a clue to a correct explanation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1999

B. D. Paul, M. L. Dowell, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Observation of conical emission from a single self-trapped beam,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4784–4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hart, Li You, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Failures of the four-wave mixing model for cone emission,” Opt. Commun. 111, 331–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

N. L. Markaryan, L. Kh. Muradyan, and T. A. Papazyan, “Spectral compression of ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 27, 783–785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. H. Sarkisyan, “Use of an intracavity cell containing Cs2 for Q switching and stabilizing the frequency of a laser utilizing concentrated neodymium phosphate glass,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1092–1095 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Zeilikovich, S. A. Pulkin, L. S. Gaida, and V. N. Komar, “Susceptibility spectrum and parametric generation in an atomic vapor in a resonant light field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 76–89 (1989) [Transl. JETP 67, 2434 (1989)].

1988

1987

V. I. Vaichaitis, M. V. Ignatavichyus, V. A. Kudryashov, and Y. N. Pimenov, “Observation of a Cerenkov-type radiation during the propagation of picosecond light pulses in so-dium vapor,” Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 416 (1987) [JETP Lett. 45, 414–417 (1987)].

1986

I. Golub, G. Erez, and R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

A. I. Plekhanov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, and B. M. Chernobrod, “The nature of frequency-angular diffusion of powerful quasi-resonant radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 426 (1985) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 249–254 (1985)].

1984

D. J. Harter and R. W. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark-split levels in self-trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Sarkisyan and S. O. Sapondzhyan, “Four-wave parametric interaction of ultrashort optical pulses in a two-level system of barium atoms,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 11, 830 (1984) [ Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 561–563 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

1982

G. L. Burdge and C. H. Lee, “Characterization of sideband emission generated by near-resonant radiation in sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. B. 28, 197 (1982). We interpret these spectra as four-wave mixing from the initially excited region, and red-detuned cones from downstream, self-focused regions. This is consistent with their brief interpretations.

1980

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, “Observation of anomalous conical emission from laser-excited barium vapour,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 151–156 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

R. H. Stolen and Ch. Lin, “Quantitative assessment of the many-body interaction in the M-shell photoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971

D. J. Bradley, G. M. Gale, and P. D. Smith, “Self-induced transparency and dispersion delays in potassium vapor,” Nature (London) 225, 719–721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Three-photon interaction in counter-running waves and the Stark effect in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60, 62–65 (1971).

1970

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Some nonlinear optical effects in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58, 37–44 (1970).

D. Grishkowsky, “Self-focusing of light by potassium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 866–869 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968

C. A. Sacchi, C. H. Townes, and J. R. Lifsitz, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1908

V. M. Avakyan, B. V. Kryzhanovsky, and D. H. Sarkisyan, “Investigation of transient electronic SRS by the excitation and probing technique using a double train of picosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Commun. 74, 223–227 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aruntunyan, V. M.

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Three-photon interaction in counter-running waves and the Stark effect in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60, 62–65 (1971).

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Some nonlinear optical effects in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58, 37–44 (1970).

Avakyan, V. M.

V. M. Avakyan, B. V. Kryzhanovsky, and D. H. Sarkisyan, “Investigation of transient electronic SRS by the excitation and probing technique using a double train of picosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Commun. 74, 223–227 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Badalyan, N. N.

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Three-photon interaction in counter-running waves and the Stark effect in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60, 62–65 (1971).

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Some nonlinear optical effects in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58, 37–44 (1970).

Boyd, R. W.

D. J. Harter and R. W. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark-split levels in self-trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. J.

D. J. Bradley, G. M. Gale, and P. D. Smith, “Self-induced transparency and dispersion delays in potassium vapor,” Nature (London) 225, 719–721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Burdge, G. L.

G. L. Burdge and C. H. Lee, “Characterization of sideband emission generated by near-resonant radiation in sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. B. 28, 197 (1982). We interpret these spectra as four-wave mixing from the initially excited region, and red-detuned cones from downstream, self-focused regions. This is consistent with their brief interpretations.

Chekhov, D. I.

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chernobrod, B. M.

A. I. Plekhanov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, and B. M. Chernobrod, “The nature of frequency-angular diffusion of powerful quasi-resonant radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 426 (1985) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 249–254 (1985)].

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

Cooper, J.

B. D. Paul, M. L. Dowell, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Observation of conical emission from a single self-trapped beam,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4784–4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Selective reflection by Rb,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1598–1606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hart, Li You, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Failures of the four-wave mixing model for cone emission,” Opt. Commun. 111, 331–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dowell, M. L.

B. D. Paul, M. L. Dowell, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Observation of conical emission from a single self-trapped beam,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4784–4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erez, G.

I. Golub, G. Erez, and R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gaida, L. S.

I. S. Zeilikovich, S. A. Pulkin, L. S. Gaida, and V. N. Komar, “Susceptibility spectrum and parametric generation in an atomic vapor in a resonant light field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 76–89 (1989) [Transl. JETP 67, 2434 (1989)].

Gaidarenko, D. V.

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gale, G. M.

D. J. Bradley, G. M. Gale, and P. D. Smith, “Self-induced transparency and dispersion delays in potassium vapor,” Nature (London) 225, 719–721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

B. D. Paul, M. L. Dowell, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Observation of conical emission from a single self-trapped beam,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4784–4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Selective reflection by Rb,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1598–1606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hart, Li You, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Failures of the four-wave mixing model for cone emission,” Opt. Commun. 111, 331–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

I. Golub, G. Erez, and R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Grantham, J. W.

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grishkowsky, D.

D. Grishkowsky, “Self-focusing of light by potassium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 866–869 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hart, R. C.

R. C. Hart, Li You, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Failures of the four-wave mixing model for cone emission,” Opt. Commun. 111, 331–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harter, D. J.

D. J. Harter and R. W. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark-split levels in self-trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ignatavichyus, M. V.

V. I. Vaichaitis, M. V. Ignatavichyus, V. A. Kudryashov, and Y. N. Pimenov, “Observation of a Cerenkov-type radiation during the propagation of picosecond light pulses in so-dium vapor,” Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 416 (1987) [JETP Lett. 45, 414–417 (1987)].

Iradyan, V. A.

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Three-photon interaction in counter-running waves and the Stark effect in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60, 62–65 (1971).

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Some nonlinear optical effects in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58, 37–44 (1970).

Jianin, Xu

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

Khitrova, G.

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kleiber, P. D.

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, “Observation of anomalous conical emission from laser-excited barium vapour,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 151–156 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Komar, V. N.

I. S. Zeilikovich, S. A. Pulkin, L. S. Gaida, and V. N. Komar, “Susceptibility spectrum and parametric generation in an atomic vapor in a resonant light field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 76–89 (1989) [Transl. JETP 67, 2434 (1989)].

Kosareva, O. G.

Kryzhanovsky, B. V.

V. M. Avakyan, B. V. Kryzhanovsky, and D. H. Sarkisyan, “Investigation of transient electronic SRS by the excitation and probing technique using a double train of picosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Commun. 74, 223–227 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, V. A.

V. I. Vaichaitis, M. V. Ignatavichyus, V. A. Kudryashov, and Y. N. Pimenov, “Observation of a Cerenkov-type radiation during the propagation of picosecond light pulses in so-dium vapor,” Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 416 (1987) [JETP Lett. 45, 414–417 (1987)].

Lee, C. H.

G. L. Burdge and C. H. Lee, “Characterization of sideband emission generated by near-resonant radiation in sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. B. 28, 197 (1982). We interpret these spectra as four-wave mixing from the initially excited region, and red-detuned cones from downstream, self-focused regions. This is consistent with their brief interpretations.

Leonov, A. G.

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lifsitz, J. R.

C. A. Sacchi, C. H. Townes, and J. R. Lifsitz, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Ch.

R. H. Stolen and Ch. Lin, “Quantitative assessment of the many-body interaction in the M-shell photoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Markaryan, N. L.

N. L. Markaryan, L. Kh. Muradyan, and T. A. Papazyan, “Spectral compression of ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 27, 783–785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Movsessyan, M. E.

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Three-photon interaction in counter-running waves and the Stark effect in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60, 62–65 (1971).

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Some nonlinear optical effects in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58, 37–44 (1970).

Muradyan, L. Kh.

N. L. Markaryan, L. Kh. Muradyan, and T. A. Papazyan, “Spectral compression of ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 27, 783–785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Panteleev, A. A.

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Papazyan, T. A.

N. L. Markaryan, L. Kh. Muradyan, and T. A. Papazyan, “Spectral compression of ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 27, 783–785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Paul, B. D.

B. D. Paul, M. L. Dowell, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Observation of conical emission from a single self-trapped beam,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4784–4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pimenov, Y. N.

V. I. Vaichaitis, M. V. Ignatavichyus, V. A. Kudryashov, and Y. N. Pimenov, “Observation of a Cerenkov-type radiation during the propagation of picosecond light pulses in so-dium vapor,” Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 416 (1987) [JETP Lett. 45, 414–417 (1987)].

Plekhanov, A. I.

A. I. Plekhanov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, and B. M. Chernobrod, “The nature of frequency-angular diffusion of powerful quasi-resonant radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 426 (1985) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 249–254 (1985)].

Pulkin, S. A.

I. S. Zeilikovich, S. A. Pulkin, L. S. Gaida, and V. N. Komar, “Susceptibility spectrum and parametric generation in an atomic vapor in a resonant light field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 76–89 (1989) [Transl. JETP 67, 2434 (1989)].

Rautian, S. G.

A. I. Plekhanov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, and B. M. Chernobrod, “The nature of frequency-angular diffusion of powerful quasi-resonant radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 426 (1985) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 249–254 (1985)].

Rosenbluh, M.

Sacchi, C. A.

C. A. Sacchi, C. H. Townes, and J. R. Lifsitz, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, V. P.

A. I. Plekhanov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, and B. M. Chernobrod, “The nature of frequency-angular diffusion of powerful quasi-resonant radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 426 (1985) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 249–254 (1985)].

Sapondzhyan, S. O.

D. G. Sarkisyan and S. O. Sapondzhyan, “Four-wave parametric interaction of ultrashort optical pulses in a two-level system of barium atoms,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 11, 830 (1984) [ Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 561–563 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D. G.

D. G. Sarkisyan and S. O. Sapondzhyan, “Four-wave parametric interaction of ultrashort optical pulses in a two-level system of barium atoms,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 11, 830 (1984) [ Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 561–563 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

Sarkisyan, D. H.

D. H. Sarkisyan, “Use of an intracavity cell containing Cs2 for Q switching and stabilizing the frequency of a laser utilizing concentrated neodymium phosphate glass,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1092–1095 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Avakyan, B. V. Kryzhanovsky, and D. H. Sarkisyan, “Investigation of transient electronic SRS by the excitation and probing technique using a double train of picosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Commun. 74, 223–227 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shevy, Y.

Shuker, R.

I. Golub, G. Erez, and R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, “Observation of anomalous conical emission from laser-excited barium vapour,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 151–156 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. D.

D. J. Bradley, G. M. Gale, and P. D. Smith, “Self-induced transparency and dispersion delays in potassium vapor,” Nature (London) 225, 719–721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Starostin, A. N.

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen and Ch. Lin, “Quantitative assessment of the many-body interaction in the M-shell photoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

C. A. Sacchi, C. H. Townes, and J. R. Lifsitz, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vaichaitis, V. I.

V. I. Vaichaitis, M. V. Ignatavichyus, V. A. Kudryashov, and Y. N. Pimenov, “Observation of a Cerenkov-type radiation during the propagation of picosecond light pulses in so-dium vapor,” Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 416 (1987) [JETP Lett. 45, 414–417 (1987)].

Valley, F.

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

P. Wang, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Selective reflection by Rb,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1598–1606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

You, Li

R. C. Hart, Li You, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Failures of the four-wave mixing model for cone emission,” Opt. Commun. 111, 331–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zeilikovich, I. S.

I. S. Zeilikovich, S. A. Pulkin, L. S. Gaida, and V. N. Komar, “Susceptibility spectrum and parametric generation in an atomic vapor in a resonant light field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 76–89 (1989) [Transl. JETP 67, 2434 (1989)].

Appl. Phys. B.

G. L. Burdge and C. H. Lee, “Characterization of sideband emission generated by near-resonant radiation in sodium vapor,” Appl. Phys. B. 28, 197 (1982). We interpret these spectra as four-wave mixing from the initially excited region, and red-detuned cones from downstream, self-focused regions. This is consistent with their brief interpretations.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

I. Golub, G. Erez, and R. Shuker, “Cherenkov emission due to laser-induced moving polarization in sodium,” J. Phys. B 19, L115–L120 (1986).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

V. I. Vaichaitis, M. V. Ignatavichyus, V. A. Kudryashov, and Y. N. Pimenov, “Observation of a Cerenkov-type radiation during the propagation of picosecond light pulses in so-dium vapor,” Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 45, 416 (1987) [JETP Lett. 45, 414–417 (1987)].

Nature (London)

D. J. Bradley, G. M. Gale, and P. D. Smith, “Self-induced transparency and dispersion delays in potassium vapor,” Nature (London) 225, 719–721 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

D. I. Chekhov, D. V. Gaidarenko, A. G. Leonov, A. A. Panteleev, and A. N. Starostin, “Conical emission and spectral behavior of strong near resonant laser wave at low-frequency detuning,” Opt. Commun. 105, 209–213 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hart, Li You, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Failures of the four-wave mixing model for cone emission,” Opt. Commun. 111, 331–337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Avakyan, B. V. Kryzhanovsky, and D. H. Sarkisyan, “Investigation of transient electronic SRS by the excitation and probing technique using a double train of picosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Commun. 74, 223–227 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

C. A. Sacchi, C. H. Townes, and J. R. Lifsitz, “Anti-Stokes generation in trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. 174, 439–447 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

P. Wang, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Selective reflection by Rb,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 1598–1606 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen and Ch. Lin, “Quantitative assessment of the many-body interaction in the M-shell photoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 17, 1448–1453 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Paul, M. L. Dowell, A. Gallagher, and J. Cooper, “Observation of conical emission from a single self-trapped beam,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4784–4796 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Skinner and P. D. Kleiber, “Observation of anomalous conical emission from laser-excited barium vapour,” Phys. Rev. A 21, 151–156 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Harter and R. W. Boyd, “Four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by ac-Stark-split levels in self-trapped filaments of light,” Phys. Rev. A 29, 739–748 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Grishkowsky, “Self-focusing of light by potassium vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 866–869 (1970).
[CrossRef]

F. Valley, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, J. W. Grantham, and Xu Jianin, “Cw conical emission: first comparison and agreement between theory and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 2362–2365 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 Å via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

N. L. Markaryan, L. Kh. Muradyan, and T. A. Papazyan, “Spectral compression of ultrashort laser pulses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 27, 783–785 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sarkisyan, “Use of an intracavity cell containing Cs2 for Q switching and stabilizing the frequency of a laser utilizing concentrated neodymium phosphate glass,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 1092–1095 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Sarkisyan and S. O. Sapondzhyan, “Four-wave parametric interaction of ultrashort optical pulses in a two-level system of barium atoms,” Kvant. Elektron. (Moscow) 11, 830 (1984) [ Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 561–563 (1984)].
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

A. I. Plekhanov, S. G. Rautian, V. P. Safonov, and B. M. Chernobrod, “The nature of frequency-angular diffusion of powerful quasi-resonant radiation,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 88, 426 (1985) [ Sov. Phys. JETP 61, 249–254 (1985)].

Transl. JETP

I. S. Zeilikovich, S. A. Pulkin, L. S. Gaida, and V. N. Komar, “Susceptibility spectrum and parametric generation in an atomic vapor in a resonant light field,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 94, 76–89 (1989) [Transl. JETP 67, 2434 (1989)].

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Some nonlinear optical effects in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58, 37–44 (1970).

V. M. Aruntunyan, N. N. Badalyan, V. A. Iradyan, and M. E. Movsessyan, “Three-photon interaction in counter-running waves and the Stark effect in potassium vapor,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 60, 62–65 (1971).

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, Boston, 1989).

V. M. Avakyan, B. V. Kryzhanovsky, and D. H. Sarkisyan, “Investigation of transient electronic SRS by the excitation and probing technique using a double train of picosecond pump pulses,” Opt. Commun. 74, 223–227 (1908); B. V. Kryzhanovsky, S. O. Sapondzhyan, D. H. Sarkisyan, and G. A. Torosyan, “Influence of ac-Stark effect in transient SERS,” Opt. Commun. 71, 381–384 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Chalupczak, W. Gawlik, and J. Zachorowski, “Conical emission in barium vapour,” Opt. Commun. 99, 49–54 (1993); W. Chalupczak, W. Gawlik, and J. Zachorowski, “Four-wave mixing in strongly driven two level systems,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 4985–4901 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Paul, J. Cooper, A. Gallagher, and M. G. Raymer, “Theory of optical cone emission in near-resonant atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

M. Fernandez-Guasti, J. L. Hernandez-Pozos, E. Haro-Poniatowski, and L. A. Julio-Sanchez, “Anomalous conical emission in calcium vapour,” Opt. Commun. 108, 367–376 (1994); “Anomalous conical emission: two-beam experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 613–615 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the optical arrangement, not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD camera image of cone intensity versus angle, with a circular beam block on axis that obstructs most of the laser beam. (a) Entire camera image; (b) a contour line along the line shown in (a). The experimental conditions are as follows: average pump power is 180 mW, K vapor density (N)=1.4×1014/cm3, and laser detuning Δ100 GHz. The CE peak intensity occurs at an angle ΘC31 mrad.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Two examples of the spectrum of the on-axis beam transmitted through the cell are at positive detuning; this signal is zero at negative detuning. (This is actually from a fraction of the laser beam transmitted around an on-axis stop that blocked most of the beam.) The CE spectrum, obtained by blocking angles below 0.5θC, is the dotted curve at negative detuning; this signal is zero at positive detuning. The relative amplitudes of the on-axis and CE emission are arbitrarily adjusted to yield easy comparison of the spectra. The experimental conditions are as follows: average pump power is 172 mW, N=1.2×1014 at/cm3, and Δl=200 GHz. (b) The cell emission at all angles beyond a central-beam stop entered the spectrometer, and Δl is changed to 120 GHz. As indicated, the CE is the negative detuned part, and the nearly on-axis beam is at positive detuning.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) CE angle, θC, versus laser detuning, Δ, for the experimental conditions N=1.4×1014at/cm3 and average pump power of 175 mW. (b) CE angle versus potassium density, N, for experimental conditions for Δ=127 GHz and average pump power of 135 mW. Two data sets, taken with a rising cell temperature and the assumption of an equilibrated potassium density, are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average cone power versus average incident laser power, for N=7.4×1013 cm-3 and Δ=130 GHz. These powers are corrected for window transmissions to represent power in the vapor.

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