Abstract

Theoretical and numerical analyses of waveguide branches in a photonic crystal are presented. Conditions for perfect transmission and zero reflection are discussed. Based upon these conditions, numerical simulations of electromagnetic-wave propagation in photonic crystals are performed to identify structures with near-complete transmission.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Rangaraj, M. Minakata, and S. Kawakami, “Low loss integrated optical Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 753–758 (1989).
  2. H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).
  3. A. Klekaump, P. Kersten, and W. Rehm, “An improved single-mode Y-branch design for cascaded 1:2 splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2684–2686 (1996).
  4. M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
  5. H.-B. Lin, J.-Y. Su, R.-S. Cheng, and W.-S. Wang, “Novel optical single-mode asymmetric Y-branches for variable power splitting,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1092–1096 (1999).
  6. J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).
  7. C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High-density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682–1692 (1999).
  8. J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).
  9. J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, “Analysis of finite 2-D photonic crystals and lightwave devices using the scattering matrix method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1500–1508 (1999).
  10. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).
  11. K. Kurokawa, An Introduction to the Theory of Microwave Circuits (Academic, New York, 1969).
  12. For a review, see K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993); and A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).
  13. J. C. Chen and K. Li, “Quartic perfectly matched layers for dielectric waveguides and gratings,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 319–323 (1995).

1999 (3)

1997 (3)

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Klekaump, P. Kersten, and W. Rehm, “An improved single-mode Y-branch design for cascaded 1:2 splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2684–2686 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. C. Chen and K. Li, “Quartic perfectly matched layers for dielectric waveguides and gratings,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 319–323 (1995).

1994 (1)

H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).

1989 (1)

M. Rangaraj, M. Minakata, and S. Kawakami, “Low loss integrated optical Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 753–758 (1989).

Agarwal, A. M.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

Baba, T.

Chen, J. C.

J. C. Chen and K. Li, “Quartic perfectly matched layers for dielectric waveguides and gratings,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 319–323 (1995).

Cheng, R.-S.

H.-B. Lin, J.-Y. Su, R.-S. Cheng, and W.-S. Wang, “Novel optical single-mode asymmetric Y-branches for variable power splitting,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1092–1096 (1999).

Chu, P. L.

H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High-density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682–1692 (1999).

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

Hatami-Hanza, H.

H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).

Haus, H. A.

Hu, M. H.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

Huang, J. Z.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

Ikeda, M.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High-density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682–1692 (1999).

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).

Johnson, S. G.

Kawakami, S.

M. Rangaraj, M. Minakata, and S. Kawakami, “Low loss integrated optical Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 753–758 (1989).

Kersten, P.

A. Klekaump, P. Kersten, and W. Rehm, “An improved single-mode Y-branch design for cascaded 1:2 splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2684–2686 (1996).

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

Klekaump, A.

A. Klekaump, P. Kersten, and W. Rehm, “An improved single-mode Y-branch design for cascaded 1:2 splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2684–2686 (1996).

Lederer, M. J.

H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).

Levy, M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

Li, K.

J. C. Chen and K. Li, “Quartic perfectly matched layers for dielectric waveguides and gratings,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 319–323 (1995).

Liao, L.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

Lim, D. R.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

Lin, H.-B.

H.-B. Lin, J.-Y. Su, R.-S. Cheng, and W.-S. Wang, “Novel optical single-mode asymmetric Y-branches for variable power splitting,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1092–1096 (1999).

Manolatou, C.

Minakata, M.

M. Rangaraj, M. Minakata, and S. Kawakami, “Low loss integrated optical Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 753–758 (1989).

Osgood, R. M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

Rangaraj, M.

M. Rangaraj, M. Minakata, and S. Kawakami, “Low loss integrated optical Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 753–758 (1989).

Rehm, W.

A. Klekaump, P. Kersten, and W. Rehm, “An improved single-mode Y-branch design for cascaded 1:2 splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2684–2686 (1996).

Scanrmozzino, R.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

Skinner, I. M.

H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).

Su, J.-Y.

H.-B. Lin, J.-Y. Su, R.-S. Cheng, and W.-S. Wang, “Novel optical single-mode asymmetric Y-branches for variable power splitting,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1092–1096 (1999).

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High-density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682–1692 (1999).

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).

Wang, W.-S.

H.-B. Lin, J.-Y. Su, R.-S. Cheng, and W.-S. Wang, “Novel optical single-mode asymmetric Y-branches for variable power splitting,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1092–1096 (1999).

Yonekura, J.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H.-B. Lin, J.-Y. Su, R.-S. Cheng, and W.-S. Wang, “Novel optical single-mode asymmetric Y-branches for variable power splitting,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1092–1096 (1999).

IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. (1)

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scanrmozzino, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High-density integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1682–1692 (1999).

M. Rangaraj, M. Minakata, and S. Kawakami, “Low loss integrated optical Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 753–758 (1989).

H. Hatami-Hanza, M. J. Lederer, P. L. Chu, and I. M. Skinner, “A novel wide-angle low-loss dielectric slab waveguide Y-branch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 208–214 (1994).

A. Klekaump, P. Kersten, and W. Rehm, “An improved single-mode Y-branch design for cascaded 1:2 splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2684–2686 (1996).

J. Yonekura, M. Ikeda, and T. Baba, “Analysis of finite 2-D photonic crystals and lightwave devices using the scattering matrix method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1500–1508 (1999).

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Chen and K. Li, “Quartic perfectly matched layers for dielectric waveguides and gratings,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 10, 319–323 (1995).

Nature (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, P. R. Villeneuve, and S. Fan, “Photonic crystals: putting a new twist on light,” Nature 386, 143–149 (1997).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Small radius bends and large angle splitters in SOI waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 3007, 112–118 (1997).

Other (3)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1984).

K. Kurokawa, An Introduction to the Theory of Microwave Circuits (Academic, New York, 1969).

For a review, see K. S. Kunz and R. J. Luebbers, The Finite Difference Time Domain Method for Electromagnetics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1993); and A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1995).

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