Abstract

Results are reported on the experimental observation and detailed treatment of photoinduced dc currents, which arise in both dye-doped polymer and dispersion of liquid-crystalline droplets in the same polymer under cw laser-beam illumination. These currents reveal transient behavior, i.e., a relaxation to zero value after an initial increase. This growth is monotonic by low values of the laser radiation intensity, but it changes to oscillating behavior by higher values. A preliminary theoretical approach, which is based on experimentally observed features, reveals good qualitative agreement with current temporal-envelope measurements. The observation of these photoinduced currents is another evidence for the photorefractive nature of the light-induced diffraction gratings, which were observed earlier in the same materials.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.
  2. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  3. W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994); J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059–2064 (1992), and reference therein.
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998); F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999), and reference therein.
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, “Coherent signal beam amplification in two wave mixing experiments with photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 249–254 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).
  9. P. G. DeGennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1993).

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994); J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059–2064 (1992), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, “Coherent signal beam amplification in two wave mixing experiments with photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 249–254 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998); F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

DeGennes, P. G.

P. G. DeGennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1993).

Drzaic, P. S.

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Gunter, P.

P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.

Huignard, J.-P.

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, “Coherent signal beam amplification in two wave mixing experiments with photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 249–254 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.

Lucchetti, L.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
[Crossref]

Marrakchi, A.

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, “Coherent signal beam amplification in two wave mixing experiments with photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 249–254 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998); F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994); J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059–2064 (1992), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

Nicoletta, F. P.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prost, J.

P. G. DeGennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1993).

Silence, S. M.

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994); J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059–2064 (1992), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998); F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994); J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, “Photoconductivity studies of photorefractive polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059–2064 (1992), and reference therein.
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, F. P. Nicoletta, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic grating formation in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 150, 297–304 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, “Coherent signal beam amplification in two wave mixing experiments with photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 38, 249–254 (1981).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

P. Gunter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), Vols. I and II.

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993).

P. S. Drzaic, Liquid Crystal Dispersions (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

P. G. DeGennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1993).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup to measure the photocurrent.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of illumination (a) by a 37-W/cm2 temporal intensity step on the time dependence of the photocurrent for (b) a PDLC sample and (c) a polymer sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 2 but for a higher laser-intensity value, I=130 W/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak current values (filled squares) versus the incident laser-beam intensity for (a) PDLC and (b) polymer samples. The continuous curves represent the numerical fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scheme of the intensity variation along the z direction.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dhν0d*dT*d hν0d-+p+.
wc=αNI2,
n+t+γn++z -D n+z+Eμn+=αI2(z)N(z),
J(t)=-2χDeSN0αI02γ[(αI02t-1)exp(-αI02t)+exp(-γt)].

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